StudyGuideforTest2.pdf REL 101
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Angela Cameron on Monday October 12, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to REL 101 at University of Miami taught by Dexter Callender in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 132 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Religion in Religious Studies at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 10/12/15
REL 101 H Study Guide for Exam 2 0 Differences between Jewish Roman Catholic Christian and Protestant Christian Bibles oJewish Based on the original Hebrew Tanakh Bible Contains the Torah Instruction Nevi39imProphets and KethuvimWritings M Based on the original Hebrew Bible ApocryphaGreek and the New Testament o Protestant Based on the Old Testament and New Testament o Languages of the earliest writings of ancient Israel 0 Hebrew o Aramaic 0 Later translated into Greek Apocrypha o What type of material is found in each of the divisions of the Tanak o Torah Instruction Aso called Pentateuch Genesis 0 Beginning of universe creation Exodus o The story of Moses Israelites being enslaved ten commandments Leviticus Priesty Legislation Numbers Gives traditions of wondering Israelites after they were freed and why they wandered for forty years with Moses Deuteronomy Moses gives a series of speeches about law at the mountain receives 2nCI set of commandments o NeviimProbhets Former Historical Books 0 Joshua Judges 0 Samuel 0 Kings Latter Prophecies Isaiah 0 Jeremiah Ezekiel quotThe Twelve o KethuvimWritings Psalms Songs and hymns Job 0 Book on evil 0 Man who loses everything Proverbs Sayings of wisdom Ecclesiastes Man who gains everything Song of Songs 0 Love poetry Others 0 Bottero39s discussion of godsdivine powers in Mesopotamia see points emphasized in slides o The quotkevquot Has to do with religious texts You cannot understand unless something in you pulls in the same direction as the text M Canons Books of Religion Formaism 0 You read texts and they are repetitive 0 Power The central metaphor in texts Gods o Transcendence Imminent o In literal meaning gods are transcendent They are removed You cannot approach them Where is God 0 Henotheism Even though there are other gods you only worship one power on a time You put emphasis on one God even though many others exist 0 Hornung s discussion of Egvptian conceptions of the divine see points emphasized in slides o Henotheism Even though there are other gods you only worship one power on a time You put emphasis on one God even though many others exist Ancient Religion in Egypt 0 Svncretism The combining of different beliefs 0 Monotheism The worshipping of only one God Aitken tried to convert Egypt to worship only the Sun God 0 Intermediation Gives knowledge of one true God Uses all Egyptian symbols Nobody catches on to this 0 Tradition Ian Barbour39suse of the term quotscientismquot o The belief that science is the only real path to the truth 0 Methodical naturalism is a basic assumption of scienti c inquiry Basic background information of Enuma Elish and Babvlonian Flood account as discussed in class 0 Enuma Elish Birth Theooonv 0 Only two elements existed 0 Both elements considered water 0 Apsu Freshwater Male 0 Tiamat Saltwater Female 0 Waters mix 0 Give birth to the Gods Battle Theomachv o Apsu tries to destroy the Gods o Aah the wisdom god says Apsu and takes over freshwater o Enrages Tiamat o Tiamat takes on Gods in battle 0 Marduk a younger storm god steps up and challenges Tiamat o Tiamat devours Marduk o Marduk eventually kills Tiamat Creation Cosmogony o Marduk cuts Tiamat in half 0 Creates sky and Earth Creates humans 0 Slays being in Kingu39s army 0 Takes blood and clay and creates human Coronation 0 Names of Marduk recited o Babvlonian Flood Outline 0 Plan o Utnapishtim has eternal life Gods want to destroy all that is wrong with Earth 0Warning 0 Ea warns Utnapishtim about the Gods plan Tells him to build a boat and load a seed of each living thing his family and possessions 0Saved 0 He builds the boat o It takes seven days oFlood o The ood comes and destroys everything 0Mountain 0 Boat comes to rest on Mt Nirsir 0Birds 0 After seven days he releases dove and it comes back 0 Releases a swallow and it comes back 0 Releases a raven and it does not come back 0Offering 0 Gets off boat and prepares offering for the Gods at an altar Scent o The burning scent of the offering lures the Gods 0Repentance o The Gods decide that destroying all humans with the ood was wrong 0Blessing 0 As a reward to Utnapishtim and his wife for saving humanity Enlil blesses them with eternal life Tiamat and relation to Genesis 1 0 Female challenger of the Gods 0 Like God in the sense that she is the creator of humans slq and Earth Gail Yee s discussion quotAuthor Text Readerquot the implications of the role of the reader for the interpretation of biblical texts 0 You must take all three of these methods You cannot privilege any particular one o AuthorCentered What matters is the original author s meaning HistoricCritical Method 0 TextCentered The author is not there but you have text and how the text relates to other parts of the text The text gives everything we need The text is an artifact o ReaderCentered Everyone has their own interpretation of the text Eisegesis 0quotReading intoquot the biblical text what one wants it to mean The Aqedah or quotBinding of Isaacquot as discussed in class see also Molloy o Gensis 22 God tells Abraham to sacri ce his son Isaac Abraham gathers his son donkey and two young men and sets out for the mountain God told him to go to Once he gets to the mountains he sets up an altar Bound Isaac to the altar Took knife to kill his son but the Angel of the Lord told him quotDo not lay your hand on the boy or do anything to him for now I know that you fear God since you have not withheld your son your only son from mequot Saw ram caught in thicket by its horns Offers ram as offering instead Calls place quotThe Lord will providequot As it is said to this day quotOn the Mount the Lord will providequot Since Abraham has obeyed the Lord the Lord promises to bless him and his family 0 Angel speaks as God in one place and as a messenger from God in another Basic facts about the ancestors of Israel as presented in the patriarchal narrativesisee Molloy and slides 0 Abraham his son Isaac and his grandson Jacob are the rst patriarchs w Prophet according to Judaism Called by God to leave his home for anther land Migrates to the land of Canaan 0This establishes claim to the region now called Israel God enters into a covenant contract with Abraham In return for God39s promise to provide land protection and decedents Abraham and his decedents must be circumcised as a sign of their exclusive relationship with God 0 Issac Abraham is unable to have a son with his wife Sarah Has son Ishmael with her maid Hager Sarah has a son Isaac Demands that Hager and Ishmael are sent away quotBinding of Isaacquot Genesis 22 o acob Has vision of God in a dream Sees stairway leading from Earth into the sky God is at the top Angels are ascending and descending linking heaven and Earth Wrestles all night long with a mysterious stranger 0 God or God39s Angel At dawn when the ght is over Jacob receives a new name Israel Jacob and sons settle in land of Canaan Canaan comes to be known as Israel afterJacob39s new name Has many sons with his two wives and two concubines These sons become the ancestors of the twelve tribes of Israel 0 oseph NexttoIast son ofJacob Brothers sense that Jacob loves him the best so they conspire to have him killed Sell him as a slave Taken to Egypt Through his special gifts he rises to importance to become a government minister Famine in Israel brings brothers down to Egypt looking for grain Not vengeful Invites brothers to bring father down to Goshen Egypt to settle there permanently 0 Birth narrative of Moses as discussed in class 0 Born at time when his people the Children of Israel were increasing in number and the Egyptian Pharaoh was worried that they might help Egypt39s enemies Pharaoh orders to have all male babies killed Mother and sister hide him Place him in basket of reeds and send him up the Nile River Found by the daughter of the Pharaoh and raised him as her own Saw guard mistreating slave and killed him Run away to Midian Married the priest39s Jethro daughter Became a Sheppard Saw burning bush Afraid to look at God Goes back to Egypt and warns of the plagues Slaves freed after 10th plague Parting of the Red Sea Slaves walk for forty years Arrive at Mt Siani Gets rst 10 commandments Breaks them 0 Gets 2nCI set 0 Exodus 3 as discussed in class 0 Divine Speech Enigmatic Mysterious Emblematic Symbols 0 Burning Bush Enigmatic OOOOOOOOO Ambiguity o Uncertainty or inexactness of meaning in language 0 Angel messenger Emblematic Number 10 o The Ten Commandments 0 Tablets are a sign of divine speech 0 Three versions Exodus 20 Exodus 34 0 Only one that says 10 commandments After Gold Calf Deuteronomy 5 0 Basic facts of the destruction of Jerusalem and the rst and second temples as discussed in class 0 Monarchy Begins 1020 Arises just prior to classical Hinduism Rise of Kingship 0Sau oFaiure 0 David 0 Made Jerusalem capital 0Solo mon o Built rst temple 0 Monarchy Divides 930 After Solomon dies kingdom divides into North and South South oJudah oCapitaIisJerusaIem North 0 Israel 0 Capital is Samaria 0 Larger kingdom 10 out of 12 tribes o Destruction of the North 722 Samaria is destroyed by NeoSyrians Leads to The Lost Tribes of Israel 0 Destruction of lerusalem 586 Babyonians evade and destroy Destroy rst temple The people are exiled Leads to quotThe Exilequot 0 Return under Cvrus 539 Rise of Persians Cyrus allows everyone to return to homeland Writes Cyrus Cylinder 0 Northern traditions lost 0Southern tradition preserved 0 Second Temple Completed 515 Known as Second Temple Period Synagogue arises 0 Second Temple Destoryed 70 CE Alexander the Great takes over Temple destroyed by Romans Changes Judaism 0 Bible becomes more important 0 No more sacri ce o Interpretive texts as discussed in class 0 Targums Paraphrased Aramaic biblical texts o Mishnah Collection of the Oral Torah What was spoken to Moses outside the Torahs 0 Moses passed this on to elders and Joshua o Wrote down what Moses said 0Became the Mishnah 0 Extensions of the Mishnah Talmud Yerushalmi Talmud Bavli 0 Given by Maimonides Rambam Guide for the Perplexed o Interpretative work that takes bible and interprets it through Greek philosophy particular Aristotle Mishneh Torah o Repetition of the Torah 0 Code ofJewish Law 0Final expression of the Oral Torah o Shulchan Aruch By Joseph Karo Manua ofJewish Law 0 Kev interpreters discussed in class 0 Peshat Simpe Pain lt39s true 0 Remez Hint Allegorical lt39s literal o Derash Seek Comparative Gave rise to Midrash o Sod Secret Mystical Deepest Level 0 Divine powers in the Bible as discussed in class 0 Angels quotBinding of Isaacquot 0Angel speaks as God and as messenger of God God evolved in natural processes 0 Referred to as Angels 05 Accuser 0Job in Writings o Logos Greek word for quotGodquot Refers to Speech and Intent 0 Wisdom A separate divine entity ln Proverbs wisdom is personi ed 0 Jewish festivals see Molloy o Sabbath Special day of prayer and relaxation Once a week Welcomed Friday night by lighting candles o Rosh Hashanah Jewish New Year In Autumn the seventh lunar month Preceded by a month of daily blowing of the shofar ram39s horn o Yom Kippur 10 days after Rosh Hashanah Known as quotDay of Atonementquot Atone for sins by prayer and strict fasting all day High Holy Days Days of Awe M Harvest Celebration Sleeping in small shelter to remember period of wandering in desert Day of Rejoicing 8th Day 0Ends Cycle of Torah readings for that year 0 Hanukkah Feast of Dedication Called Feast of Lights Each day for eight days a candle is lite on a ninebranched candelabrum a special form of menorah Lite at night Pay games Children receive small gift each night 0 Purim Late winter feast Recalls time when Hebrews were in danger of annihilation Marked by reading the Book of Esther o Passover Week long Occurs in rst lunar month Recalls the Hebrews39 exodus from Egypt and to symbolize their liberation 10th Plague Seder o Passover Meal 0 Eat several symbolic foods 0 Story of Exodus retold at this meal Place at table set for the coming prophet Elijah o Yom Hashoah Remembrance of the Holocaust o Shavuot Feast of Weeks Fifty days after Passover lnvitation to renew the covenant God gave Moses 10 Commandments at this time of year 0 Tisha BeAv Day of fasting Recalls Destruction of the temples Interpretive communitiesdivisions of Judaism see Mollov discussion and slides o Hasidism Mysticism Emphasizes personal communion with God Kabbahah Baal Shem Tou 0Leader 0 Reform Movement that presented the idea that authority is in rationality Enightenment Moses Mendel Sohn 0 Leader 0 Translated Bible 0 Orthodox lnsisted on refusing to accommodate to the modern world Response to reform o Conservative Midde ground between Reform and Orthodox Practice over belief Mediating Position 0 Reconstructionist Newest Form 20th century Secular About community and identity Mordecai Kaplan 0 Leader 0 Categories of the Hebrew Bible divisions o Torah Instruction 0 Nevi39im Prophets o Kethuvim Writings o Zionism as discussed in Molloy o A movement that has encouraged the creation and support of the nation of Israel 0 Result of the Holocaust o AJewish nation where Jews could live without fear in the traditional home of their faith 0 Characteristics of the different gospels 0 Mark Earliest Shortest Begins with public addresses ofJesus Only about teachings Ends simply with an account of the empty tomb ofJesus 0 Matthew and Luke 0 ohn Drew from Mark Added information to emphasis Jesus Sometimes agree on material that isn39t in Mark May have drawn from unknown ost source called Matthew 0 Aimed atJewish 0 Jesus is a ful llment of the Jewish scriptures o Presents statements that make Jesus kin to the new Moses Lu ke Added thatJesus is interested in the common people and women Very different from others Mark Matthew and Luke seen as quotsynoptic gospelsquot Independent account ofJesus s life In The Last Supper Jesus washes the feet of the disciples Dualistic Outlook 0Gnosticism o A view that God communicated directly with humans lesus talks more directly about his connection with God 0 Nicene creed 0 Council that came together to discuss the Christian Doctrine o Formed by Theophilus and Augustine o Determined One God One son of God begotten 0Begotten o Engendered fathered Explained begotten o The formulation of the doctrine of the Trinitv Theophilus of Antioch Tertullian Augustine Council of Nicea Council of Chalcedon God his word and his wisdom make up the Trinity IOOOOOO Note There will be extra credit questions that come from o I Barbour quotWays of Relating Science and Religionquot in folder for Monday Feb 20 quotGenesis and Creationquot 0 G Lakoff quotThe Meanings of Literalquot and K Tippett and VV Raman quotThe Heart39s Reason Hinduism and Sciencequot in folder for Wednesday Feb 22 quotJudgment Day Intelligent Design on Trialquot 0 Anywhere in the assigned readings from Molloy and in lectures See especially the following Lakoff39s view of different senses of quotliteralquot Barbour s four different ways of relating science and religion and what characterizes each 0 Raman39s view of science and religion within Hinduism read transcript or listen to podcast
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