HTW 403 MOO1 Exam 1 Study Guide
HTW 403 MOO1 Exam 1 Study Guide HTW 402
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alyson Forman on Monday October 12, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to HTW 402 at Syracuse University taught by L. Narine in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 53 views. For similar materials see Implem & Eval of Health Programs in Public Health at Syracuse University.
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Date Created: 10/12/15
1 Exam 1 Study Guide What are health policies what are the major types of health policies why change health policies and who are the groups that often seek to change policies and what are their interests Health Policies Types of Why cha Groupst way things should be what works about people whats good for the community Health Policies official government policies unofficial government policies made by bureaucracies made by foundations and private funders businesses NGO s and nonprofits media community as a whole nge health policies Change community decisions Start a community conversation Change the community Impacts on next generation Social Change hat seek to change policies and their interests Coalitions Organizations that work the issue Citizenled community groups Professional groups Concerned individuals 2 Why has CBPR type research become important in health policy research what are the CBPR principles and how is the socioecological model related to these principles 39 CBPR Socioecolo Recognizes community as a unit of identity Builds on strengths and resources within the community Equitable partnership in all research and involves an empowering and powersharing process Integrates knowledge and action for mutual benefit of all partners Facilitates collaborative partnerships in all phases of the research Involves a cyclical and iterative process Addresses health from both positive and ecological perspectives Disseminates findings and knowledge gained to all partners Promotes coIearning and capacity building among all partners Balance between research and action for mutual benefit of all partners 3 E I gIcal Model 1quot 1quotquot a lIHI39 TTI H x 8 3 What are the common issues faced when attempting to do CBPR type research No one set of principles applicable to all partnerships Each partnership must define community Decide what it means to have a collaborative equitable partnership Establish procedures for dissemination Recognize values amp priorities identified by the community Work with the cultural diversity of the partners involved Develop procedures to ensure principles are followed Partnership size must be decided BY and appropriate FOR the community CBPR principles alone do not dictate research design and methodology Continually evaluate how well CBPR principles are followed 4 What are the similarities and differences among the ideas of Beauford Longest John Kingdon and the Policy Cycle about policy development and policy making Policy Cycle define problem develop alternatives select solution implement monitor amp evaluate Beaufort Longest more businesslike Policy formulation legislation enactment implementation policy modification John Kingdon 3 streams poblem policy political First stage of cycle is agenda setting 5 Can you identify the types of CBPR activities associated with the various steps of the policy cycle Define Problem defining and framing the goal studies and moratoriums reframing issue Develop Alternatives identifying a target Evaluate Alternatives strategic power analysis passing the policy environment Select a Solution organizing support for the initiative voluntary agreement legal actions electoral strategies lobbying Implement enforcement victory and defense Monitor and evaluate evaluation community indicators 6 What are the differences in the way academic researchers and people in the community view research Researchers quantitative analysis of policy outcomes qualitative research documenting community residents experience costbenefit analysis of current v proposed policies theoretical framework for policy proposals review of model programs or policies enacted in other jurisdictions Community discussion of practical daily implications of the policy anecdotal info about policy effects stories about the conditions in the community info about practice at the community level historical perspective including prior policies or practices and their effects 7 What do special interests do how are community groupsactivists different as a special interest and what are some additional things they can do to influence the health policy making process Special Interest Groups testifying at hearings talking directly to government officials providing research and other background about a policy issue helping to draft legislation altering elected officials of a bill s effects on their districts having influential constituents contact a Iegislator s office mounting grassroots campaigns letter writing donating money H ga on endorsing candidates Additional Methods and Opportunities public education campaigns media strategies rallies and public demonstrations study circles and consciousness raising sessions special arrangements 8 Can you identify types of research designs from research design notation what are threats to internal and external validity and what kinds of things can be done to safeguard against them assessing the effectiveness of health policies and laws EvaluationResearch Design Notation Observations or measures symbolized by O and can use subscripts to denote measures taken at different times Treatments Programs or Policies where ideas or alternatives come from symbolized with X and can refer to simple or complex intervention Groups each group is given its own line Assignment to Group designated by a letter at the beginning of the line that describes how the group was assigned R random assignment N nonequivalent groups C assignment by cutoff Time moves left to right Threats to Internal Validity History Maturation Testing Instrumentation Statistical Regression Selection Experimental Mortality SelectionMaturation Interaction Contamination Diffusion or Imitation of Treatments Compensatory Equalization of Treatments Compensatory Rivalry Resentful Demoralization of Respondents Receiving Less Desirable Treatment External Validity Refers to the generalizability of the policy or program outcomes the degree to which the conclusions in your study would hold for other persons in other places and at other times Hawthorne Effect singing out participants makes them act differently Sometimes called John Henry effect Novelty and Disruption Effects Treatment successful just because it s something new or different Expectancy Effect Conscious or unconscious actions of the researcher affects participants performance and response Social Desirability Subjects give data collectors answers they think will please or is the right answer 9 What are the similarities and differences between quantitative and qualitative research methods Quantitative numbers easily obtained in large numbers objective easily analyzed good for summarizing analyzed through descriptive and inferential statistics Qualitative words more in depth understandings analyzed by determining general patterns 10 Why when and how would you use qualitative methods Why They answer questions that quantitative measures can t They connect directly with the population and the community you re concerned with They can get at the underlying realities of the situation They involve the population of interest or the community at large in helping to assess the issues and needs of the community They often allow for a broader examination of the situation or the community than quantitative methods do They allow for the human factor VVhen When what you need is qualitative descriptive information When you re trying to understand the reasons and motivations for people s behavior or how they operate in particular situations When you re analyzing quantitative data When you re trying to develop suggestions and recommendations When you want to involve the community in assessment as directly as possible When you re doing communitybased participatory research ie involving the community directly in planning and implementing assessment not always How Decide what it is you want to know Choose the method best suited to finding that information Choose the people who will gather the information and if necessary train them Determine from whom and from where you need to gather the information Gather the information 11 Can you describe five common methods of qualitative research methods and what things need to be considered to help ensure the results of qualitative research is reliable Interviews Observation Focus groups Community meetings Interpretation of records transcripts and other quantitative data 12 What are the key steps in doing interviews and observations 13 What are the kinds of things you would do when carrying out qualitative research or when reading reports of qualitative research that tend to make such research more trustworthy Reflexivity A thoughtful consideration of how researcher s standpoint can influence the research Observer Triangulation Using more than one researcher to analyze the data Data Triangulation Collecting data from multiple sources such as interviews focus groups and interviews Prolonged Engagement Conducting multiple interviews or spending extended time with participants to achieve and exhaustive look at the experience Member Checking lncluding participants in analysis or returning to a sample of participants to corroborate the findings Thick Description A thorough representation of the phenomenon of inquiry and its context as perceived and experienced by study participants Audit Trail Keeping a detailed written account of the research procedures Peer Debriefing Meeting with mentors or other researchers engaged in qualitative research to dialogue regarding research decisions Negative Case Analysis Seeking contrasting evidence through sampling and analysis 14 What is the hierarchy of research evidence and can you discriminate between types of research studies such as metaanalyses randomizedcontrolled studies quasi experimental studies nonexperimental studies case control cohort descriptive studies which are stronger or weaker and why MetaAnalysis Statistical approach to synthesizing the results of a number of studies summarizes results of all studies included in the review Produces a larger sample size and thus greater power to determine the true magnitude of an effect yields a summary statistic Randomized Controlled Trial Experimental studies are the gold standard of research design randomization of participants to treatment and control rigorous methods used to minimize bias Provides most valid dependable research conclusion about clinical effectiveness of an intervention and establishing cause and effect Allows us to say with a high degree of certainty that the intervention we used was the cause of the outcome QuasiExperimental Differs from RCT s only in that participants are NOT randomized to treatment and control groups NonExperimental Cross sectional take a snap shot in time of a population or representative subset CaseControl studies that address questions about harm or causation investigates why some people develop a disease or behave the way they do vs others who do not Cohort participants are studied over time study population shares common characteristics Descriptive main objective is to describe some phenomena Qualitative quotany kind of research that produces findings not arrived at by means of statistical procedures or other means of quantificationquot Case Control Investigator works backward from outcome to predictor Sample chosen on the basis of outcome cases plus comparison group controls Cohort A cohort followup longitudinal study is a comparative observational study in which subjects are grouped by their exposure status ie whether or not the subject was exposed to a suspected risk factor The subjects exposed and unexposed to the risk factor are followed forward in time to determine if one or more new outcomes diseases occur Subjects should not have outcome variable on entry No new subjects allowed in after initial recruitment The rates of disease incidence among the exposed and unexposed groups are determined and compared Selection of sample from population Measures predictor variables in sample Follow population for period of time Measure outcome variable Descriptive Studies 15 What were the key features of the research articles discussed in class and how did they relate to understanding quantitative and qualitative research
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