Study Guide for Exam3 (Covers Chapter 10-13)
Study Guide for Exam3 (Covers Chapter 10-13) FNH 2293
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This 20 page Study Guide was uploaded by Gabriel Brooks on Monday March 21, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to FNH 2293 at Mississippi State University taught by Dianne Tidwell in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 371 views. For similar materials see Individual and Family Nutrition in Nutrition and Food Sciences at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 03/21/16
Study Guide for Chapter 10-13- Individual and Family Nutrition Chapter 10 I. The Vitamins Support nutritional health Differs from energy-yielding nutrients(CHO, PRO, FAT): o STRUCTURE Individual units Appendix C presents chemical structure o FUNCTION No energy yielded Assist enzymes that participate in the release of energy from carbohydrates, fats, and proteins o FOOD CONTENTS Occur in small amounts in certain foods Amount people digest from foods and the amount required daily are measured in micrograms or milligrams Similar with energy-yielding nutrients o Organic, essential, available from foods A. Bioavailability Amount of vitamins absorbed and used by body o Differs from amount in food Factors influencing availability o Efficiency of digestion o Nutrition status o Method of food preparation o Source of nutrient (processing lowers vitamin content) o Other food consumed at the same time B. Precursors (Provitamins) Precursors are inactive forms of vitamins o Are converted to active form in body C. Organic Can be destroyed during storage or cooking Prolonged heating may destroy much of the thiamin in the food Foods stored in transparent glass containers are likely to lose riboflavin o Riboflavin is destroyed by ultraviolent rays of the sun or fluorescent light Oxygen destroys Vitamin C o Occurs when foods are cut, processes, and stored D. Solubility Carbohydrates and proteins are hydrophilic Lipids are hydrophobic Hydrophilic, water-soluble ones are B vitamins (thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, biotin, pantothenic acid, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12) and vitamin C. Hydrophobic, fat-soluble ones are vitamins A, D, E, & K Affects absorption, transport, and excretion E. Toxicity More is not necessarily better o Levels higher than Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) II. The B Vitamins Without B vitamins, the body would lack energy o Helps body use macronutrients for fuel o Macronutrients= CHO, PRO, FAT Coenzymes o Assist enzymes with energy release from macronutrients (ABOVE) o Without coenzyme, the enzyme cannot function Vitamin B6 assists enzymes that metabolize amino acids Folate and vitamin B12 helps calls to multiply o Among cells are red blood cells and the celling lining the GI tract – cells that deliver energy to all others Symptoms are metabolism deficiencies= lack of enzymes Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) Adequate Intake (AI) A. Thiamin a vitamin that is part of the coenzyme thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP) o assists in energy metabolism conversion to pyruvate to acetyl CoA TCA cycle- removes 1 carbon from the 3-carbon pyruvate to make 2-carbon acetyl CoA and carbon dioxide TCA cycle- TTP helps converts a 5-carbon compound to 4-carbon compound 1) Thiamin Recommendations Average US intake meets or exceeds 2) Thiamin Deficiency and Toxicity Malnourished and homeless people Alcoholics o Alcohol is an empty-kcalorie food Impairs thiamin absorption and enhances thiamin excretion in the urine, doubling deficiency risks 4 out of 5 alcoholics are thiamin deficient Prolonged deficiency= beriberi o DRY- damages nervous system, muscle wasting o WET- damages cardiovascular systems; kidneys retain salt and water causing edema *both appear together RDA: men 1.2 mg/day, women 1.1 mg/day Toxicity: No UL o No adverse affects B. Riboflavin Serves as coenzyme in metabolism o Coenzyme forms Flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and Flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) Both can accept and donate 2 hydrogens During metabolism, FAD picks up 2 hydrogens from TCA cycle and delivers to electron transport chain Most people meet or exceed recommendation 1) RIBOFLAVIN DEFICIENCY AND TOXICITY Riboflavin deficiency most accompanies other nutrient deficiencies Deficiency is ariboflavinosis o Inflammation of membranes of mouth, skin, eyes, and GI tract; cracks and sores around at corners of mouth; painful smooth purplish/red tongue Destroyed by ultraviolent light (cooking doesn’t) RDA: men 1.3 mg/day, women 1.1 mg/day TOXICITY: no UL C. Niacin 2 chemical structures o Nicotinic acid o Nicorinamide Major form of niacin in blood 2 coenzyme for – metabolic reactions o Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) Carries hydrogens and their electrons o NADP (the phosphate form) RDA stated in niacin equivalents (NE) men 16mg NE/day, women 14 Body can manufacture from tryptophan o 60 mg tryptophan= 1 NE A food containing 1mg niacin and 60 mg tryptophan provides 2 NE o Only occurs after protein synthesis needs have been met Deficiency is pellagra o Produces the symptoms of (4Ds) diarrhea, dermatitis, dementia, death; swollen, smooth tongue Toxicity: 35 mg/day (supplements) Naturally occurring sources o No harm Supplements or drugs o “niacin flush” Potential health benefits of large doses of nicotinic acid Food sources o Less vulnerable to food preparation losses than other vitamins D. Biotin Coenzyme that carries activated carbon dioxide o Critical in TCA cycle: biotin delivers a carbon to 3-carbon dioxide Delivers carbon to pyruvate to form oxaloacetate Gluconeogenesis and fatty acids synthesis Breakdown of fatty acids and amino acids Widespread in food sources AI: adults 30 micrograms/ day Deficiency symptoms include skin rash, hair loss, and neurological impairment E. Pantothenic Acid A part of the chemical structure of coenzyme A that forms acetyl CoA Appendix C presents the chemical structures of these 2 molecules and shows that coenzyme A is made up in part of pantothenic acid AI: adults 5 mg/day Very widespread in foods Deficiency is rare Readily destroyed by freezing, canning, and refining F. Vitamin B Three forms o Pyridoxal, pyridoxine, and pyridoxamine Conversion to coenzyme pyridoxal phosphate (PLP) o Amino acid metabolism o Carbohydrate and fatty acid metabolism o Conversion of tryptophan to niacin or serotine o Synthesis of nucleic acids, and lecithin Stored exclusively in muscle tissues RDA: adults 19-50 yr. 1.3 mg/day Deficiency symptoms- anemia, scaly dermatitis, depression, confusion G. Folate Known as foiacin or folic acid Primary coenzyme form- THF(tetrahydrofolate ) o Transfers 1-carbon compounds during metabolism Converts vitamin B12 to coenzyme form Synthesizes DNA (unable to support) Regenerates methionine from homocysteine Bioavailability ranges from 50-100% o Differences between food sources and supplements taken on empty stomach RDA: adults 400 mcg/day, pregnancy 600 mcg/day Chapter 11 FAT-SOLUBLE VITAMINS: A, D, E, AND K Fat-soluble vitamins differ from water-soluble vitamins o Require bile for digestion and absorption o Travel through lymphatic system o May require transport proteins in bloodstream o Excesses stored liver and adipose tissue o Not readily excreted Toxicity is greater than for water-soluble vitamins III. Vitamin A and Beta-Carotene Was the first fat-soluble recognized Precursor: beta-carotene Three forms of vitamin A o Retinol, retinal, and retinoic acid o Known as retinoids Beta-carotene is a carotenoid and can be converted to vitamin A A. Roles in the Body Versatile vitamin, known to regulate the expression or hundreds of genes Retinol- supports reproduction o Retinol is also the major transport and storage form Retinal- active in vision Retinoic acid- regulates cell differentiation, growth, and embryonic development Major roles include: o Promoting vision o Protein synthesis and cell differentiation o Reproduction and regulating growth 1) Vitamin A in Vision It helps maintain clear cornea Helps convert light energy to nerve impulses in the retina o Photosensitive cells contain rhodopsin, which contains retinal Repeated small losses of retinal in the vision process o Need for replenishment from diet or retinol stores 2) Vitamin A and Cell Differentiation Cell differentiation, a process by which each type of cell develops to perform a specific function All body surfaces, both inside and out, are covered by layers called the epithelial cells. o The epithelial tissue on the outside of the body is of course the skin o The epithelial tissue that line the inside of the body are the mucous membranes: the linings of the mouth, stomach, intestines; the linings of the the lungs and the passages leading to them; the linings of the urinary bladder and urethra; the linings of the uterus and vagina; and the linings of the eyelids and sinus passageways. 3) Vitamin A in Reproduction and Growth Men, sperm growth Women, normal fetal growth Growth of children, if children lack, they fail to grow o Growth of bones= remodeling o Remodeling- to convert a small bone into a larger bone, the dismantling and re-formation of a structure Antioxidant role of beta-carotene o Two roles: serves as a Vitamin A precursor & (some beta- carotene) antioxidant capable of protecting the body against disease B. Vitamin A Deficiency Huge problem in developing countries 90% of Vitamin A is in liver Protein status (retinol-binding protein transports vitamin A in the body) Deficiency o Severe o Uncommon in the US o DEATH from pneumonia and severe diarrhea o Night blindness and blindness Night blindness is cause by the lack of vitamin A in the back of the eye Complete blindness is cause by the lack of vitamin A in the front of the eye Xerophthalmia- blindness from vitamin A def. o Keratinization Change in shape and size of epithelial cells Skin becomes dry Disrupts normal digestion and intake of nutrients from GI tract Weakens defenses in respiratory tract, vagina, inner ear, and urinary tract C. Vitamin A Toxicity Develops when binding proteins are located o Vitamin A free to damage cells UL has been set= adults 3000 mcg/day RDA. Women 700 micrograms – men 900 micrograms Toxicity is a real possibility o Performed vitamin A from animal sources o Fortified food excesses o Supplements o Children most vulnerable Bone defects o Vitamin A is then considered a teratogen No effect on acne Beta-carotene Toxicity o Beta-carotene toxicity from consuming too much from supplement or foods such as carrot juice and sweet potatoes o Causes the skin to become yellowish orange o Is not harmful D. Vitamin A Recommendations Are expressed as retinol activity equivalents(RAE) Supplements measured in International Units E. Vitamin A in Foods Animal sources – retinol – fortified milk, cheese, butter, margarine, egg yolk, liver (do not overeat liver) Plant sources – beta-carotene – deep orange fruits and vegetables, dark green leafy vegetables Golden rice – genetically modified rice product contain beta-carotene; source of vitamin A in poor nation that eat rice-based diets and do not have adequate vitamin A sources; prevents blindness IV. Vitamin D With helps of sunlight, body make cholesterol Is not an essential nutrient; given enough time in the sun, people need no vitamin D from food Is a hormone o Binding proteins carries it to target organs Bone growth – calcium and phosphorus absorption o Enhances absorption of bone minerals o Provides mineral from other sources Other roles- enhances or suppresses gene activity(cell growth), protects against cognitive decline, immunity, disease prevention, may regulate adipose tissue activity (obesity prevention) A. Deficiency Overt signs of vitamin D deficiency are relatively rare o Is common Contributory facts o Dark skins o Breastfeeding without supplementation o Lack of sunlight o Not drinking fortified milk Production of calbindin, a protein that binds calcium in the intestinal cells, slows Creates a calcium deficiency Diseases o Rickets – affects children Bones fail to calcify normally Bones bend o Osteomalacia – affects adults Poor mineralization of bones Bones are soft, flexible, brittle, and deformed o Osteoporosis Loss of calcium from bones Results in fractures o Vitamin D deficiency especially common in elderly Reduced ability to make and active vitamin D Drink less milk Spend much day indoors o Research studies reported those at greatest risk of vitamin D deficiency were veiled women B. Toxicity Toxic effects when consumed in excessive amounts via supplements Raises blood calcium concentrations o Forms stones in soft tissues o May harden blood vessels o Dangerous for major vessels: brain, heart, and lungs C. Recommendations Only a few food sources contain vitamin D o Oily fish and egg yolks Fortified milk o Recommendation difficult to meet without sunlight and supplementation or fortification May be insufficient Sun exposure: no risk of toxicity o Vitamin D production varies with skin color, latitude season, and time of day RDA = 15 mcg/day or 600 IU/ day adults 19-70 old = 20 mcg/day or 800 IU/day for adults less than 70 yrs of age Amounts of vitamin D in foods: 1 cup of milk = about 100 IU 3.5 oz cooked salmon= 360 IU 1 egg yolk- 20 IU V. Vitamin E- the antioxidant Two subgroups: tocopherols and tocotrienols o Each contains four compounds: alpha, beta, gamma, and delta Position of methyl group o Only alpha-tocopherol maintained in the body Antioxidant o Stops chain reaction of free radicals Protects cells and their membranes Heart disease and protection of LDLs A. Deficiency Primary def. is rare Secondary deficiency o Usually associated with malabsorption such as cystic fibrosis Without Vitamin E, red blood cells break and spill their contents o Erythrocyte hemolysis- break opening of red blood cells; a symptom of vitamin E deficiency in human beings Neuromuscular dysfunction- loss of muscle coordination and reflexes and impaired vision and speech B. Toxicity Liver regulates vitamin E concentrations o Toxicity is rare UL is 1000 mg/day, which is 65 times greater than recommended intake for adults Extremely high doses of vitamin E o May interfere with vitamin K blood-clotting activity C. Recommendations RDA based on alpha-tocopherol only RDA adults 15 mg/day Widespread in foods o Destroyed by heat and oxidation o Fresh foods preferred source VI. Vitamin K Named after Danish word, “koagulation” (coagulation) Primary action is blood clotting o Activation of prothrombin protein Metabolism of bone protein osteocalcin o Low bone density with low vitamin K Vitamin K names: phylloquinone in food (vitamin K1), menaquinone from bacteria (K2), menadione (supplements) Hemorrhagic disease- characterized by excessive bleeding Hemophilia- a heredity disease in which the blood is unable to clot because it lacks the ability to synthesize certain clotting factors A. Deficiency Of hemorrhage is rare (Primary) Secondary o Fat absorption falters o Some drugs disrupt vitamins K’s synthesis (antibotics) and action (anticoagulant drugs) Newborn infants o sterile intestinal tract o Single dose of vitamin K given at birth by intramuscular injection B. Toxicity AI is 120 mcg/day for men & 90 mcg/day for women Toxicity is not known o No adverse effects No UL High doses can reduce effectiveness of anticoagulant drugs o Blooding clotting times should be monitored closely C. Recommendation and Sources Can be obtained from food and non food sources NONFOOD Source: GI Tract o Synthesized by bacteria o Amount insufficient Food Sources o Green vegetables Spinach, kale o Green fruits Avocado, kiwi o Some vegetables oils Soy bean oil D. SUMMARY!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Toxicities are possible Function of fat-soluble vitamins together o Vitamin E protects vitamin A from oxidation o In Vitamin E deficiency, Vitamin A absorption and storage are impaired o Vitamins A, D, and K Bone growth and remodeling QUESTIONS FOR THE REST OF THE CHAPTER What are the water-soluble vitamins? B-Vitamins: Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Biotin, Pantothenic Acid, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Choline Vitamin C What are the fat-soluble vitamins? Vitamins A, D, E, and K What are the major minerals? Sodium, Chloride, Potassium, Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Sulfate What are the trace minerals? Iron, Zinc, Iodine, Fluoride, Selenium, Copper, Manganese, Chromium, Molybdenum How do vitamins differ from energy-yielding nutrients? Structure: vitamins are individual units Function: vitamins do not yield energy Food Contents: vitamins are needed in a much smaller quantity than the energy-yielding nutrients (measured in micrograms or milligrams as opposed to grams) Fortification when nutrients that were never present in the first place are added to a food Enrichment when nutrients are added back to a food after it has been processed By law, what nutrients are in enriched grain products? thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, folate, iron Food Sources of Thiamin Pork, fortified grains Thiamin Deficiency Disease Beriberi (wet or dry) Food Sources of Riboflavin Liver, milk and milk products, fortified grains Riboflavin Deficiency Disease Ariboflavinosis Food Sources of Niacin Chicken breast, liver, tuna, fortified grains Niacin Deficiency Disease Pellagra What amino acid can by synthesized into niacin by the body? Tryptophan Food Sources of Biotin Widespread Food Sources of Pantothenic Acid Widespread Food Sources of Vitamin B6 Widespread Vitamin B6 Deficiency Disease Rare, occurs in alcoholics and tuberculosis patients taking the medication isoniazid How is Vitamin B6 related to Niacin? is involved in the conversion of tryptophan to niacin Food Sources of Folate fortified grains, leafy green vegetables, lentils Folate Deficiency Disease Anemia, causes neural tube and congenital birth defects How is folate related to vitamin B12? a toxicity of folate can mask a deficiency of vitamin B12 because both folate and vitamin B12 depend on each other for activation in the body Food Sources of Vitamin B12 found almost exclusively in animal products such as fish and milk Vitamin B12 Deficiency Disease Pernicious Anemia (caused by atrophic gastritis and a lack of intrinsic factor) What do all of the B Vitamins have in common? Each is somehow involved in energy metabolism Food Sources of Vitamin C Fruits and Vegetables (such as citrus, strawberries, and peppers; potatoes) Vitamin C Deficiency Disease Scurvy How do fat-soluble vitamins differ from water-soluble vitamins? Require bile for digestion and absorption, travel through the lymphatic system instead of straight into the bloodstream, many require transport proteins, excesses are stored in the liver and adipose tissue (therefore risk of toxicity is greater) What is the precursor to Vitamin A? Food Sources of Vitamin A and Beta-Carotene Animal sources (such as liver, milk products, eggs) Beta-Carotene is found in dark leafy greens and rich yellow or deep orange vegetables and fruits. Vitamin A Deficiency Disease Hypovitaminosis A Why is Vitamin D not an essential nutrient? It can be synthesized from cholesterol by the body with the help of sunlight. Food Sources of Vitamin D Oily fish and egg yolks, fortified products Best source of Vitamin D is exposure to sunlight! Vitamin D Deficiency Disease in Children Rickets Vitamin D Deficiency Disease in Adults Osteomalacia, Osteoporosis Which of the four tocopherol compounds is the active form of Vitamin E in the body? Alpha-tocopherol Food Sources of Vitamin E Widespread What nonfood source can Vitamin K be obtained from? Vitamin K can be synthesized by bacteria in the GI tract. How much of a person's Vitamin K need is met by synthesis in the GI Tract? Half Food Sources of Vitamin K Green vegetables and vegetable oils Fat-soluble vitamins involved in oxidation, absorbtion, and storage Vitamins E and A Fat-soluble vitamins involved in bone growth and remodeling Vitamins A, D, and K Fat-soluble vitamins involved in blood clotting Vitamins E and K How are minerals different than vitamins? Minerals are inorganic and therefore always retain their chemical identity. Food Sources of Sodium Salt, processed foods Sodium Deficiency Disease Not caused by inadequate intake Hyponatremia from excessive losses Food Sources of Chloride Abundant in processed foods as a part of sodium chloride and other salts Chloride Deficiency Disease Rare, related to deficiencies of sodium Food Sources of Potassium Fresh fruits and vegetables What is the most abundant mineral in the body? Calcium Food Sources of Calcium Milk and milk products, dark green leafy vegetables, fortified juices and foods Calcium Deficiency Disease Stunted growth in children and bone loss in adults Food Sources of Phosphorus Foods rich in protein (animal derived) Food Sources of Magnesium Legumes, seeds, nuts; leafy green vegetables; contributed by hard water Food Sources of Sulfate Many foods and beverages plus the sulfur containing amino acids methionine and cysteine Name the nutrients associated with bone health (3 vitamins, 4 minerals). Vitamins: Vitamin D, Vitamin K, and Vitamin A Minerals: Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, and Fluoride Name the nutrients associated with blood health (4 vitamins, 2 minerals). Vitamins: Vitamin B12, Folate, Vitamin B6, Vitamin K Minerals: Iron and Zinc Name the 4 nutrients with antioxidant function. Vitamin E, Vitamin C, Beta-Carotene, and Selenium Name the minerals associated with fluid and electrolyte balance. Sodium, Potassium, Chloride, and Phosphorus Food Sources of Iron Meats, fish, and poultry Iron Deficiency Disease Iron-deficiency anemia Food Sources of Zinc Protein-containing foods Food Sources of Iodine Iodized salt, seafood Iodine Deficiency Disease Simple goiter, cretinism Food Sources of Fluoride Fluoridated water, tea, seafood Function of Thiamin ENERGY METABOLISM Part of coenzymes used in energy metabolism Function of Riboflavin ENERGY METABOLISM Part of coenzymes used in energy metabolism Function of Niacin ENERGY METABOLISM Part of coenzymes used in energy metabolism Function of Biotin ENERGY METABOLISM Part of coenzymes used in energy metabolism, fat synthesis, amino acid metabolism, and glycogen synthesis Function of Pantothenic Acid ENERGY METABOLISM Part of coenzymes used in energy metabolism Function of Vitamin B6 BLOOD HEALTH, ENERGY METABOLISM Helps make hemoglobin for red blood cells; Part of coenzymes used in amino acid and fatty acid metabolism; helps tryptophan conversion to niacin and serotonin Function of Folate BLOOD HEALTH, ENERGY METABOLISM Part of coenzymes used in DNA synthesis and therefore important in new cell formation Function of Vitamin B12 BLOOD HEALTH, ENERGY METABOLISM Part of coenzymes for new cell synthesis Function of Vitamin C ANTIOXIDANT FUNCTION Antioxidant, collagen synthesis, restores vitamin E to active form, amino acid metabolism, strengthens resistance to infection, helps iron absorbtion Function of Vitamin A BONE HEALTH Bone and tooth growth; vision; health of cornea, epithelial cells, mucous membranes, skin; regulation of gene expression; reproduction; immunity Function of Vitamin D BONE HEALTH Mineralization of bones (raises blood calcium and phosphorus by increasing absorption from digestive tract, withdrawing calcium from bones, and stimulating retention from kidneys) Function of Vitamin E ANTIOXIDANT FUNCTION Antioxidant, stabilization of cell membranes, regulation of oxidation reactions, protection of polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin A Function of Vitamin K BONE HEALTH, BLOOD HEALTH Synthesis of proteins for bone mineralization and blood-clotting Function of Sodium FLUID AND ELECTROLYTE BALANCE Maintains normal fluid and electrolyte balance; assists in nerve impulse transmission and muscle contraction Function of Chloride FLUID AND ELECTROLYTE BALANCE Maintains normal fluid and electrolyte balance; part of stomach hydrochloric acid Function of Potassium FLUID AND ELECTROLYTE BALANCE Maintains normal fluid and electrolyte balance; facilitates reactions such as making protein; supports cell integrity; assists in nerve impulse transmission and muscle contractions Function of Calcium BONE HEALTH Mineralization of bones and teeth; muscle contraction and relaxation, nerve functioning, blood clotting, blood pressure, and immune defenses Function of Phosphorus BONE HEALTH, FLUID AND ELECTROLYTE BALANCE Mineralization of bones and teeth; part of phospholipids; important in genetic materials; used in energy metabolism and in buffer systems that maintain acid-base balance Function of Magnesium BONE HEALTH Bone mineralization, protein synthesis, enzyme action, muscle contraction, nerve impulse transmission, and immune function Function of Sulfate ENERGY METABOLISM Found in amino acids and the vitamins biotin and thiamin; stabilizes protein shape by forming sulfur-sulfur bridges Function of Iron BLOOD HEALTH, ENERGY METABOLISM Carries oxygen as part of hemoglobin in blood or myoglobin in muscles; required for cellular energy metabolism Function of Zinc BLOOD HEALTH, ENERGY METABOLISM Activates many enzymes; assosicated with the hormone insulin; involved in making genetic material and proteins, transport of vitamin A, taste perception, wound healing, the making of sperm, and normal fetal development Function of Iodine ENERGY METABOLISM Component of two thyroid hormones that help regulate growth, development, and metabolic rate Function of Fluoride BONE HEALTH Helps form bones and teeth; makes teeth decay resistant
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