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What is riboflavin?

What is riboflavin?


School: Mississippi State University
Department: Food Science and Nutrition
Course: Individual and Family Nutrition
Professor: Dianne tidwell
Term: Spring 2016
Tags: nutrition, Nutrition Nutrition, Individual Nutrition, Family Nutrition, family, Individual Family Nutrition, and Individual and Family Nutrition
Cost: 50
Name: Study Guide for Exam3 (Covers Chapter 10-13)
Description: These notes should cover everything that is on the exam.
Uploaded: 03/22/2016
20 Pages 29 Views 15 Unlocks

Study Guide for Chapter 10-13- Individual and Family Nutrition

What is riboflavin?

Chapter 10

I. The Vitamins

∙ Support nutritional health  

∙ Differs from energy-yielding nutrients(CHO, PRO, FAT):


 Individual units

 Appendix C presents chemical structure  


 No energy yielded

 Assist enzymes that participate in the release of energy from  carbohydrates, fats, and proteins


 Occur in small amounts in certain foods  

 Amount people digest from foods and the amount required daily  are measured in micrograms or milligrams

∙ Similar with energy-yielding nutrients

o Organic, essential, available from foods

What is niacin?

A. Bioavailability

∙ Amount of vitamins absorbed and used by body  

o Differs from amount in food

∙ Factors influencing availability

o Efficiency of digestion

o Nutrition status

o Method of food preparation

o Source of nutrient (processing lowers vitamin content) Don't forget about the age old question of What is hyperinflation?

o Other food consumed at the same time

B. Precursors (Provitamins)

∙ Precursors are inactive forms of vitamins

o Are converted to active form in body  

C. Organic

∙ Can be destroyed during storage or cooking

∙ Prolonged heating may destroy much of the thiamin in the food ∙ Foods stored in transparent glass containers are likely to lose riboflavin o Riboflavin is destroyed by ultraviolent rays of the sun or  

What is folate?

fluorescent light

∙ Oxygen destroys Vitamin C

o Occurs when foods are cut, processes, and stored If you want to learn more check out What are the judicial remedies for prejudicial publicity?

D. Solubility

∙ Carbohydrates and proteins are hydrophilic  

∙ Lipids are hydrophobic

∙ Hydrophilic, water-soluble ones are B vitamins (thiamin, riboflavin,  niacin, biotin, pantothenic acid, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12) and  vitamin C.

∙ Hydrophobic, fat-soluble ones are vitamins A, D, E, & K

∙ Affects absorption, transport, and excretion  

E. Toxicity

∙ More is not necessarily better

o Levels higher than Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL)

II. The B Vitamins

∙ Without B vitamins, the body would lack energy  Don't forget about the age old question of What are the effects of exercise?

o Helps body use macronutrients for fuel  

o Macronutrients= CHO, PRO, FAT

∙ Coenzymes  

o Assist enzymes with energy release from macronutrients  


o Without coenzyme, the enzyme cannot function

∙ Vitamin B6 assists enzymes that metabolize amino acids Don't forget about the age old question of What is the reinforcement principle?

∙ Folate and vitamin B12 helps calls to multiply

o Among cells are red blood cells and the celling lining the GI  tract – cells that deliver energy to all others

∙ Symptoms are metabolism deficiencies= lack of enzymes

∙ Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA)

∙ Adequate Intake (AI)

A. Thiamin

∙ a vitamin that is part of the coenzyme thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP) o assists in energy metabolism

 conversion to pyruvate to acetyl CoA

 TCA cycle- removes 1 carbon from the 3-carbon  

pyruvate to make 2-carbon acetyl CoA and carbon  


 TCA cycle- TTP helps converts a 5-carbon compound to

4-carbon compound

1) Thiamin Recommendations

∙ Average US intake meets or exceeds

2) Thiamin Deficiency and Toxicity Don't forget about the age old question of What are the principles of free-market economics?
We also discuss several other topics like What is a financial calculator?

∙ Malnourished and homeless people  

∙ Alcoholics  

o Alcohol is an empty-kcalorie food  

 Impairs thiamin absorption and enhances thiamin  

excretion in the urine, doubling deficiency risks

 4 out of 5 alcoholics are thiamin deficient

∙ Prolonged deficiency= beriberi

o DRY- damages nervous system, muscle wasting

o WET- damages cardiovascular systems; kidneys retain salt  and water causing edema

*both appear together

∙ RDA: men 1.2 mg/day, women 1.1 mg/day

∙ Toxicity: No UL

o No adverse affects

B. Riboflavin

∙ Serves as coenzyme in metabolism

o Coenzyme forms Flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and Flavin  adenine dinucleotide (FAD)

 Both can accept and donate 2 hydrogens

 During metabolism, FAD picks up 2 hydrogens from  

TCA cycle and delivers to electron transport chain

∙ Most people meet or exceed recommendation  


∙ Riboflavin deficiency most accompanies other nutrient deficiencies  ∙ Deficiency is ariboflavinosis

o Inflammation of membranes of mouth, skin, eyes, and GI tract;  cracks and sores around at corners of mouth; painful smooth  purplish/red tongue

∙ Destroyed by ultraviolent light (cooking doesn’t)

∙ RDA: men 1.3 mg/day, women 1.1 mg/day


C. Niacin

∙ 2 chemical structures  

o Nicotinic acid

o Nicorinamide

 Major form of niacin in blood  

∙ 2 coenzyme for – metabolic reactions  

o Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)

 Carries hydrogens and their electrons

o NADP (the phosphate form)

∙ RDA stated in niacin equivalents (NE)

men 16mg NE/day, women 14

∙ Body can manufacture from tryptophan  

o 60 mg tryptophan= 1 NE

∙ A food containing 1mg niacin and 60 mg tryptophan provides 2 NE o Only occurs after protein synthesis needs have been met ∙ Deficiency is pellagra  

o Produces the symptoms of (4Ds) diarrhea, dermatitis,  

dementia, death; swollen, smooth tongue

∙ Toxicity: 35 mg/day (supplements)

∙ Naturally occurring sources  

o No harm

∙ Supplements or drugs

o “niacin flush”

∙ Potential health benefits of large doses of nicotinic acid ∙ Food sources

o Less vulnerable to food preparation losses than other  


D. Biotin  

∙ Coenzyme that carries activated carbon dioxide

o Critical in TCA cycle: biotin delivers a carbon to 3-carbon  dioxide

 Delivers carbon to pyruvate to form oxaloacetate

∙ Gluconeogenesis and fatty acids synthesis  

∙ Breakdown of fatty acids and amino acids

∙ Widespread in food sources

∙ AI: adults 30 micrograms/ day

∙ Deficiency symptoms include skin rash, hair loss, and neurological  impairment

E. Pantothenic Acid

∙ A part of the chemical structure of coenzyme A that forms acetyl  CoA

∙ Appendix C presents the chemical structures of these 2 molecules  and shows that coenzyme A is made up in part of pantothenic acid ∙ AI: adults 5 mg/day  

∙ Very widespread in foods

∙ Deficiency is rare

∙ Readily destroyed by freezing, canning, and refining  

F. Vitamin B

∙ Three forms

o Pyridoxal, pyridoxine, and pyridoxamine

∙ Conversion to coenzyme pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)

o Amino acid metabolism

o Carbohydrate and fatty acid metabolism

o Conversion of tryptophan to niacin or serotine  

o Synthesis of nucleic acids, and lecithin

∙ Stored exclusively in muscle tissues

∙ RDA: adults 19-50 yr. 1.3 mg/day

∙ Deficiency symptoms- anemia, scaly dermatitis, depression,  confusion

G. Folate

∙ Known as foiacin or folic acid  

∙ Primary coenzyme form- THF(tetrahydrofolate )

o Transfers 1-carbon compounds during metabolism  

 Converts vitamin B12 to coenzyme form

 Synthesizes DNA (unable to support)

 Regenerates methionine from homocysteine

∙ Bioavailability ranges from 50-100%  

o Differences between food sources and supplements taken on  empty stomach  

∙ RDA: adults 400 mcg/day, pregnancy 600 mcg/day

Chapter 11


∙ Fat-soluble vitamins differ from water-soluble vitamins

o Require bile for digestion and absorption  

o Travel through lymphatic system

o May require transport proteins in bloodstream

o Excesses stored liver and adipose tissue

o Not readily excreted  

 Toxicity is greater than for water-soluble vitamins

III. Vitamin A and Beta-Carotene

∙ Was the first fat-soluble recognized  

∙ Precursor: beta-carotene

∙ Three forms of vitamin A

o Retinol, retinal, and retinoic acid

o Known as retinoids

∙ Beta-carotene is a carotenoid and can be converted to vitamin A

A. Roles in the Body

∙ Versatile vitamin, known to regulate the expression or hundreds of genes ∙ Retinol- supports reproduction

o Retinol is also the major transport and storage form

∙ Retinal- active in vision

∙ Retinoic acid- regulates cell differentiation, growth, and embryonic  development

∙ Major roles include:

o Promoting vision  

o Protein synthesis and cell differentiation  

o Reproduction and regulating growth  

1) Vitamin A in Vision

∙ It helps maintain clear cornea

∙ Helps convert light energy to nerve impulses in the retina

o Photosensitive cells contain rhodopsin, which contains retinal  ∙ Repeated small losses of retinal in the vision process

o Need for replenishment from diet or retinol stores

2) Vitamin A and Cell Differentiation

∙ Cell differentiation, a process by which each type of cell develops to  perform a specific function  

∙ All body surfaces, both inside and out, are covered by layers called the  epithelial cells.

o The epithelial tissue on the outside of the body is of course the  skin

o The epithelial tissue that line the inside of the body are the  mucous membranes: the linings of the mouth, stomach,  

intestines; the linings of the the lungs and the passages leading  to them; the linings of the urinary bladder and urethra; the  

linings of the uterus and vagina; and the linings of the eyelids  and sinus passageways.

3) Vitamin A in Reproduction and Growth  

∙ Men, sperm growth  

∙ Women, normal fetal growth

∙ Growth of children, if children lack, they fail to grow

o Growth of bones= remodeling

o Remodeling- to convert a small bone into a larger bone, the  dismantling and re-formation of a structure

∙ Antioxidant role of beta-carotene

o Two roles: serves as a Vitamin A precursor & (some beta

carotene) antioxidant capable of protecting the body against  disease

B. Vitamin A Deficiency  

∙ Huge problem in developing countries

∙ 90% of Vitamin A is in liver

∙ Protein status (retinol-binding protein transports vitamin A in the  body)

∙ Deficiency

o Severe

o Uncommon in the US

o DEATH from pneumonia and severe diarrhea

o Night blindness and blindness

 Night blindness is cause by the lack of vitamin A in the

back of the eye

 Complete blindness is cause by the lack of vitamin A in

the front of the eye

 Xerophthalmia- blindness from vitamin A def.

o Keratinization

 Change in shape and size of epithelial cells

∙ Skin becomes dry

 Disrupts normal digestion and intake of nutrients from  

GI tract

 Weakens defenses in respiratory tract, vagina, inner  

ear, and urinary tract

C. Vitamin A Toxicity

∙ Develops when binding proteins are located

o Vitamin A free to damage cells

∙ UL has been set= adults 3000 mcg/day

∙ RDA. Women 700 micrograms – men 900 micrograms

∙ Toxicity is a real possibility

o Performed vitamin A from animal sources

o Fortified food excesses

o Supplements

o Children most vulnerable

∙ Bone defects

o Vitamin A is then considered a teratogen  

∙ No effect on acne

∙ Beta-carotene Toxicity

o Beta-carotene toxicity from consuming too much from  

supplement or foods such as carrot juice and sweet potatoes

o Causes the skin to become yellowish orange

o Is not harmful

D. Vitamin A Recommendations

∙ Are expressed as retinol activity equivalents(RAE)

∙ Supplements measured in International Units

E. Vitamin A in Foods

∙ Animal sources – retinol – fortified milk, cheese, butter, margarine, egg  yolk, liver (do not overeat liver)

∙ Plant sources – beta-carotene – deep orange fruits and vegetables,  dark green leafy vegetables

∙ Golden rice – genetically modified rice product contain beta-carotene;  source of vitamin A in poor nation that eat rice-based diets and do not  have adequate vitamin A sources; prevents blindness

IV. Vitamin D

∙ With helps of sunlight, body make cholesterol  

∙ Is not an essential nutrient; given enough time in the sun, people need  no vitamin D from food

∙ Is a hormone

o Binding proteins carries it to target organs

∙ Bone growth – calcium and phosphorus absorption

o Enhances absorption of bone minerals

o Provides mineral from other sources

∙ Other roles- enhances or suppresses gene activity(cell growth),  protects against cognitive decline, immunity, disease prevention, may  regulate adipose tissue activity (obesity prevention)

A. Deficiency  

∙ Overt signs of vitamin D deficiency are relatively rare

o Is common

∙ Contributory facts

o Dark skins

o Breastfeeding without supplementation

o Lack of sunlight

o Not drinking fortified milk

∙ Production of calbindin, a protein that binds calcium in the intestinal cells, slows

∙ Creates a calcium deficiency

∙ Diseases

o Rickets – affects children

 Bones fail to calcify normally

∙ Bones bend

o Osteomalacia – affects adults

 Poor mineralization of bones

 Bones are soft, flexible, brittle, and deformed

o Osteoporosis

 Loss of calcium from bones

∙ Results in fractures

o Vitamin D deficiency especially common in elderly  

 Reduced ability to make and active vitamin D

 Drink less milk  

 Spend much day indoors

o Research studies reported those at greatest risk of vitamin D  deficiency were veiled women

B. Toxicity

∙ Toxic effects when consumed in excessive amounts via supplements ∙ Raises blood calcium concentrations

o Forms stones in soft tissues

o May harden blood vessels

o Dangerous for major vessels: brain, heart, and lungs

C. Recommendations  

∙ Only a few food sources contain vitamin D

o Oily fish and egg yolks

Fortified milk  

o Recommendation difficult to meet without sunlight and  supplementation or fortification

∙ May be insufficient

∙ Sun exposure: no risk of toxicity

o Vitamin D production varies with skin color, latitude season,  and time of day

∙ RDA = 15 mcg/day or 600 IU/ day adults 19-70 old

 = 20 mcg/day or 800 IU/day for adults less than 70 yrs of age

Amounts of vitamin D in foods:  

1 cup of milk = about 100 IU  

3.5 oz cooked salmon= 360 IU

1 egg yolk- 20 IU

V. Vitamin E- the antioxidant

∙ Two subgroups: tocopherols and tocotrienols

o Each contains four compounds: alpha, beta, gamma, and delta   Position of methyl group

o Only alpha-tocopherol maintained in the body

∙ Antioxidant

o Stops chain reaction of free radicals

 Protects cells and their membranes

 Heart disease and protection of LDLs

A. Deficiency

∙ Primary def. is rare

∙ Secondary deficiency

o Usually associated with malabsorption such as cystic fibrosis ∙ Without Vitamin E, red blood cells break and spill their contents o Erythrocyte hemolysis- break opening of red blood cells; a  

symptom of vitamin E deficiency in human beings

∙ Neuromuscular dysfunction- loss of muscle coordination and  reflexes and impaired vision and speech  

B. Toxicity

∙ Liver regulates vitamin E concentrations

o Toxicity is rare

∙ UL is 1000 mg/day, which is 65 times greater than recommended  intake for adults

∙ Extremely high doses of vitamin E

o May interfere with vitamin K blood-clotting activity  

C. Recommendations

∙ RDA based on alpha-tocopherol only

∙ RDA adults 15 mg/day

∙ Widespread in foods

o Destroyed by heat and oxidation

o Fresh foods preferred source

VI. Vitamin K

∙ Named after Danish word, “koagulation” (coagulation)  

∙ Primary action is blood clotting

o Activation of prothrombin protein

∙ Metabolism of bone protein osteocalcin

o Low bone density with low vitamin K

∙ Vitamin K names: phylloquinone in food (vitamin K1), menaquinone from  bacteria (K2), menadione (supplements)

∙ Hemorrhagic disease- characterized by excessive bleeding ∙ Hemophilia- a heredity disease in which the blood is unable to clot because it  lacks the ability to synthesize certain clotting factors

A. Deficiency

∙ Of hemorrhage is rare (Primary)

∙ Secondary

o Fat absorption falters

o Some drugs disrupt vitamins K’s synthesis (antibotics) and  action (anticoagulant drugs)

∙ Newborn infants

o sterile intestinal tract

o Single dose of vitamin K given at birth by intramuscular  


B. Toxicity

∙ AI is 120 mcg/day for men & 90 mcg/day for women

∙ Toxicity is not known

o No adverse effects  

∙ No UL

∙ High doses can reduce effectiveness of anticoagulant drugs o Blooding clotting times should be monitored closely

C. Recommendation and Sources

∙ Can be obtained from food and non food sources  

∙ NONFOOD Source: GI Tract

o Synthesized by bacteria

o Amount insufficient

∙ Food Sources

o Green vegetables

 Spinach, kale

o Green fruits

 Avocado, kiwi

o Some vegetables oils

 Soy bean oil

D. SUMMARY!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

∙ Toxicities are possible

∙ Function of fat-soluble vitamins together

o Vitamin E protects vitamin A from oxidation

o In Vitamin E deficiency, Vitamin A absorption and storage are impaired  

o Vitamins A, D, and K  

 Bone growth and remodeling

QUESTIONS FOR THE REST OF THE CHAPTER What are the water-soluble vitamins?  

B-Vitamins: Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Biotin, Pantothenic Acid,  Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Choline

Vitamin C  

What are the fat-soluble vitamins?  

Vitamins A, D, E, and K  

What are the major minerals?  

Sodium, Chloride, Potassium, Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium,  Sulfate  

What are the trace minerals?  

Iron, Zinc, Iodine, Fluoride, Selenium, Copper, Manganese, Chromium,  Molybdenum  

How do vitamins differ from energy-yielding nutrients?  

Structure: vitamins are individual units

Function: vitamins do not yield energy

Food Contents: vitamins are needed in a much smaller quantity than  the energy-yielding nutrients (measured in micrograms or milligrams  as opposed to grams)  


when nutrients that were never present in the first place are added to  a food  


when nutrients are added back to a food after it has been processed  By law, what nutrients are in enriched grain products?  thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, folate, iron  

Food Sources of Thiamin  

Pork, fortified grains

Thiamin Deficiency Disease  

Beriberi (wet or dry)  

Food Sources of Riboflavin  

Liver, milk and milk products, fortified grains  

Riboflavin Deficiency Disease  


Food Sources of Niacin  

Chicken breast, liver, tuna, fortified grains  

Niacin Deficiency Disease  


What amino acid can by synthesized into niacin by the body? Tryptophan  

Food Sources of Biotin  


Food Sources of Pantothenic Acid  


Food Sources of Vitamin B6  


Vitamin B6 Deficiency Disease  

Rare, occurs in alcoholics and tuberculosis patients taking the  medication isoniazid  

How is Vitamin B6 related to Niacin?  

is involved in the conversion of tryptophan to niacin

Food Sources of Folate  

fortified grains, leafy green vegetables, lentils  

Folate Deficiency Disease Anemia, causes neural tube and  congenital birth defects  

How is folate related to vitamin B12?  

a toxicity of folate can mask a deficiency of vitamin B12 because both  folate and vitamin B12 depend on each other for activation in the body  

Food Sources of Vitamin B12  

found almost exclusively in animal products such as fish and milk  Vitamin B12 Deficiency Disease  

Pernicious Anemia (caused by atrophic gastritis and a lack of intrinsic  factor)  

What do all of the B Vitamins have in common?  Each is somehow involved in energy metabolism  

Food Sources of Vitamin C  

Fruits and Vegetables (such as citrus, strawberries, and peppers;  potatoes)  

Vitamin C Deficiency Disease  


How do fat-soluble vitamins differ from water-soluble  vitamins?  

Require bile for digestion and absorption, travel through the lymphatic  system instead of straight into the bloodstream, many require  transport proteins, excesses are stored in the liver and adipose tissue  (therefore risk of toxicity is greater)  

What is the precursor to Vitamin A?  

Food Sources of Vitamin A and Beta-Carotene

Animal sources (such as liver, milk products, eggs)

Beta-Carotene is found in dark leafy greens and rich yellow or deep  orange vegetables and fruits.  

Vitamin A Deficiency Disease  

Hypovitaminosis A  

Why is Vitamin D not an essential nutrient?  

It can be synthesized from cholesterol by the body with the help of  sunlight.  

Food Sources of Vitamin D  

Oily fish and egg yolks, fortified products

Best source of Vitamin D is exposure to sunlight!  

Vitamin D Deficiency Disease in Children  


Vitamin D Deficiency Disease in Adults  

Osteomalacia, Osteoporosis  

Which of the four tocopherol compounds is the active form  of Vitamin E in the body?  


Food Sources of Vitamin E  


What nonfood source can Vitamin K be obtained from?  Vitamin K can be synthesized by bacteria in the GI tract.  

How much of a person's Vitamin K need is met by synthesis  in the GI Tract?  


Food Sources of Vitamin K

Green vegetables and vegetable oils  

Fat-soluble vitamins involved in oxidation, absorbtion, and  storage  

Vitamins E and A  

Fat-soluble vitamins involved in bone growth and  remodeling  

Vitamins A, D, and K  

Fat-soluble vitamins involved in blood clotting  Vitamins E and K  

How are minerals different than vitamins?  

Minerals are inorganic and therefore always retain their chemical  identity.  

Food Sources of Sodium  

Salt, processed foods  

Sodium Deficiency Disease  

Not caused by inadequate intake

Hyponatremia from excessive losses  

Food Sources of Chloride  

Abundant in processed foods as a part of sodium chloride and other  salts  

Chloride Deficiency Disease  

Rare, related to deficiencies of sodium  

Food Sources of Potassium  

Fresh fruits and vegetables  

What is the most abundant mineral in the body?


Food Sources of Calcium  

Milk and milk products, dark green leafy vegetables, fortified juices  and foods  

Calcium Deficiency Disease  

Stunted growth in children and bone loss in adults  

Food Sources of Phosphorus  

Foods rich in protein (animal derived)  

Food Sources of Magnesium  

Legumes, seeds, nuts; leafy green vegetables; contributed by hard  water  

Food Sources of Sulfate  

Many foods and beverages plus the sulfur containing amino acids  methionine and cysteine  

Name the nutrients associated with bone health (3 vitamins, 4 minerals).  

Vitamins: Vitamin D, Vitamin K, and Vitamin A

Minerals: Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, and Fluoride  

Name the nutrients associated with blood health (4  vitamins, 2 minerals).  

Vitamins: Vitamin B12, Folate, Vitamin B6, Vitamin K

Minerals: Iron and Zinc  

Name the 4 nutrients with antioxidant function.  Vitamin E, Vitamin C, Beta-Carotene, and Selenium  

Name the minerals associated with fluid and electrolyte  balance.  

Sodium, Potassium, Chloride, and Phosphorus

Food Sources of Iron  

Meats, fish, and poultry  

Iron Deficiency Disease  

Iron-deficiency anemia  

Food Sources of Zinc  

Protein-containing foods  

Food Sources of Iodine  

Iodized salt, seafood  

Iodine Deficiency Disease  

Simple goiter, cretinism  

Food Sources of Fluoride  

Fluoridated water, tea, seafood  

Function of Thiamin  


Part of coenzymes used in energy metabolism  

Function of Riboflavin  


Part of coenzymes used in energy metabolism  

Function of Niacin  


Part of coenzymes used in energy metabolism  

Function of Biotin  


Part of coenzymes used in energy metabolism, fat synthesis, amino  acid metabolism, and glycogen synthesis

Function of Pantothenic Acid  


Part of coenzymes used in energy metabolism  

Function of Vitamin B6  


Helps make hemoglobin for red blood cells; Part of coenzymes used in  amino acid and fatty acid metabolism; helps tryptophan conversion to  niacin and serotonin  

Function of Folate  


Part of coenzymes used in DNA synthesis and therefore important in  new cell formation  

Function of Vitamin B12  


Part of coenzymes for new cell synthesis  

Function of Vitamin C  


Antioxidant, collagen synthesis, restores vitamin E to active form,  amino acid metabolism, strengthens resistance to infection, helps iron  absorbtion  

Function of Vitamin A  


Bone and tooth growth; vision; health of cornea, epithelial cells,  mucous membranes, skin; regulation of gene expression; reproduction; immunity  

Function of Vitamin D  


Mineralization of bones (raises blood calcium and phosphorus by  increasing absorption from digestive tract, withdrawing calcium from  bones, and stimulating retention from kidneys)  

Function of Vitamin E


Antioxidant, stabilization of cell membranes, regulation of oxidation  reactions, protection of polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin A  

Function of Vitamin K  


Synthesis of proteins for bone mineralization and blood-clotting  

Function of Sodium  


Maintains normal fluid and electrolyte balance; assists in nerve impulse transmission and muscle contraction  

Function of Chloride  


Maintains normal fluid and electrolyte balance; part of stomach  hydrochloric acid  

Function of Potassium  


Maintains normal fluid and electrolyte balance; facilitates reactions  such as making protein; supports cell integrity; assists in nerve  impulse transmission and muscle contractions  

Function of Calcium  


Mineralization of bones and teeth; muscle contraction and relaxation,  nerve functioning, blood clotting, blood pressure, and immune  defenses  

Function of Phosphorus  


Mineralization of bones and teeth; part of phospholipids; important in  genetic materials; used in energy metabolism and in buffer systems  that maintain acid-base balance  

Function of Magnesium


Bone mineralization, protein synthesis, enzyme action, muscle  contraction, nerve impulse transmission, and immune function  

Function of Sulfate  


Found in amino acids and the vitamins biotin and thiamin; stabilizes  protein shape by forming sulfur-sulfur bridges  

Function of Iron  


Carries oxygen as part of hemoglobin in blood or myoglobin in muscles; required for cellular energy metabolism  

Function of Zinc  


Activates many enzymes; assosicated with the hormone insulin;  involved in making genetic material and proteins, transport of vitamin  A, taste perception, wound healing, the making of sperm, and normal  fetal development  

Function of Iodine  


Component of two thyroid hormones that help regulate growth,  development, and metabolic rate  

Function of Fluoride  


Helps form bones and teeth; makes teeth decay resistant

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