Exam 2 Study Guide UPDATED
Exam 2 Study Guide UPDATED BIOL 152
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Gianna Notetaker on Monday March 21, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 152 at California State University Chico taught by Dr. Ivy in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Principles of Ecology, Organismal, and Evolutionary Biology in Biology at California State University Chico.
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Date Created: 03/21/16
Biology 152 Exam #2 Study Guide Vocabulary: ■ Ecology ■ Distribution and abundance of species ■ Interactions between species ■ Studied at various scales ■ Typically, within lifespan ■ Climate ■ Influences distribution and abundance of organisms ■ Climate = Long-term atmospheric average ■ Solar energy drives global climates ■ Weather ■ the state of the atmosphere at a place and time as regards heat, dryness, sunshine, wind, rain, etc. ■ Short term, whereas climate is long-term ■ Jet stream ■ a narrow, variable band of very strong, predominantly westerly air currents encircling the globe several miles above the earth. ■ Trade winds ■ Constant winds that blow towards the equator ■ They are a pattern of easterly surface winds that blow near the tropics, always near the equator. The winds from the northern hemisphere blow northeast, while the winds from the southern hemisphere blow southeast ■ Intertropical convergence zone ■ The area near the equator where the northeast and southeast trade winds converge ■ Coriolis effect ■ The rotation of the earth relative to the atmosphere, influencing wind directions (trade winds, westerlies, etc.) ■ Rain shadows ■ As air moves inland and hits mountains, air rises, moisture holding capacity decreases b/c air cools at higher temps causing rain to fall on sea facing slopes ■ Once air descends down opposite side of slope, air is dry even as it heats and is likely to pull up moisture from soil and plants ■ Biogeography ■ the branch of biology that deals with the geographical distribution of plants and animals. ■ Wallace line ■ Transitional zone between Asia and Australia ■ Phylogenetic taxonomy ■ infers shared ancestry on the basis of uniquely shared historical (or derived) characteristics, called “synapomorphies.” ■ Island Biogeography ■ An island closer to the mainland will have more biodiversity than an island farther away. A larger island will also have more biodiversity than a smaller one ■ Theory developed by Robert MacArthur and E.O. Wilson in 1967 ■ Batesian Mimicry ■ Palatable prey (mimic) have similar coloration/markings as unpalatable/poisonous prey (model) ■ FItness of model may suffer ■ Maintenance is frequency dependent (unstable with high frequency of mimic) ■ Mullerian Mimicry ■ Model and mimic are both unpalatable/poisonous and have similar coloration/markings ■ Model and mimic fitness benefit ■ Aposematism ■ Bright coloration characteristic of poisonous or unpalatable prey (like poison dart frogs) ■ Mutualism ■ Two members of different species “work together”, both benefitting ■ Commensalism ■ A relationship between two members of different species where one benefits where the other remains unaffected (neither harmed or benefitted) ■ Amensalism ■ One individual is harmed while the other is unaffected ■ Example: a human stepping on an ant on accident ■ Antagonism ■ One organism benefits at the expense of another ■ Example: a plant secretes a toxin that inhibits the growth of another plant, while the secreting plant remains unaffected ■ Parasitoid ■ A organism that is born inside of its host and eats the host from the inside. The host will not initially die, but over time the parasite will kill its host whether it eats it completely or pupates within the host killing it. ■ Parasitism ■ benefits one species at the expense of another, is harmful to the prey organism, and beneficial to the parasite. Example of antagonism. ■ Herbivore ■ Eats primary producers (autotrophs aka plants) ■ Predator ■ Eats primary consumers ■ Biogeochemical cycles: ■ a term emphasizing that the cycles of chemical elements involve not only biological organisms and processes, but also geological (abiotic) systems and processes ■ Primary producers ■ Autotrophs, produce their energy from the sun, plants ■ Primary consumers ■ Herbivores- eat only plants ■ Secondary consumers eat primary consumers ■ Primary productivity ■ the rate at which energy is converted by photosynthetic and chemosynthetic autotrophs to organic substances. The rate at which photosynthesis occurs ■ Top‐down vs. Bottom‐up effects ■ Top down effects examples: ■ Changes in herbivore populations affect primary producer populations ■ Changes in carnivore populations affect herbivore populations ■ Bottom up effects examples: ■ Changes in primary producer populations affect herbivore populations ■ Changes in herbivore populations affect carnivore populations ■ Trophic level ■ the position that an organism occupies in a food chain - what it eats, and what eats it ■ Food chain: A linear illustration of energy flow between organisms ■ creates the possibility that species in any one trophic level may have effects on more than one trophic level. ■ Disturbance ■ Event that alters survival rate ■ Ex: fire, glacier, volcano, predation, gopher mound, tornado, etc. ■ Succession ■ Community change following disturbance ■ Facilitation ■ Improve environment for other species (e2p. NO fixation - microbes break the N-O triple bond, allowing plants to use the N) ■ Inhibition ■ Competitive or other detrimental effects on other species (exp. Fungi produce penicillin to inhibit bacterial growth) ■ Keystone species ■ a plant or animal that plays a unique and crucial role in the way an ecosystem functions. Without it, the ecosystem would be dramatically different or cease to exist altogether. ■ Influence on community structure disproportionate to abundance ■ Ex: starfish, tropical figs, beavers ■ Pseudocopulatory pollination syndrome ■ Pollination by sexual deception ■ Attraction of male insects that are deceived by the flower’s shape or fragrance and are stimulated into sexual behavior, ends up pollinating a plant it wasn’t trying to pollinate ■ Fundamental niche ■ The total range of environmental conditions that are suitable for existence without the influence of interspecific competition or predation from other species ■ Realized niche ■ the set of conditions actually used by given animal, after interactions with other species (predation and especially competition) have been taken into account. ■ Condition‐dependent interactions ecological circumstances in which the two actions occur ■ Coevolution ■ Reciprocal adaptation between two or more species ■ Ex: plant-herbivore interaction ■ Defensins ■ toxins composed of small, cysteine-rich peptides with antimicrobial activity ■ Secondary metabolites ■ A molecule not directly involved in growth, development, or reproduction of an organism; in plants these molecules, which include nicotine, caffeine, tannins, and menthols, can discourage herbivores. ■ Jasmonic acid ■ An organic molecule that is part of a plant's wound response; it signals the production of a proteinase inhibitor. ■ Allelopathy: ■ The release of a substance from the roots of one plant that block the germination of nearby seeds or inhibits the growth of a neighboring plant. ■ Resistance - The ability of a plant to resist damage by herbivory through: ■ antibiosis - toxins produced to inhibit herbivore performance ■ antixenosis - physical barriers (thorns) that reduce the chance of herbivore attack ■ Inducible defense ■ responses activated through a previous encounter with a consumer or competitor that confer some degree of resistance to subsequent attacks. ■ Facultative ■ Having the capacity to live in more than one condition ■ Constitutive ■ A defense that is always present in the plant (not inducible) ■ Tolerance ■ Maintenance of plant fitness in spite of attack ■ Compensatory continuum ■ Measuring “Tolerance” ■ Tolerance = slope ■ Tolerance = D - U (fitness of damage - fitness of undamaged) ■ Tolerance = from unity line ■ Compensation ■ The fitness of a plant in response to attack ■ Overcompensation: plant fitness increases when damage occurs ■ Antibiosis ■ Reduced performance of herbivore ■ Antixenosis ■ Reduced chance of attack or herbivore preference ■ Phenotypic plasticity ■ The ability of one genotype to produce more than one phenotype when exposed to different environments. The ability of an organism to change its phenotype in response to the changes in the environment ■ Richness - The number of different species in an area, community, or taxonomic group ■ Effects ■ high productivity ■ Resistance to invasive species ■ Biomass stability over time ■ Evenness ■ Refers to how close in numbers species are in a community. So for example if there is 20 lions and 500 zebras, then the environment is not very species even. However if there is 60 lions and like 64 zebras, then the environment is fairly species even. This concept points out the flaw in Alpha Diversity, because alpha diversity does not account for the number of individuals in each species. ■ Alpha diversity ■ Number of species in an ecosystem (species richness) ■ Beta diversity ■ Ratio of alpha to gamma diversity (species turnover between communities) ■ Gamma diversity ■ Overall regional diversity of an entire landscape across many communities (total) ■ Shannon index ■ The Shannon diversity index (H) increases with both richness and evenness ■ H = - [1P l1 P )2+ (2 ln n )..n (P ln P )] ■ P1is the proportion of the total number of individuals in the community that are in each species ■ Sorenson’s index ■ Sorenson’s index-- quantifies diversity of a geographic region with many communities (beta diversity): ■ CS = 2J A+B ■ Latitudinal gradient ■ The increase in species richness or biodiversity that occurs from the poles to the tropics ■ Life history ■ how organism allocates time & energy among life activities ■ Survivorship ■ The percentage of an original population that survives to a given age ■ Fecundity ■ the ability to produce abundant healthy growth or offspring. ■ Semelparous ■ Characterized by single reproductive episode before death ■ Iteroparous ■ Characterized by multiple reproductive cycles over course of lifetime ■ Metapopulations ■ Group of populations separated by space but consists of the same species ■ Spatially separated populations interact as individual members move from one population to another ■ Allee effect ■ Characterized by correlation between population size or density and the mean individual fitness of a population or species ■ Age distributions ■ Percentage of the total population, or the population of each sex, at each age level. ■ Carrying capacity ■ The maximum population size that a habitat can support ■ Handling time ■ Time invested to catch, consume, and convert prey into biomass ■ Habitat selection ■ Behavioral responses that can result in disproportionate use of habitats to influence survival and fitness of individuals ■ Learning: behavior that develops from previous experience, consists of two mechanisms ■ Habituation: a decrease in response to a repeated stimulus that has no positive or negative consequence. ■ Association: a behavior is modified or conditioned through the association between two stimuli or between a stimulus and a response. ■ Association consists of two types classical and operant conditioning ■ Conditioning ■ modified behavior ■ Operant conditioning ■ an animal learns to associate its behavioral response with a reward or punishment. ■ Classical conditioning ■ the paired presentation of two different kinds of stimuli causes the animal to form an association between the stimuli. ■ Imprinting ■ As an animal matures, it may form social attachments to other individuals or develop preferences that will influence behavior later in life ■ Brood parasite ■ it appears that the male birds instinctively “know” their own species' song without hearing it ■ Self‐medication ■ A caterpillar infected with a parasitoid tends to feed on toxic plant matter in order to self medicate ■ Sexual selection ■ A type of differential reproduction that results from variable success in obtaining mates ■ Anisogamy ■ Sexual reproduction by the fusion of dissimilar gametes (generally based on size) ■ Haplodiploidy ■ Phenomenon occurring in certain organisms where both haploid and diploid individuals are encountered ■ example - female wasps result from fertilized egg (diploid), male wasps from unfertilized egg (haploid) ■ Eusociality ■ living in a cooperative group in which usually one female and several males are reproductively active and the nonbreeding individuals care for the young or protect and provide for the group ■ Altruism ■ Self sacrifice for the benefit of others ■ the behavior that increases the fitness of the recipient while reducing the fitness of the altruistic individual. ■ Kin selection ■ Selection favoring relatives ■ an increase in the frequency of related individuals in a population, leading to an increase in the relative frequency in the population of those alleles shared by members of the kin group. People ■ Dan Janzen ■ Researched the mutualistic relationship between acacia trees and ants ■ Joseph Connell ■ Studied competitive interactions that affected barnacle distribution. Noted that species interactions affect species distribution ■ Janzen-Connell Hypothesis ■ Explains plant-species diversity in tropical environments ■ Henry Walter Bates ■ Batesian mimicry when an palatable species mimics an unpalatable species resulting in an increase in fitness. ■ Went on Amazonian expedition ■ Alfred Russel Wallace ■ Independently conceived the theory of evolution through natural selection ■ Also worked in Amazon (with Bates) and the Malay archipelago ■ Called the “father of biogeography,” “The Wallace Line” ■ Robert MacArthur Island biogeography theory coauthor ■ E.O WIlson Island biogeography theory coauthor ■ Hermann Muller ■ Mullerian mimicry when two unpalatable species mimic each other resulting in a mutually reinforcing process. Text ■ Chapter 39 ■ Chapter 54 ■ Chapter 55 ■ Chapter 56 ■ Chapter 67 ■ Chapter 58.1 Concepts ■ Distinction between ecology and evolution ■ Ecology is the study of interactions of organisms with one another and their physical environment ■ Evolution is the genetic change in a population of organisms ■ How solar energy varies across globe ■ Unequal distribution over earth ■ Angle of sunlight ■ Seasonal patterns of change-tilt of axis ■ How solar energy influences climate and weather patterns ■ Results in: ■ Trade winds ■ Oceanic currents ■ Intertropical convergence zone ■ Rain shadows ■ Influence of temperature on ability of air to hold moisture Temperature is correlated with ability to hold moisture content. Hot air holds more moisture content than cold air. ■ Predictions of island biogeography ■ A decrease in area, should have a decreased number of species ■ An increase in distance, should have decreased in number of species ■ Constant number of species, if island at equilibrium ■ Species turnover (new species arrives, others go extinct) ■ Turnover rate in near small islands > far large ones ■ Species‐area curves ■ Graph of area and its relationship to biodiversity ■ As the area of an island increases so does biodiversity ■ Immigration & extinction curves ■ ■ Predictions of Batesian Mimicry ■ aposematism confers protection against predation ■ Stability of mutualisms ■ Pollination syndromes ■ This is when the wasp mistakes the orchid for a female, and tries to have sex with it, which in turn pollinates the flower even though that’s not what it was trying to do ■ Diffuse coevolution ■ Nectar robbery ■ exp. Poking holes into the sides of flowers to remove nectar rather than moving down the pollen rich path to the nectar ■ Competitive exclusion principle ■ two species competing for the same resource cannot coexist at constant population values, if other ecological factors remain constant ■ Expected relationship between tolerance and resistance to herbivory T=D-U Tolerance equals fitness of damaged plants minus the fitness of undamaged plants. ■ How to measure tolerance to herbivory ■ Low tolerance fitness is lowered by damage(undercompensation) ■ High tolerance fitness increased by damage (overcompensation) ■ Efficiency of energetic transfer between trophic levels ■ The amount of energy transferred between trophic levels significantly decreases as it goes through each level. Roughly 1/100 of the energy is lost each time it goes through a trophic level, resulting in the need of secondary consumers to eat greater amounts of food than primary consumers due to the loss of energy. ■ Intermediate disturbance hypothesis ■ Species richness greatest at intermediate levels of disturbance ■ Relationships between species diversity, ecosystem productivity and stability through time Components of diversity & how to measure Janzen‐Connell hypothesis: further the seed dispersal the the higher the chance of survival ■ Life table calculations ■ Survivorship curves: graphs of the proportion of surviving individuals at each age. ■ Type I - High investment into parenting ■ Type II - Moderate investment into parenting (negative linear graph) ■ Type III - Low investment into parenting (inverted graph) ■ Tradeoffs in life history traits ■ r‐ vs. K‐selection ■ r-strategy: unpredictable habitat, high fecundity ■ K-strategy: predictable environment, low fecundity ■ exponential vs. logistic growth models ■ exponential: intrinsic rate of population growth x population size = births + immigration - deaths - emigrants ■ if intrinsic rate is positive and not 0, then growth rate is linear/exponential ■ Assumptions made when modeling exponential growth: food is plentiful, space is available, water is unlimited. ■ logistic: population growth limited by environmental factors (resources, enemies, social interactions) ■ growth rate slows as it nears the carrying capacity (K) of the environment ■ Density‐dependent population regulation ■ factors: resources, predation, disease, etc. ■ Optimal foraging predictions ■ Animals tend to feed on prey that maximizes their net energy intake per unit of time needed to obtain and handle prey ■ Bateman’s principle ■ Br > C Benefits x relatedness > Cost; then altruism is more likely ■ Identify the main characteristics of phylogenetic trees and interpret evolutionary patterns from trees ■ Define biodiversity and explain what factors are associated with its variation. ■ Distinguish genetic vs. environmental influences on animal behavior and provide three examples of fitness consequences to behavioral responses to the environment ■ Distinguish the exponential vs. logistic models of population growth, and explain how an organism’s life history affects population growth ■ Define the principal modes of interactions among species and how they evolve ■ Define Batesian mimicry, distinguish it from Mullerian mimicry, and explain the circumstances under which each is likely to evolve ■ Batesian Mimicry ■ Fitness of model may suffer ■ Maintenance is frequency dependent (unstable with high frequency of mimic) ■ Define community structure, and explain the roles of disturbance and productivity in community structure LAB ■ Know your lab instructor’s name and when you attend labs ■ Know how to interpret (not necessarily calculate) statistical tests ■ Know proper presentation of data graphically ■ Be familiar with motivation (i.e., big ideas) for all lab exercises, as well as hypotheses & predictions Know how to interpret results from all labs ■ Be prepared to articulate scientific and statistical hypotheses ■ Be familiar with data types, dependent vs independent variables, choice of statistical tests, etc. ■ Be prepared to answer detailed questions associated with the discussion papers ■ Be prepared to reconstruct a simple phylogeny, map traits, calculate tree length, determine most parsimonious tree, etc. ■ Be familiar with design, data, hypotheses & predictions from mimicry lab(s) ■ Be prepared to answer structure‐function questions from animal dissection lab
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