Exam 1 Study Guide
Exam 1 Study Guide PSY 341LEC
Popular in Cognitive Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by solomon yang on Monday October 12, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 341LEC at University at Buffalo taught by Mauner, G A in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 48 views. For similar materials see Cognitive Psychology in Psychlogy at University at Buffalo.
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Date Created: 10/12/15
Cog Psych Chap 14 Cha ter 1 intro to co s ch Philosophical roots of cog psych 1Aristotledeveloped laws for leamingmemory elaborated on Plato s ideas 2Doctrine of Associationlbehaviorismprinciples of learning components of mental phenomena ideassensationsassociations 3Aristotles law of Association Contiguitythings at occur together are linked together milkcoffee Similarityeventobject trigger memory of conceptually like events depressive thought Contrasteventobject trigger memory of conceptually opposites lovehate Frequencyevents are strongly associated When they occur together Physio roots of cog psych 1 PM Flourensljused extirpation to study brain destroyed part of brain and observed behavior 2FJ GallElproposed brain has modular functions associated Wspecific regions called it localizationism 3 J Mullernervous system mediates bt objects conscious awareness perception depends more on properties of sense organs than on mode of simulation 4K Lashleyljprinciple of mass action all areas of cortex are equally important for learning Cognitive Psychology study of operating system of our minds and how they work used in attendingperceivingrememberingleamingtalkingthinking lFranciscus Donderl pioneered experiment to test reaction time time taken to respond to stimulus involved pressing certain button When light ashed simple vs choice reaction time Isimplez pressing button as fast as light appeared Choice push certain button When a certain light ashes simple minus choice reaction time time it takes to make decision to push right button 2Hermann Ebbinghausl 1st interested in determining nature of memory forgetting used nonsense syllables to test memory nonsense processed differently from meaningful knowledge derived primarily from sensory experiences early empiricism 1St Psych Lab founded 1879 in University of Leipzig in Germany lWilliam Wundtljfounded lst psych lab supported structuralism and introspection contributed requirement of replication stimulus variation 2Structuralismoverall experience determined by combining basil elements of experience sensations exdetermining what parts do what 3Introspectionself report of the operations of one s own mind doesn t explain how we think nonreplicable 1St Psych Lab in US lWilliam J amesAmerican philosopherpsychologist founded lst psych lab in US focused on functions of mind rather than contents of structure functionalism exlooking under hood to determine how parts function together Behaviorism assume empiricism knowledge from expassociationism nonmental laws of leaming no internal or mental constructs 1John Watsonl founded Behaviorism introspection was unscientific minds operations not observable minimized internal contribution of individual organism tried to uncover principles for learning famous for Little Albert experiment classical conditioning 2 BF Skinnerintroduced operant conditioning behavior strengthend by positive reinforcers 3Edward Tolemancalled himself behaviorist one of the early cog psychologists used behavior to infer mental processes famous for rat in maze cognitive maps 4Problems of Behaviorismassociations do not always predict behavior diff species biologically constrained to pay attention to diff info gestalt psychtendencies to perceive stimuli in an unlearned but lawful way Cognitive Revolution shift in psychology from behaviorism to informationprocessing approach 1Infoprocessing Approach Claude Shanontraces sequence of mental operations involved in cognition inspired by computer computers showed some structuralfunctional properties of human cognition Input processor memory unitarithmetic unitoutput Researching the Mind 1Memory Consolidationljprocess where info can be strengthened and transformed into a strong memory 2MullerPilzeckerIpresented 2 groups w nonsense syllables immediately presenting second list interrupted forming of stable memory for first list 3Gaisshowed activity of the hypothalamus increased from learning immediate sleep helps strengthen memory trace in hypothalamus Models of the mind 1Structural Modelsljrepresent physical structuremimic form appearance of given object 2Process Modelsrepresents processes involved in cognitive mechanisms ow diagram exDinputElsensory memoryshort term memorylong term memory 3Network Modelrepresent link bt physio cog process thoughtemotional statesbehavior Chapter 2 Cognitive Neuroscience Microstructure of the brain 1Cell Bodyllcontains mechanisms to keep cell alive 2Dendritesbranch out from cell body to receive signals 3Axonnerve fibertransmits signals to other neurons 4Synapsesmall gap bt end of neurons axon and cell body of another neuron 5Neural circuitscomposed of many connected neurons 6Action potentialelectrical signal sent from single neuron size doesn t change releases a neurotransmitter at end of axon rate in firing increases as intensity of stimulus increases resting state 70mv Localization of Function specific functions for specific area of brain 1Cerebral Cortexljcontrols most cognitive functions layer of tissue about 3mm think that covers the brain Localization for perception 1Temporal Lobesituated under temporal bone of skull primary auditory cortex includes Wernicke s area region involved in language comprehensioncan t understand can speak a little important for faceobj ect recognition 20ccipital Lobelocated in the back of skull center of our visual perception system has separate systems for colormovementobject recognition damage to 1 side of occipital lobe same field of vision lost in both eyes 3Parietal Lobelocated on top of head behind frontalabove temporal includes sensory strip touchtemppain left damageverbal repetition effects right damagehemifield neglect syndrome 4Frontal Lobeunder frontal bone of skull receives signals from all senses plays important role in perception control movementsplanningbehaviorjudgementreasoning includes primary motor strip includes brocas area region that s responsible for speechcan understand but can t speak prosopagnosiadamage to temporal lobe lower right side of brain inability to recognize faces Brain Imaging allows researchers to create images that show active areas of the brain 1Positron Emission Tomography PETinj ects low dose of radioactive tracer brain is scanned at measures the tracer at each location of brain allows researchers to track blood ow and determine Which areas of brain are active 2Functional Magnetic resonant imaging fMRIblood ow measured WO radioactive tracers detects iron in hemoglobin hemoglobin molecules lose oxygen in areas of high brain activity more magnetic and easier to detect 3Magnetic resonance imaging MRIcreated images of structure Within brain 4Fusiform Face Area FFAfusiform gyrus under side of temporal area face recognition activates this area 5Parahippocampal place area PPAactivated When we perceive pictures Windoor outdoor scenes important for info about spatial layout 6Extrastriate body area EBAactivated by pictures of bodiesparts of bodies doesn t include face 7Wada testone part of brain is put to sleep and other is tested for languagememory Representation in Brain HubelWiesel 1960 1Feature detectorsset of neurons that respond best to certain stimulus HubelWiesel tested on catsmonkeys used visual stimuli 2Neural CodeEIpattems of neural firing represent environmental stimuli 3Hierarchial processing progression from lower to higher areas of brain neurons at higher level respond better to complex stimuli 4Sensory codinghow neurons represent various characteristics of the environment 5 Speficity Codingl idea an object could be represented by firing of specialized neuron that responds only to that object unlikely to be correct altemative ideanumber of neurons are involved in representing an object 6Population codingrepresentation of a particular object by pattern of firing of large of neurons large neurons can create huge of different patterns 7Sparse Codingl particular object represented by pattern of firing of only small group of neurons Majority of neurons stay silent Distributed Representation lspecific cognitive functions activate many areas of the brain Chapter 3DPercepti Inverse Projection Probleml task of determining object responsible for particular image on retina objects can be blurred or hidden Viewpoint Variance ability to recognize object from different viewpoints Visual Perception lBottom up processingsequence of events from eye to brain depends on stimulation of receptors starts at bottom of the system energy stimulating receptors 2Topdown Processingprocessing What originates in brain starts at top of perceptual system affected by our own internal thought and experiences 3Serial searchlooking for one certain item that may or may not be present forces participant to search all items 4Parallel searchrelevant feature of target can be easily detected 5 Simple detector I hallmark of this is pop out effect increasing of distractors doesn t affect take it takes to locate target Theory of object recognition I synthesis by features we recognize objects first by recognizing their features at different levels of organization EX With words we recognize features that make lines and curves that make letters then make words ex of a bottom up theory 9 Conclusions 0 We have simple detectors for tilted lines 0 No feature detector for absence of tiltvertical lines Serial search is a hallmark for the absence of a simple feature andor the presence of a complex feature detector 0 When a critical simple feature such as a curve is shared across targets amp distractors we must use serial search even for items we have simple feature detectors for I EX trying to find an 0 among Q s 9 Feature searches 0 Primatesimple feature detectors in visual system that are automatically activated 0 All display elements can be processedattended to simultaneously in parallel O Comboconjunction of features mid amp high level I These require attention and more processing capacity to detect and requires monitoring multiple detectors serially Conjunction search serial search I hypothesis is that searching for objects that combines 2 simple features should be harder than searching for each feature alone 9 Baseline simple searches color line orientation examples of simple features 9 Conjunction search color amp orientation 9 Observation targets harder to find in conj searches than in feature searches Visual Agnosia I failure in obj recognition system able to recognize properties of an obj amp think about how an obj might be used but unable to recognize what the object is amp thus unable to name it Pain Perception 1Direct pathway modelpain occurs when nociceptors on skin are stimulated sends signal in direct pathway from skin to brain bottomup processing gt pain can be diverted by distracting patient Object Perception 1Hermann von Helmholtz 18211894perception based on image on retina which is ambiguous Likelihood principlewe perceive object that s most likely to have caused pattern of stimuli of stimuli received unconscious inferenceperceptions are results of unconscious assumptionsinferences Gestalt Psychologist 30 years after Helmholtzoriginated from wundt s structuralism Whole is different from sum of parts lapparent movementljmovement is perceived but nothing is moving 2principles of perceptual organizationljexplained way elements are grouped together to create larger objects 3Principle of continuationl objects overlapping seen as continues behind the overlapping exDropeshoe lace 4LaW of PragnanzPrinciple of simplicity levery stimulus pattern is seen in such a way that resulting structure is as simple as possible exlelympic symbol 5Principle of sinlilarity similar things appear to be grouped together PerceptionAction lPerception pathwaytemporal lobe responsible for determining object identity object discrimination 2Action pathwayparietal lobe responsible for determining objects location landmark discrimination Chapter 4Attention Attention 1Selective Attentionl attending to 1 thing While ignoring other 2Distraction1 stimulus interfering W another 3DiVided attentionljpaying attention to more than one thing at a time 4Attential capturel rapid shifting of attention usually caused by loud noisebright light sudden movement 5Visual Scanningljmovements of eyes from 1 location to another 6Inattentionlattendingresponding to 1 stimulus inhibits attention to next stimulus Broadbent s Filter model of attention 1Cocktail party effectEIability to focus on one stimulus filter out other stimuli Messageljsensory memoryljfilterljattended messageEldetectorElmemory 2Bottleneck ModelEIthe filter restricts info ow doesn t slow info down 3Early selection modelljfilter eliminates unattended info at beginning of ow of info Anna Treisman modified broadbents model called leaky filter model 1Attenuatoranalyzes incoming message in terms of physical characteristics languagemeaning replacement for broadbents filter 2Attenuation model of attention similar to broadbents model languagemeaning used to separate messages unattended attended message both identified and pass through attenuator both messages emerge but only attended comes out at full strength 3Dictionary Unitfinal output of treisman system Words stored in memoryhave threshold for being activated commonimportant words low threshold uncommonunimportant words high threshold Late Selection Model 1Late Selection models of attentionproposed most of the incoming info is processed to the level of meaning before message to be further processed is selected Processing CapacityPerceptual Load 1Processing Capacityl amount of info people can handle sets limit on ability to process incoming info 2Perceptual Loaddifficulty of a task Lowload tasksuse up only small amount of person s processing capacity highload tasksuse up more of persons processing capacity 3Load theory of attentionresources are available to process taskirrelevant stimulus and although person isn t told to pay attention irrelevant stimulus is still processed and slows down response 4Stroop EffectEItaskirrelevant stimuli strong reading words highly practiced and become automatic difficult not to read them automatic processes are suppressed to engage in less automatized process Attention as Selection 10vert attentionshifting attention from one place to another 2Stimulus salienceattention can be in uenced by physical properties of stimulus bottomup processing 3Covert attentiondirect attention While keeping eyes stationary important for sports 4Automatic Processingprocessing that occurs WO intentions at the cost of some of persons cognitive resources eleIdrivinglocking doors can t work on divided attention if task is to difficult Inattentional Blindness lnot attending to something that s clearly Visible 1Change Blindnesslldifficulty in detecting changes in scenes Attentionexperiencing coherent world 1Bindingprocess by Which features are combined to create our perception of object 2Feauture integration theorydeveloped by Treisman 1preattentive stageobject are analyzed into separate features illusory conjunctions occur combinations of features from diff stimuli 2Focused attention stagefeatures are combine here balints syndromeinability to focus attention on indiVidual objects
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