Intro to Humanities
Intro to Humanities HUMA 1500
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Popular in Humanities
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Baskin HUMA 1500 l The Rape of the Lock by Alexander Pope Excerpts from the Cummings Study Guide for class use only Introduction The MockEpic At the beginning of quotThe Rape of the Lockquot Pope identifies the work as a heroicomical poem Today the poem and others like it is referred to as a mockepic and sometimes as a mock heroic Such a work parodies the serious elevated style of the classical epic poem such as Iii or The Odyssey by Homer to poke fun at human follies Thus a mockepic is a type of satire it treats petty humans or insignificant occurrences as ifthey were extraordinary or heroic like the great heroes and events of Homer39s two great epics In writing quotThe Rape ofthe Lockquot Pope imitated the characteristics of Homer39s epics as well as later epics such as The Aeneid Vergil The Divine Comedy Dante and Paradise Lost Milton Many of these characteristics are listed below under quotEpic Conventionsquot Setting The action takes place in London and its environs in the early 170039s on a single day The story begins at noon Canto l at the London residence of Belinda as she carefully prepares herself for a gala social gathering The scene then shifts Canto II to a boat carrying Belinda up the Thames To onlookers she is as magnificent as Queen Cleopatra was when she traveled in her barge The rest ofthe story Cantos IllV takes place where Belinda debarks Hampton Court Palace a former residence of King Henry VIII on the outskirts of London except for a brief scene in Canto N that takes place in the cave ofthe Queen of Spleen Characters Belinda Beautiful young lady with wondrous hair two locks of which hang gracefully in curls The Baron Young admirer of Belinda who plots to cut off one of her locks Ariel Belinda39s guardian sylph supernatural creature Clarissa Young lady who gives the Baron scissors Umbriel Sprite who enters the cave of the Queen of Spleen to seek help for Belinda Queen of Spleen Underworld goddess who gives Umbriel gifts for Belinda Thalestris Friend of Belinda Thalestris urges Sir Plume to defend Belinda39s honor Sir Plume Beau boyfriendof Thalestris He scolds the Baron Sylphs Fairies Genies Demons Phantoms and Other Supernatural Creatures Source A RealLife Incident Pope based The Rape of the Look on an actual incident in which a British nobleman Lord Petre cut off a lock of hair dangling tantalizineg from the head of the beautiful Arabella Fermor Petre s daring theft ofthe lock set off a battle royal between the Petre and Fermor families John Caryll a friend of Pope and ofthe warring families persuaded the great writer to pen a literary work satirizing the absurdity and silliness of the dispute The result was one ofthe greatest satirical poems in all of literature In writing the poem Pope also drew upon ancient classical sources notably Homer s great epics The Iliad and m Odyssey as models to imitate in style and tone He also consulted the texts of medieval and Renaissance epics Baskin HUMA 1500 2 Epic Conventions Because a mockepic parodies a classical epic it uses the same conventions or formulas as the classical epicbut usually in a humorous way For example a convention of many classical epics is a sea voyage in which perils confront the hero at every turn In The Rape of the Lock the sea voyage is Belinda39s boat trip up the Thames River Her guardian sylph Ariel sees quotblack omensquot that foretell disasters for Belinda even though the waves flow smoothly and the winds blow gently Will she stain her dress Lose her honor or her necklace Miss a masquerade Forget her prayers So frightful are the omens that Ariel summons 50 of his companion spirits to guard Belinda39s petticoat as well as the ringlets of her hair Following are examples of the epic conventions that Pope parodies Invocation ofthe Muse In ancient Greece and Rome poets had always requested the muse to fire them with creative genius when they began long narrative poems or epics about godlike heroes and villains In Greek mythology there were nine muses all sisters who were believed to inspire poets historians flutists dancers singers astronomers philosophers and other thinkers and artists If one wanted to write a great poem play a musical instrument with bravado or develop a grand scientific or philosophical theory he would ask for help from a muse When a writer asked for help he was said to be invoking the muse The muse of epic poetry was named Calliope kuh LY uh pe In quotThe Rape ofthe Lockquot Pope does not invoke a goddess instead he invokes his friend John Caryll spelled CARYL in the poem who had asked Pope to write a literary work focusing on an event the shipping of a lock of hair that turned the members of two familiesthe Petres and the Fermorsinto bitter enemies Caryll thought that poking fun at the incident would reconcile the families by showing them how trivial the incident was Division of the Poem lnto Books or Cantos The traditional epic is long requiring several days several days of reading Dante39s Divine Comedy for example contains 34 cantos When printed the work consists of a book about two inches thick Pope of course presents only five cantos containing a total of fewer than 600 lines Such miniaturizing helps Pope demonstrate the smallness or pettiness ofthe behavior exhibited by the main characters in the poem Descriptions of Soldiers Preparing for Battle In The Iliad Homer describes in considerable detail the armor and weaponry of the great Achilles as well as the battlefield trappings of other heroes In The Rape of the Lock Pope describes Belinda preparing herself with combs and pins with quotPuffs Powders Patchesquot noting that quotNow awful Beauty puts on all its Armsquot Descriptions of Heroic Deeds While Homer describes the exploits of his heroes during the Trojan War Pope describes the quotexploitsquot of Belinda and the Baron during a card game called Ombre which involves three players and a deck of 40 cards Account of a Great Sea Voyage In The Odyssey Odysseus also known as Ulysses travels the seas between Troy and Greece encountering many perils In The Aeneid Aeneas travels the seas between Troy and Rome also encountering perils In The Rape of the Lock Belinda travels up the Thames in a boat Participation of Deities or Spirits in the Action In The Rape of the Lockas in The Iliad The Odyssey The Aeneid The Divine Comedy and Paradise Lostsupernatural beings take part in the action Presentation of Scenes in the Underworld Like supernatural beings in classical epics the gnome Umbriel visits the Underworld in The Rape of the Lock Verse Format Pope wrote The Rape of the Lock in heroic couplets A heroic couplet is a unit of two rhyming lines in iambic pentameter A line of verse in iambic pentameter consists of 10 syllables The first syllable is unaccented the second accented the third unaccented the fourth accented and so on The entire poem consists of one heroic couplet followed by another as demonstrated by the first four lines ofthe poem Baskin HUMA 1500 3 What dire offence from am39rous causes springs What mighty contests rise from trivial things First Couplet springs and things rhyme l sing This verse to CARYL Muse is due This ev39n Belinda may vouchsafe to view Second Couplet due and view rhyme Each ofthe lines has 10 syllables in a succession of accented and unaccented pairs iambic pentameter as follows What dire offence from am39rous causes springs What mighty contests rise from trivial things I sing This verse to CARYL Muse is due This ev39n Belinda may vouchsafe to view You may have noticed that Pope turned amorous into two syllables by eliminating the o and attempted to turn even into a single syllable by eliminating the second e Poetic license permits poets to make such adjustments to achieve their ends Figures of Speech The main figure of speech in The Rape of the Lock is hyperbole Pope uses it throughout the poem to exaggerate the ordinary and the commonplace making them extraordinary and spectacular In so doing paradoxically he makes them seem as they really are small and petty Examples of hyperbole include the following Sol through white Curtains shot a tim39rous Ray And ope39d those Eyes that must eclipse the Day Hyberbole Belinda39s eyes are so bright that they outshine a ray of sunlight This Nymph to the Destruction of Mankind Nourish39d two Locks which graceful hung behind Hyperbole Belinda is so beautifuland her wondrous locks so invitingthat she can bring mankind to ruin with desire Examples of Other Figures of Speech in the Poem Personification Love in these Labyrinths his Slaves detains Anaphora He saw he wish39d and to the Prize aspir39d Aliteration Where Wigs with Wigs with Swordknots Swordknots strive Beaux banish Beaux and Coaches Coaches drive Excerpts from the poem the parts left out are indicated by ellipses canto I What sing lam writing I sing about a terrible offense resulting from an amorous cause What dire offence from am39rous causes springs CARYLi muse A mend 0f Pope JOhr Caryl Whom Pope addresses as the muse An acquaintance of Caryl Lord Petre cut off a lock of hair of a young lady Arabella Fermor A quarrel erupted between the What mighty contests rise from trivial things singThis verse to CARYL Muse is due Baskin HUMA 1500 This ev39n Belinda may vouchsafe to view Slight is the subject but not so the praise If She inspire and He approve my lays Say what strange motive Goddess could compel A wellbred Lord t39 assault a gentle Belle O say what stranger cause yet unexplor39d Could make a gentle Belle reject a Lord 10 In tasks so bold can little men engage And in soft bosoms dwells such mighty Rage Sol thro39 white curtains shot a tim39rous ray And oped those eyes that must eclipse the day Now lapdogs give themselves the rousing shake 15 And sleepless lovers just at twelve awake Thrice rung the bell the slipper knock39d the ground And the press39d watch return39d a silver sound Belinda still her downy pillow prest Her guardian Sylph prolong39d the balmy rest 20 39Twas He had summon39d to her silent bed The morningdream that hover39d o39er her head A Youth more glitt39ring than a Birthnight Beau That ev39n in slumber caus39d her cheek to glow Seem39d to her ear his winning lips to lay 25 And thus in whispers said or seem39d to say Fairest of mortals thou distinguish39d care Of thousand bright Inhabitants of Air f e39er one vision touch39d thy infant thought Of all the Nurse and all the Priest have taught 30 Of airy Elves by moonlight shadows seen The silver token and the circled green Or virgins visited by Angelpow39rs With golden crowns and wreaths of heav39nly flow39rs Hear and believe thy own importance know 35 Nor bound thy narrow views to things below Some secret truths from learned pride conceal39d To Maids alone and Children are reveal39d What tho39 no credit doubting Wits may give The Fair and Innocent shall still believe 40 Know then unnumber39d Spirits round thee fly The light Militia of the lower sky families Caryl suggested that Pope write a poem to point up the silliness ofthe quarrel Pope addresses Caryl as if he were a muse For further information on quotinvoking the musequot see Epic Conventions above Belinda Arabella Fermor Belinda is a poetic name associated with gentleness Forfurther information about Arabella Fermor see Source above Goddess Another reference to Caryl as the muse Sol the sun curtains the curtains on Belinda39s bed tim39rous timorous meaning shy timid oped opened must eclipse the day Belinda39s eyes are so bright that they rival the brightness of the sun lapdogs dogs small enough to be held in the lap press39d watch a kind of clock Pressing a button on it caused a bell to sound the current hour or quarter hour Sylph fairy sprite Birthnight evening celebration of a royal person39s birthday Fairest Air The youth in her dream Line 23 addresses Belinda as the fairest mortal saying she is watched over by a thousand sprites inhabiting the air silver token coin left by a fairy as a gift for a favored mortal S me give Certain secrets are revealed only to maidens like Belinda and to children but not to highly educated people Skeptics may doubt the truth ofthese secrets but Belinda and innocent children believe them Box Ring The spirits of the air hover around Belinda while she is in her theatre box or traveling in her carriage on a circular road ring in Hyde Park a large park in the Westminster borough of London Baskin HUMA 1500 These tho39 unseen are ever on the wing Hang o39er the Box and hover round the Ring Warn39d by the Sylph oh pious maid beware This to disclose is all thy guardian can Beware of all but most beware of Manquot He said when Shock who thought she slept too long l15 Leap39d up and wak39d his mistress with his tongue 39Twas then Belinda if report say true Thy eyes first open39d on a Billetdoux Wounds Charms and Ardors were no sooner read But all the Vision vanish39d from thy head 120 And now unveil d the Toilet stands display39d Each silver Vase in mystic order laid First rob39d in white the Nymph intent adores With head uncover39d the Cosmetic pow39rs A heav39nly image in the glass appears 125 To that she bends to that her eyes she rears Th39 inferior Priestess at her altar39s side Trembling begins the sacred rites of Pride Unnumber39d treasures ope at once and here The various off39rings of the world appear 130 From each she nicely culls with curious toil And decks the Goddess with the glitt39ring spoil This casket lndia39s glowing gems unlocks And all Arabia breathes from yonder box The Tortoise here and Elephant unite 135 Transformed to combs the speckled and the white Here files of pins extend their shining rows Puffs Powders Patches Bibles Billetdoux Now awful Beauty puts on all its arms The fair each moment rises in her charms 1 40 Repairs her smiles awakens ev39ry grace And calls forth all the wonders of her face Sees by degrees a purer blush arise And keener lightnings quicken in her eyes Ariel is whispering in her ear while she sleeps Shock Belinda39s dog Billetdoux love letter From the French billet note letter and doux sweet The French pronunciation is be yay DOO the English pronunciation is BIL ay DOO Toilet dressing table or dressing room Th39 inferior Priestess Servant maid decks spoil adorns Belinda with jewels and other ornaments casket box case Tortoise The shell of a tortoise was used in making combs Elephant Reference to ivory Bibles Small Bibles were fashionable accessories on ladies39 dressing tables w arms Here begins an epic convention a warrior putting on his armor In this case of course it is a woman putting on her clothes in preparation for vying in the battle of the sexes Baskin HUMA 1500 The busy Sylphs surround their darling care 145 These set the head and those divide the hair Some fold the sleeve whilst others plait the gown And Betty39s prais39d for labours not her own Canto ll Not with more glories in th39 ethereal plain The Sun first rises o39er the purpled main Than issuing forth the rival of his beams Launch39d on the bosom of the silver Thames Fair Nymphs and welldrest Youths around her shone 5 But ev39ry eye was fix39d on her alone On her white breast a sparkling Cross she wore Which Jews might kiss and lnfidels adore Her lively looks a sprightly mind disclose Quick as her eyes and as unfix39d as those 10 Favours to none to all she smiles extends Oft she rejects but never once offends Bright as the sun her eyes the gazers strike And like the sun they shine on all alike Yet graceful ease and sweetness void of pride 15 Might hide her faults if Belles had faults to hide lfto her share some female errors fall Look on her face and you39ll forget 39em all This Nymph to the destruction of mankind Nourish39d two Locks which graceful hung behind 20 In equal curls and well conspir39d to deck With shining ringlets the smooth iv39ry neck Love in these labyrinths his slaves detains And mighty hearts are held in slender chains With hairy springes we the birds betray 25 Slight lines of hair surprise the finny prey Fair tresses man39s imperial race ensnare And beauty draws us with a single hair Th39 advent39rous Baron the bright locks admir39d He saw he wish39d and to the prize aspir39d 30 Not plain Here begins an epic convention the great voyage In this case Belinda is traveling in a boat on the Thames River with youths and guardian sprites They all look so glorious that they rival the sunshine Which kiss An offensive line that is out of place in an otherwise delightful poem Love detains Young men fall in love with her glorious curls labyrinths of hair becoming slaves to her beauty With ensnare Just as we catch game birds in snares and fish quotfinny preyquot in nets Belinda catches men with her hair springes traps snares finny having fins Baskin HUMA 1500 Resolv39d to win he meditates the way By force to ravish or by fraud betray Forwhen success a Lover39s toil attends Few ask if fraud or force attain39d his ends Forthis ere Phoebus rose he had implor39d 35 Propitious heav39n and ev39ry pow39r ador39d But chiefly Loveto Love an Altar built Of twelve vast French Romances neatly gilt There lay three garters half a pair of gloves And all the trophies of his former loves 40 With tender Billetdoux he lights the pyre And breathes three am39rous sighs to raise the fire Then prostrate falls and begs with ardent eyes Soon to obtain and long possess the prize The pow39rs gave ear and granted half his pray39r 45 The rest the winds dispers39d in empty air Canto Close by those meads for ever crown39d with flow39rs Where Thames with pride surveys his rising tow39rs There stands a structure of majestic frame Which from the neighb39ring Hampton takes its name Here Britain39s statesmen oft the fall foredoom 5 Of foreign Tyrants and of Nymphs at home Here thou great Anna whom three realms obey Dost sometimes counsel takeand sometimes Tea Hither the heroes and the nymphs resort To taste awhile the pleasures of a Court 10 In various talkth39 instructive hours they past Who gave the ball or paid the visit last One speaks the glory of the British Queen And one describes a charming lndian screen A third interprets motions looks and eyes 15 At ev39ry word a reputation dies Phoebus Apollo the sun god Phoebus means bright one In Greek mythology Phoebus Apollo became the sun driving his golden chariot across the sky Thus Phoebus became a synonym for sun he the baron mentioned in Line 29 to built From here down to Line 46 the poem says the baron places mementoes of young ladies of his acquaintance on an altar Then he burns them in a quotfuneralquot fire pyre fueled with love letters he is offering a sacrifice that the gods may grant his wish to obtain locks of Belinda39s hair meads meadows structure the royal palace at Hampton Court Anna three Anne 16651714 queen of England Scotland and Wales from 1702 to 1714 At dies There was much gossip at the court Baskin HUMA 1500 Snuff or the fan supply each pause of chat With singing laughing ogling and all that Meanwhile declining from the noon of day The sun obliquely shoots his burning ray 20 The hungry Judges soon the sentence sign And wretches hang that jurymen may dine The merchant from th39 Exchange returns in peace And the long labours ofthe Toilet cease Belinda now whom thirst of fame invites 25 Burns to encounter two advent39rous Knights At Ombre singly to decide their doom And swells her breast with conquests yet to come Straight the three bands prepare in arms to join Each band the number of the sacred nine 30 Soon as she spreads her hand th39 aerial guard Descend and sit on each important card First Ariel perch39d upon a Matadore Then each according to the rank they bore For Sylphs yet mindful oftheir ancient race 35 Are as when women wondrous fond of place Behold four Kings in majesty rever39d With hoary whiskers and a forky beard And four fair Queens whose hands sustain a flow39r Th39 expressive emblem oftheir softer pow39r 40 Four Knaves in garbs succinct a trusty band Caps on their heads and halberts in their hand And particolour39d troops a shining train Draw forth to combat on the velvet plain two Ombre Ombre requires three players Here Belinda will vie with two gentlemen Straight join Here begins an epic convention the battle Each nine In Greek mythology the nine muses of Mount Olympus The cards dealt in groups correspond in number to the nine muses in Greek mythology Matadore also Matador card ofthe highest value in ombre hoary whiskers gray mustaches halberts also halberds or habards A halbert was a weapon with a shaft five to six feet long topped by a pike or spearhead and below the pike an axe blade A warrior could thrust with a halbert as with a spear or hack as with a battleaxe The game goes on for some time in a mockheroic battle of the cards Belinda wins and gloats about it The Baron gets revenge with friend Clarissa s help But when to mischief mortals bend their will How soon they find fit instruments of ill Just then Clarissa drew with tempting grace A twoedg39d weapon from her shining case So Ladies in Romance assist their Knight Present the spear and arm him for the weapon scissors fragrant steams steam from the hot coffee nosegay small bouquet of flowers Baskin HUMA 1500 9 fight 130 He takes the gift with rev39rence and extends The little engine on his fingers39 ends Thisjust behind Belinda39s neck he spread As o39er the fragrant steams she bends her head Swift to the Lock a thousand Sprites repair 135 A thousand wings by turns blow backthe hair And thrice they twitch39d the diamond in her ear Thrice she look39d back and thrice the foe drew near Just in that instant anxious Ariel sought The close recesses of the Virgin39s thought 140 As on the nosegay in her breast reclin39d He watch39d th39 ldeas rising in her mind Sudden he view39d in spite of all her art An earthly Lover lurking at her heart Amaz39d confus39d he found his pow39r expir39d 145 Resign39d to fate and with a sigh retir39d The Peer now spreads the glitt39ring Forfex wide T39 inclose the Lock now joins it to divide Ev39n then before the fatal engine clos39d A wretched Sylph too fondly interpos39d 150 Fate urg39d the shears and cut the Sylph in twain But airy substance soon unites again The meeting points the sacred hair dissever From the fair head for ever and for ever Then flash39d the living lightning from her The Peer the baron Forfex Latin for scissors Atalantis Reference to The New Atlantis a popular gossip novel by Mary de la Riviere Manley 16631724 It alluded to reallife scandals eyesi 155 Steel receives From this phrase down to Line 178 the Arid screams 0f horror rend th39 affrlghted Sk39es poem tells ofthe power of steel to endure to destroy the Not louder shrieks to pitying heav39n are cast work of gods and men and of course to trim a lock of When husbands or when lapdogs breathe their last hair Or when rich China vesseis fa39n from high strike Troy In the Trojan War the Greeksusing in gunring dust and painted fragments e swords and spears of steelslaughtered the Trojans and 160 destroyed their city after gaining entry to the city inside a wooden horse triumphal arches arches built to honor and memorialize great men and heroes Let wreaths of triumph now my temples twine The victor cry39d the glorious Prize is mine While fish in streams or birds delight in air Or in a coach and six the British Fair As long as Atalantis shall be read 165 Or the small pillow grace a Lady39s bed While visits shall be paid on solemn days Baskin HUMA 1500 When num39rous waxlights in bright order blaze While nymphs take treats or assignations give So long my honour name and praise shall live 70 What Time would spare from Steel receives its date And monuments like men submit to fate Steel could the labour ofthe Gods destroy And strike to dust th39 imperial tow39rs of Troy Steel could the works of mortal pride confound 175 And hew triumphal arches to the ground What wonderthen fair nymph thy hairs should feel The conqu39ring force of unresisted steel Canto IV begins with an epic descent into the underworld Odysseus Aeneas Ariel goes for help in a comic version of a usually serious journey and brings back a bag lled with the Furies those Greek mythological gures we encountered in the Orestia They represent the irrational pursuit of revenge When Ariel tears open the bag above Belinda who has been lying on the couch dejected and forlorn she becomes spirited and demands her lock back Canto V Clarissa has just made a speech full of the Neo Classical spirit reason and calm and the ability to recognize that the loss of a lock of hair is not that important So spoke the Dame but no applause ensu39d 35 Belinda frown39d Thalestris call39d her Prude quotTo arms to armsquot the fierce Virago cries And swift as lightning to the combat flies All side in parties and begin th39 attack Fans clap silks rustle and tough whalebones crack 40 Heroes39 and Heroines39 shouts confus39dly rise And bass and treble voices strike the skies No common weapons in their hands are found Like Gods they fight nor dread a mortal wound So when bold Homer makes the Gods engage 45 And heav39nly breasts with human passions rage 39Gainst Pallas Mars Latona Hermes arms And all Olympus rings with loud alarms whalebones horny plates in the jaws of baleen whales that catch plankton Tough and flexible they were used to stiffen women39s corsets Pallas Another name for Athena Roman name Minerva goddess of wisdom and war Mars god of war Greek name Ares Latona mother of Apollo and Artemis Diana Her Greek name was Leto Hermes messenger ofthe Olympian gods Roman name Mercury Neptune god ofthe sea Greek name Poseidon sconce bracket on a wall for holding a candle or a torch candlestick holder affixed to a wall plaque bodkin spears pins Witling a person who tries to be witty DappenNit character in the comedy Love in a Wood or St James Park 1671 by playwright William Wycherley 16401716 Sir Fopling character in the comedy The Man of Mode or Sir Foping Flutter 1676 by George Etherege 1635 1691 Those killing words from an opera Maeander winding river in Western Turkey The modern name for this river is Menderes Baskin HUMA 1500 Jove39s thunder roars heav39n trembles all around Blue Neptune storms the bellowing deeps resound 50 Earth shakes her nodding tow39rs the ground gives way And the pale ghosts start at the flash of day Triumphant Umbriel on a sconce39s height Clapp39d his glad wings and sate to view the fight Propp39d on the bodkin spears the Sprites survey 55 The growing combat or assist the fray While thro39 the press enrag39d Thalestris flies And scatters death around from both her eyes A Beau and Witling perish39d in the throng One died in metaphor and one in song 60 quotO cruel nymph a living death I bearquot Cry39d Dapperwit and sunk beside his chair A mournful glance Sir Fopling upwards cast quotThose eyes are made so killingquotwas his last Thus on Maeander39s flow39ry margin lies 65 Th39 expiring Swan and as he sings he dies quotRestore the Lockquot she cries and all around quotRestore the Lockquot the vaulted roofs rebound Not fierce Othello in so loud a strain 105 Roar39d for the handkerchiefthat caus39d his pain But see how oft ambitious aims are cross39d And chiefs contend 39till all the prize is lost The Lock obtain39d with guilt and kept with pain In ev39ry place is sought but sought in vain 110 With such a prize no mortal must be blest So heav39n decrees with heav39n who can contest Some thought it mounted to the Lunar sphere Since all things lost on earth are treasur39d there There Hero39s wits are kept in pond39rous vases 115 And beau39s in snuffboxes and tweezercases There broken vows and deathbed aims are found And lovers39 hearts with ends of riband bound The courtier39s promises and sick man39s pray39rs The smiles of harlots and the tears of heirs 120 Cupid god of love Greek name Eros Othello ln Shakespeare39s play ofthe same name Othello wrongly believes his wife has been unfaithful because her handkerchief was found in the possession of another man He shouts condemnations at her Click here for the Othello Study Guide if you wish additional information ero priestess of Aphrodite She commits suicide after her lover Leander drowns This word may also refer to a character in Ludovico Ariosto39s epic poem Orlando Furioso 1516 in which the title character loses his wits They are thought to be on the moon riband ribbon tomes books casuistry 1 system that attempted to answer moral questions by applying the principles of ethics and theology to specific cases 2 method of attempting to justify a seemingly sinful act as moral through the application of deceptive reasoning Baskin HUMA 1500 Cages for gnats and chains to yoke a flea Dry39d butterflies and tomes of casuistry But trust the Museshe saw it upward rise Tho39 mark39d by none but quick poetic eyes So Rome39s great founder to the heav39ns withdrew 125 To Proculus alone confess39d in view A sudden Star it shot thro39 liquid air And drew behind a radiant trail of hair Not Berenice39s Locks first rose so bright The heav39ns bespangling with dishevell39d light 130 The Sylphs behold it kindling as it flies And pleas39d pursue its progress thro39 the skies This the Beau monde shall from the Mall survey And hail with music its propitious ray This the blest Lover shall for Venus take 135 And send up vows from Rosamonda39s lake This Partridge soon shall view in cloudless skies When next he looks thro39 Galileo39s eyes And hence th39 egregious wizard shall foredoom The fate of Louis and the fall of Rome Then cease bright Nymph to mourn thy ravish39d air Which adds new glory to the shining sphere Not all the tresses that fair head can boast Shall draw such envy as the Lock you lost For after all the murders of your eye 145 When after millions slain yourself shall die When those fair suns shall set as set they must And all those tresses shall be laid in dust This Lock the Muse shall consecrate to fame And 39midst the stars inscribe Belinda39s name 150 Rome39s great founder Romulus According to Roman mythology he and his brother Remus founded Rome Romulus became the city39s first king After he died in a storm the Romans assumed he was carried into the heavens and they worshipped him as the god Quirinus Proculus Roman senator After Romulus died Proculus had a vision in which Romulus said Rome was destined for greatness Berenice Reference to Berenice39s Hair a star group that astronomers call Coma Berenices This northern constellation is between the constellations Bootes and Leo and north ofthe constellation Virgo Berenice herself was the wife of Egypt39s Ptolemy lll Euergetes When he went off on a dangerous mission to Syria Berenice cut off a lock of her hair as a votive offering in praying for his safe return Legend says that it was taken into the heavens to form a new constellation Beau monde French for fashionable society Mall avenue in the St James district of London39s Westminster borough It is near St James39s Palace the royal residence after fire destroyed Whitehall Palace in 1698 The Mall was a popular walkway for the welltodo residents of St James Venus goddess of love in Greek mythology Aphrodite Romsamonda39s lake lake in St James39s Park Partridge allusion to John Partridge an astrologer who made unfounded predictions in almanacs Galileo39s eyes lenses of a telescope fate of Louis fate of the King of France
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