Com 105 Study Guide for Exam #2
This study guide is a compilation of class notes from Day 3 of week 5 through Day 1 of week 10 of class. There are no missing days, it includes notes taken from class every day. Also there are summaries of the assigned readings, but due to copyright issues there are no direct quotes from the readings. Class notes can be somewhat repetitive. Good luck on the exam, you can do it!
Week 5 Day 3 Notes:
Beginning the Mass Communication Module:
∙ Mass Media: communications which use mass medias and technologies which reach a mass audience, meaning it reaches a very large number of people. ∙ History of Mass Media:
o Mass communication has only been around for a little while o 3500 B.C.E: the first pictographs carved into stone, this was first designed for the masses, because if it was designed for a small amount of people they would not have gone through the trouble to carve it. o 2500 B.C.E: the Egyptians invents Papyrus
Don't forget about the age old question of How do you calculate retained earnings?
o 1000 B.C.E: Phonetic writing
o 1500s: the emergence of print media allowed people to print and distribute mass amounts of books, and this could be done quickly. The example is the Guttenberg Bible, which he printed for people to have.
o 1860s: these are the first audio recording, when they can capture sound and then play it back. This was fundamental for today such as music.
o 1910s: the emergence of cinema and recording movies and films for people to watch. It started off as a sideshow attraction, but then became a main form of entertainment. There is a well-known example which is "A Trip to the Moon" by George Milliare.
o 1920s: Radio emerged as the main form of entertainment, and had a profound effect on the listeners. Orson Wells told the story called "the War of the Worlds" on the radio, but people did not hear the part that said it was fake, so they actually thought aliens were invading New Jersey.
o 1950s: was the "Golden Age of Television" which replaced radio as the main form of entertainment. This was during the rise if the middle class, and televisions became the new item that the middle class had. There was generally very few channels and the family would sit around the tv together and watch a show. Don't forget about the age old question of How do you calculate run time complexity?
o 1990s: the internet came into play, and the phone and internet were connected meaning you could not use both the phone and the internet at the same time.
o 2000s: the smart phone comes out, which allowed media to be moved with a person and control so many different things.
o Future: there are new ways of experiencing the world and new entertainments. Some media is used, especially virtual reality, to use for practical purposes.We also discuss several other topics like We say that the economy as a whole is in macroeconomic equilibrium if?
o Entertainment vs. Journalism:
∙ Entertainment Media - mass media which holds the attention and interest of a mass audience, with the intention of giving pleasure and delight. Whether this is something funny, or something you watch because you like it. Examples: Sports (football, soccer, cricket, ect. People come together to watch the same thing), Movies (Titanic, Star Wars, Avatar, ect. These can be funny, or about real events), Television (shows, as well as netflix and HBO Go), Novels (we still use it, and it spreads around the world, such as the Harry Potter), News Events (some become entertainment events, such as the OJ Simpson Trial because they allowed cameras in the court room and it was a media circus and Micheal Jackson Trial. Right now it is the political sphere, with Trump vs. Sanders and all the candidates). If you want to learn more check out What is oxidation-fermentation (o-f) test?
∙ News Media - mass media whose focus is on delivering news to the general public or target audience. Examples: Newspapers
(dominant form of news consumption back in the day, this has
changed with the rise of the internet, but they have adapted to online media), local Television ( local areas to one nation or even one state), Cable television (allows for international news outlets), alternative media (grows due to the internet, allows anyone to become a part of the journalism process because they can create a blog. An example of this is the ISIS media department which is very media savvy), Citizen Journalism (people have the ability to film things with their phone, and report on things through digital technology).
∙ Global Scale: how does all of this relate across the globe?
Week 6 Notes:
Media Policy Around the World: If you want to learn more check out How to understand the concept of socialization?
Globalization: is the process of international integration arising from the interchange of world views, products, ideas and other aspects of culture. It can have different connotations with different people, such as people believing it imposes Western Culture on the rest of the world, which loses the rest of the cultures around the world. It works against indigenous and distinctive media content.
The other side of the argument is that globalization can work toward acculturation and integrative communication. There is more of a collaborative process where media is negotiated so that there is elements from the developing country mixed with elements from the country which produces the media. We also discuss several other topics like What is groupthink?
Effects of Globalization:
∙ Integrative Communication Theory (the negative argument): Exportation of Western mass media to developing countries. the introduction of Western mass media comes at the expense of developing countries' cultural traditions. Shows produced in America but go to another country does not really change the plotline, because that country cannot make the storyline their own, they can only change the lip dub to a new language. The flow of values from developed countries to developing countries. As a result, professional Western productions will overwhelm locally produced
programming. An example would be the Simpson as an international cartoon. The storyline cannot really be altered.
∙ Acculturation Theory (the positive argument): Exportation of Western mass media to developing countries. The exported Western Media can be adapted to the norms and customs of the developing countries. While the shows originated in Western Mass Media, there is more of a creative license for the show to be changed in the developing countries culture and norms. A great example is the different versions of "American Idol" in other cultures, where the storylines can be changed and include more of the local culture.
∙ Emerging global media: innovation and acculturation. Developing countries often "personalize" their media. Similar to the acculturation theory, indigenous culture melds with western media to produce unique media product.
U.S Media Regulations:
∙ In Mass Media there is NEVER free flow of information. There are still restrictions despite the first amendment. There are supreme court cases which set the bounds.
∙ Federal Communications Commission (FCC) - created via Communications Act of 1934. Acts as federal regulator of broadcast stations, radio operators, and broadcast news.
∙ FCC does not regulate print media.
∙ First Amendment Challenges:
∙ Content regulation - regulation of media content by government authority. Regulate what is and is not produced.
Lovell v. City of Griffin 1938 - Lovell was Arrested for distributing religious material without permission from the city. It was ruled by the supreme court that this was unconstitutional. If you are
on a street corner and pass out information, it is not illegal.
Miami Herald Publishing Co. v. Tornillo 1974 - Florida law
requiring newspapers to allow equal space to political
candidates for editorials or ads. (ruled unconstitutional)
Red Lion Broadcasting Co. v. FCC 1969 - FCC law required
broadcasters to present all sides of controversial issues of public importance (Fairness Doctrine). (ruled constitutional) FCC
voluntarily removed doctrine in 1987.
Global Media Policy Continued…
∙ First Amendment protects speech in U.S.
o Limited content regulation
o Limited censorship
o Does not allow for the free flow of media, there are some regulations o FCC regulates broadcast media - (e.g., fairness doctrine and obscenities)
o U.S. Government can censor news if deemed "clear and present danger" to national security. Very high burden of proof required (NY Times v. US, 1971).
∙ First Amendment Challenges:
o Content Regulation - regulation of media content by government authority
∙ Lovell v. City of Griffin, 1938
∙ Miami Herald Publishing Co. v. Tornillo, 1974
∙ Red Lion Broadcasting Co. v. FCC, 1969
o Prior Restraint and Censorship - rules against certain content and government forced redaction of media content.
∙ Near v. Minnesota, 1931 - Minnesota law gave state power to handout injunctions against media publishing malicious, scandalous, or defamatory comments. Local newspaper had investigative stories about the police force, and used "offensive language" (ruled
unconstitutional, the newspaper was allowed to print the stories). ∙ Nebraska Press Association v. Stuart, 1976 - can press be prevented from releasing information seen as "implicative of guilt" of a criminal defendant? (ruled unconstitutional, it could be a problem but it could be avoided by having jurors unable to see the news so they won't be influenced)
∙ New York Times v. United States, 1971 - Nixon claimed executive authority for force the New York Times to suspend publication of classified information (the "Pentagon Papers"). (Ruled NO "clear and present danger" from publishing materials.)
o Defamation - the action of damaging the good reputation of someone; slander and libel. Can result in civil (not criminal) punishments. ∙ New York Times v. Sullivan, 1964 - Established "actual malice" standard. You have to show that the information used to defame was false, but if there was a reasonable suspicion that the information is false, then it can be considered as such.
∙ Gertz v. Robert Welch, inc. 1974 - states are free to establish standards of liability for defamatory statements.
∙ Texas Beef Group v. Winfrey, 1997 - Oprah Winfrey was sued for a show she did about beef health risks.
o FCC regulates broadcast stations and policies (public airwaves) against obscenity.
o FCC v. Pacifica Foundation 1978 - defines the 7 dirty words you can't say on TV and established decency regulation, from 6am to 10 pm. o Unintentional or fleeting obscenities:
∙ 2004 Superbowl - most watched, recorded, and replayed television moment in TIVO history, FCC fined CBS recorded $550,000. Appealed and ruling reversed.
∙ FCC fleeting expletives regulations ruled unconstitutional, they cannot hold the live tv stations accountable for something they cannot control.
∙ Media Regulations Around the World:
o Free speech of the press worldwide
o 2006 Thai coup d'etat against Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra. The leaders of Thailand's military coup closed more than 300 community radio stations. They monitored all the media other than that. They dissolved Thailand's 1997 constitution, which guaranteed press freedom. They
cancelled radio stations and news on TV which expressed people's opinions on the issues around them.
Week 7 Notes:
Global Media Policies:
Egypt - "Arab Springs"
∙ Egyptian Uprising -> ousting of Mubarak
∙ Election of Morsi
∙ "Coup" removes Morsi and Muslim Brotherhood from power. ∙ Attempt to control Muslim Brotherhood voice via media control. ∙ Egyptian Minister of Foreign affairs: "[Muslim Brotherhood media] incites violence and murder in Egypt
∙ Requests European officials to close pro-Muslim Brotherhood satellite channels.
∙ In China, the system that restricts online access is call The Golden Shield Obscenity Laws:
∙ US obscenity laws determined by federal, state, and local governments ∙ Enforced by regulators; reviewed by judiciary
∙ Obscenity Laws based on moral values
∙ The standard for obscenity can differ between countries.
∙ Religion plays an important role in determining moral values ∙ Different standards for obscenities in different cultures
∙ Standards of obscenities evolve and change overtime.
Changes in Obscenities: Iran
∙ Shah of Iran, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, had warm relations with the West, even maintain diplomatic relations with Israel.
∙ Advocated greater secularism in society
∙ In Iran's Past when there were good relations with the U.S: Secular clothing, especially for women, more acceptable in the public sphere
∙ 1979 Iranian Revolution: Replacement of Pro-Western monarchy with anti west theocracy
o Ayatollah Khomeini
∙ Broke off ties with West and Israel
∙ Argo Movie - details the story of U.S. Embassy employees escaping during the Revolution
∙ Greater emphasis of religion in society
∙ New media restrictions on obscenity introduced. Everything became more conservative especially in dress for women.
Overview of global journalism:
∙ Government sanctioned news versus private news:
o Many news organizations are private organizations.
o Some are semi-official (independent in name but has significant ties to the government)
∙ Fars News Agency
∙ Presenting news media which is in line with the government's views
o Some are official News organizations.
∙ Xinhua News Agency (China) - official press agency of People's Republic of China - it is part of the Chinese government.
o Some are publically funded.
∙ BBC (UK) - funded by government, independent of direct government intervention.
∙ News reporting and government control:
o Private, public, semi-official, and official news agencies can be influenced by government.
o Self-censorship can occur with private news.
o Reporters without boarders claims the media in Zimbabwe involves "surveillance, threats, imprisonment, censorships, blackmail, abuse of power and denial of justice are all brought to bear to keep current leaders in power.
o Semi Official news examples:
∙ Official and Semi-official news agencies often balance interest of state with interest of the people
∙ 2014 Hong Kong Protests - when British Rule ended China agreed they would protect Hong Kong and allow autonomy. But there were changes proposed in 2014 which would change the democratic rule in hong kong. Many Hong Kong residents believed mainland China reducing the autonomy of HK.
Global Media and Propaganda
Recap of Global News Media:
∙ Private (CNN, Disney, ABC…)
∙ Semi-official (FARS Iran news)
∙ Official (Xinhau news in China)
∙ Public (BBC, PBS)
All forms can be manipulated by the government.
Propaganda - form of communication intended to influence attitude of population toward some cause or position.
When we think of propaganda we tend to view it negatively, but it really is in the eye of the beholder.
Characteristics of Propaganda:
∙ Strong ideological bent - political, social, economic, ect.
∙ Propagandists are not about trying to be neutral or objective - they have an agenda to advance.
∙ Propaganda can be good or bad - depending on the eye of the beholder. We have tended to view is as bad because we do not like the idea that the message of propaganda is influencing us, and making us think differently. Even if the message is good, we do not want to be manipulated.
∙ Is institutional in nature - is practiced by organized groups, whether it is the government, political lobbies, private corporations, religious groups, or social movements.
∙ It involves mass persuasion; often using the mass media to advance its message.
∙ Tends to rely on ethnically suspect methods of influence (such as deception, racism, ect.).
∙ Primary concern is persuasion, ethics come at a distant second. Edward Berneys and Guatemala:
∙ Edward Berneys - was a key public relations figure in U.S. Nephew of Sigmund Freud
∙ Involved in a campaign; believed manipulation of public opinion necessary part of democracy.
∙ Some of his propaganda activities assisted covert CIA operations (operation PBSUCCESS).
∙ Decree 900 passed in 1952 during the Guatemalan Revolution - redistributed unused lands to local peasants.
∙ Major land owners were not happy with the decree
∙ To get American government involved, United Fruit Company employed Bernays to create psychologically inflammatory disinformation against Arbenz Govt. of Guatemala.
∙ Has one of the most sophisticated propaganda machines around. Persian Gulf War:
∙ Persian Gulf War (1990-1991)
∙ Nayirah testified about Iraqi troops removing babies from incubators ∙ Claim is unsubstantiated
∙ Later revealed she was the daughter of Kuwaiti ambassador to the U.S. and coached by PR firm, Hill Knowlton to persuade public about dangers of Saddam Hussein.
Iraq War (2003-2011):
∙ Al-Zarqawi was someone who beheaded people, and was extremely violent, the U.S made cartoons threatening him and distributing it by throwing them out of planes over towns where he could be living.
∙ Pentagon program involved planting stories in Iraqi media that demoralized insurgents.
Israel vs. Hamas and Hezbollah:
∙ Hamas = terrorist who gained control of Gaza, pushing out Israeli people. They create propaganda to speak to the Israeli population, but the reaction was not what they wanted.
∙ Shia terrorist organization Hezbollah is threatening the area of Lebanon
Media Effects Part 1:
The goal of propaganda and whether it is good or bad is up to the eye of the beholder.
Media Effects Paradigms:
∙ Most of us would like to think we are not effected by media, but then they think others are effected by mass media. This is called the third person effect. 1 Hypodermic needle Model - media can affect you in a very strong way and inject you with information. This assumes that people are passive viewers of the information. All aspects of media will affect all aspects of human behavior/attitudes.
a 1950s - the television became a common staple in American homes, but there were only a few choices in programs to watch.
2 Minimal Effects - it does affect people, but it is not as bad as the hypodermic needle model.
a 1960s --1980s - rise of cable television with more choice.
2 Powerful media rediscovered (1970 - present)
a Agenda-setting: News media doesn't tell us how to think, but it tells us what to think about. Millions of important events occur every day. News media can only select a small number of these events to focus on and report on. The things they decide to report on influences us about what we think is important. Agenda setting effects are dependent on (1) news coverage and (2) placement of the news (front page vs. buried on page 12). We and the media tend to focus on the one but not the many, meaning people fail to connect to news reports of tragedies which have many victims, but rather they connect better to stories with identified victims. An example is the Rwandan Genocide (April 7- July 15, 1994) there were systematic massacres of 500k to 1 million died in 100 days. Gikondo Massacre - 110 people killed in front of unarmed UN observers. But this event did not garner that much media attention because there was confusion about what was going on, but even when we were aware, they did not report much on it. We are more likely to remember certain people, therefore news tends to choose one individual to focus on. Psychic Numbing: the vast size of victims goes beyond our level of comprehension. We shut down emotionally. As human beings we simply cannot understand that level of violence.
Identifiable victim effect: we have a stronger emotional connection with single victims then a group.
∙ More willing to offer aid.
∙ "A single death is a tragedy, a million deaths is a statistic"
For agenda setting: news agencies prefer stories with identified victims. Even when stories discuss stories with mass casualties, people may not be emotionally affected.
a Spiral of Silence
b Cultivation Theory
1 Negotiated Influence - (powerful effects but only certain circumstances and for certain people)(1980s - present)
a Framing (Robert Entman, 1992): the way we tell stories can affect the way people view the event. Example: the Russians shot down a Korean airline and the magazine wrote it as a murder in the air when it was a tragic accident. However, when Americans accidentally shot down the Iran Air, they try to explain and make it really more of an accident than the other time it happened. Another example: Hurricane Catrina, the pictures of people taking food from a grocery store and one was described as "looting" the store where as others were described as "finding" food. "To frame is to select some aspects of a perceived reality and make them more salient in a communicating text, in such a way as to promote a particular problem definition, casual interpretation, moral evaluation, and/or treatment recommendation."
Framing tells us how we think about issues.
Conflict Frame: might be reporting on multiple sides of a story where there are different opinions, so that the audience can get the full perspective.
Creates perception that there's debate surrounding issues that may not be debated in expert communities (e.g., climate change).
Episodic Framing: focusing on the individual rather than the society as a whole. Effect - more emotional empathy and remember the events better. Thematic framing - focusing on society rather than the individuals. a Priming
Week 8 Notes:
Media Effects Part 2:
Judgement and Decision Making:
∙ Two Parallel routes in human judgment and decision making. ∙ Systematic Processing: Careful, conscious processing. There is a high motivation to process information. This type of processing is not relied on for day to day activity.
∙ Heuristic Processing: fast instinctive, subconscious, processing. There is low motivation into processing information. These are snap judgements which not much processing goes into processing information.
∙ Priming: It is something you encounter(word or action) which suddenly affects your thinking in a future moment. It is implicit memory in which exposure to a stimulus influences a response to another stimulus. Exposure to something can affect the way we behave when we encounter another something. It is SUBCONSCIOUS form of human memory concerned with perpetual identification of words and objects. We are aware of the prime, but not of how that prime can affect us.
∙ Implicit Memory: is a type of memory in which previous experiences aid the performance of a task without conscious awareness of these previous experiences.
∙ Negative Media leads people to seek out more negative media than positive media.
∙ People associate colors with different meanings, which can prime us: o Red -> danger, alert
o Yellow -> caution
o Green -> go, natural, environmental
Types of Heuristics:
∙ Availability heuristic: judgment based on ease of recall (what comes to mind when you think about it). Sometimes can lead us to think untrue things. Media Effect: Perceive risk of harm is high when it is in fact very, very low.Messages which are memorable can elicit an availability response. Messages are generally more memorable when they are extreme, often in a negative light. More (negative) emotional arousal then the greater recall we have on the information. There is greater availability due to emotional response.
∙ Representativeness: judgements based on representation. Messages which provide representation can elicit this heuristic. Sometimes we rely on representation that result in errors in judgements.
∙ Anchoring and Adjustment Heuristic: Human tendency to rely too heavily on the first piece of information offered (the "anchor") when making decisions.
People's judgements and decisions are often influenced by an initial anchor. Once an anchor is set, other judgements are made by adjusting away from that anchor, and there is a bias toward interpreting.
Media Effects Part 3
∙ Types of Heuristics:
∙ Representativeness - judgement based on perceived representation. Sometimes we rely on representation that result in errors in judgement. Messages that provide representation can elicit this heuristic. For example: we think there are many shark attacks and they are likely when in reality they are extremely rare, but because the media shows stories about shark attacks regularly people think they are more likely to happen.
∙ Anchoring and Adjustment - deals with the first piece of information we receive, because it can affect our subsequent judgement making even when the information is not really that important. Once the anchor is set, other judgements are made by adjusting away from that anchor, and there is a bias toward interpreting other information around the anchor. Example: Negotiation, the first price is most important. When a house is put up for sale they set an initial price for people to work around. Media Coverage is an important anchor (Political Polls).
∙ More Traditional Mass Media Effects:
∙ Spiral Of Silence - how mass media can effectively shut down and end conversations about opposition views. Proposed in 1974 and it explains the tendency of people to remain silent when they feel their views are opposed by a majority view. There is fear of being ostracized or fear of reprisal. This was created by Elisabeth Noelle - Neumann. Example: during George W. Bush's presidency people found the media covered pro-war views, thus affecting the general people who protested the war. It also relates to the psychologic effect of normative social influence.
∙ Cultivation Theory - Created by George Gerbner in the 1970s. This theory says that television viewers are cultivated to view reality similarly to what they watch on television. Heavy television viewers are more likely to be affected. Over or under representation of issues can lead to misperceptions about reality. Part of the theory is "Mean World Syndrome" which says that people who watch a lot of crime shows tend to think crime is a regularity in society.
Spiral Of Silence: Global Scale
∙ RT is Russian State - supported news
∙ Accused of pro-kremlin bias
∙ Converge of anti-Putin protests different from Americans
∙ Government use media to elicit the spiral of silence
∙ If you were to survey people today they would most likely say that the world is extremely violent, more than it has been because of the amount of violent that is reported on. However the world has never been more peaceful as it is today, but because the media reports so regularly on these things people think that there is a lot of violence. This is due to the cultivation theory, because people believe that life on earth works the same way it does on television, and television focuses on violence to get attention.
∙ Journalism takes advantage of people's need to know what threats or potential threats around them, in order to gain viewership.
∙ Cultivation theory appears to work for high income and medium income, whereas people living in poorer neighborhoods are used to crime around them so the media does not affect them quite as much.
Week 9 Notes:
∙ Some gaming stats:
o Gaming Industry made 10.5 Billion in revenue in 2009
o Average age of gamers is 34
o Gamers play average of 8 hours per week
o 40% of gamers are female
o The game console can be affected by the gender of the person o The type of media people choose to consume produces different results
∙ Virtual Reality:
o The introduction of immersive virtual reality
o Today video game violence is even more realistic than ever, and it becomes difficult for young people to tell the difference between the game and reality
∙ Violent Media is linked to:
o Aggressive thoughts
o Reduced Empathy
o Perceived Aggression (how we see others interaction with us) ∙ Limitations to Studies:
o Survey studies: (1) correlation only; no causation (2) could be that aggressive people watch violent media
o Field Experiments: (1) do not eliminate self-selection bias due to lack of random assignment.
o Laboratory Experiments: (1) can show causation because using random assignment eliminates self-selection bias (2) findings may not reflect what occurs in real world.
∙ Media Violence and aggression
o Evidence that violent media influences cognitions (i.e., thoughts). o But the effects likely depend on a number of factors
∙ Developmental stages (younger children more susceptible to violent media effects)
∙ Personality traits (aggressive prone people more likely to select violent media)
Video Games: A Global Perspective
∙ The World Wide video game industry grew 9% in 2013 and now exceeds $76 billion with projections it will reach over $86 billion by 2016.
∙ The European market for games is almost $20 billion.
∙ China saw 34% increase in games revenue in 2012.
∙ The games industry in India grew 16% in 2012, to $227 million. Violent Media's Influence: A Complicated Picture
∙ Violent crime has decreased over time and is probably at its lowest level in recorded history not only in the United States but around the world. ∙ This does not mean that violent media in the form of cartoons or video games does not affect people particularly children.
∙ What you find scientifically (children are more aggressive after watching video games) does not always match what is going on (the world is the most peaceful it has ever been).
Media Violence: The Evidence
∙ We are primed to think of good or bad things, and violent media primes to think of hostile thoughts.
∙ Violent media is linked to:
o Aggressive Thoughts - claimed to have both short and long term effects
o Reduce Empathy - for victims of violent crime or sexual assault o Perceived Aggression
∙ Lab settings present an artificial environment: Do effects then represent what occurs in reality
∙ Would the person pick to consume that media in the first place? Media violence and aggression:
∙ Evidence that violent media influences cognitions (i.e. thoughts) ∙ But the effects likely depend on a number of factors
o Developmental stages (younger children are more susceptible to violent media effects)
o Personality traits (aggressive prone people more likely to select violent media)
∙ No conclusive evidence that violent media causes violent acts or behaviors. Video Game Addiction:
∙ Reported on through an international perspective
∙ People who play video games at the expense of other things and have terrible results, sometimes even death.
o 1981 Jeff Dailey died while playing "Berzerk"
o 2005 Lee Seung Seop lost his job and became addicted to Starcraft. Dies after 50 hour binge session.
o Jan 19, 2015 - Taiwan man dies after 3 day online gaming binge. o There are many other cases including where children die when their parents will not stop gaming to feed them.
Week 10 Day 1:
Media Effects Paradigms:
1 Hypodermic Needle Model
2 Minimal Effects
a 1960s-1980s - rise of cable television with more choices
2 Powerful media rediscovered (1970s - present)
a Agenda setting
b Spiral of Silence
c Cultivation theory
2 Negotiated Influence - (powerful but only certain circumstances and for certain people) (1980s - present)
∙ Episodic - focusing on and individual rather than society as a whole ∙ Thematic - focusing on society rather than the individual
Are media effects universal or are they conditional?
We know not everyone is affected in the same way by media messages. Why is it that people tend to think Mass media has a significant uniform effect on people?
Cultivation Theory - people who consume a lot of news on television will be more effected to think the world is the same in real life as it is on television. It has been found that cultivation theory most strongly affects people of high income, particularly white people
What are the reasons for the differences?
∙ Exposure to unfamiliar conditions
∙ Over representation of events unlikely to occur in environment Sometimes using different frames can evoke feelings in people to persuade them in a specific direction.
Sometimes persuasive attempts can backfire in a "boomerang effect", and the results we get can be quite different than expected.
Psychological Reactance - reaction to stimuli perceived to impact choices or alternatives. People do not want to feel limited in their choices, because they think the message is trying to sway their choices, as well as saying their choices are bad ones.
Motivated Reasoning - process new information in way that suits their own goals. We want information which we gain to somewhat conform to our preconceived beliefs and attitudes, because new information which does not match will probably not make us drop our beliefs we already hold.
Boomerang Effects - unintended consequences of an attempt to persuade resulting in the adoption of an opposing position instead. When the intended reaction is not the desired one, but rather the exact opposite of what was intended. Sometimes things you think are persuasive are not actually having the effect you want.
Uniform media effects exist, but are rare.
Most media effects are conditioned by individual differences.
Think about how your individual characteristics influence how media affects you. “Pornography law bans in UK”
The UK is implementing a ban on 10 sexual acts which are considered “harmful” to minors. Most of the acts are considered violent in nature, for example strangling and whipping. There are people against this ban because they believe it is other people’s morals being imposed on all the people in the UK. Also people believe they need to represent everyone’s fantasies, so that porn is not boring and they can make more money. They also believe that if this freedom to watch this type of porn is taken from them, other freedoms will be taken.
“Introduction to Journalism Norms”
∙ Pack journalism is when news becomes reported in a homogeneous way and remains in tact about how to present stories to the public.
∙ There are three normative orders:
o Norms about the journalism profession
o Norms about the proper role of the press in politics
o Norm constraints of the business side of news organizations
∙ Pressure on Journalists is constantly changing, and the norms are always shifting due to the balances among political, professional, and economic norms change.
∙ Viewpoints are often overrun with official sources.
∙ The “get an official reaction” rule is formally institutionalized, meaning reporters work with officials who have a lot of power within the positions of decision/policy making processes.
∙ Representative Democracy is best shown when there are reports from officials who have a wide range of views in a debate.
∙ Journalists can be pressured to report on stories even when there is suspicious activity and the possibility of corrupting influences surrounding the story.
∙ Elections are often reported in “horse race” fashion, with dramatic “war room stories” which makes the candidates seem as though they are at battle and there is always someone who is ahead and someone who is behind.
∙ Something that is very big for American journalists is any story of a threat to U.S security, as it evokes strong emotions for people and endorses both popular culture as well as patriotism.
∙ Sometimes when Journalists seem to be going off and reporting somewhat how they see fit, officials might attempt to regain control over a situation by preforming some institutional processes which the journalists will feel compelled to cover because of the more confining reporting rules.
∙ Because of the norms of reporting that journalists often have to conform to, they often fail in convincing the public that their report is the best one to follow on the subject/political situation.
∙ All the norms will often push journalists to smooth out their stories and coverage by combining personal political judgements and narratives, which create more drama for the story, and therefore capture the audience’s attention, rather than simply and awkwardly listing facts.
∙ Some argue that norms in journalism reduce costs, and increase viewership, which is even more in favor of standardized reporting.
∙ News networks are constantly being demanded of to provide more entertainment rather than real stories, as audiences quickly get bored with a lack of action or “hype” about a subject. This is leading to blurred lines between news and entertainment which makes news stories even more difficult to report on.
∙ Narratives (short personal stories) are often used in news to highlight a point and combines with a story to make it more personable to an audience member.
“Framing, agenda setting, and priming”
∙ Agenda setting basically says that the more the media covers an issue the more likely media consumers will view that issue as important. The media tells us what to think about but not how to think about it.
∙ Priming is sometimes seen as an extension of agenda setting, and specifically in this article where news suggests for people to use certain events and people from the past as benchmarks for future issues and leaders in government. There are two reasons it is considered an extension of agenda setting, one being that both are based on memory-based models for processing information, and the other being that because agenda setting makes a topic more salient to the media consumer, mass media can then also control the considerations people take into account when making judgements, specifically about politics.
∙ Goffman is the one responsible for the sociological foundation of framing. ∙ Framing is useful for relaying new and difficult topics to the public, as it puts the new terms in a way which they can understand it with their current knowledge. This applies to highly scientific and technological topics. ∙ It is possible for joint frames to be built from public and news media. ∙ There are inconsistencies in framing because of the way they are measured and conceptualized. The differences can arise from when studies offer new optionalizations of media frames or when these operationalizations are perplexed by content.
∙ When framing is reduced in order to make it analogous to agenda setting, it also reduces framing’s power considerably.
∙ People may need to pay more attention to messages in the media for the framing to take effect, whereas people will be affected by agenda setting even if they do not pay close attention to the media message.
∙ The primary different psychologically between agenda setting and priming is a battle between whether (agenda setting) and how (priming). ∙ Framing is an applicability affect whereas agenda setting and priming are accessibility effects.
∙ Accessibility effect means they are again based on memory based models when it comes to processing information.
∙ Applicability effect means there is an implied connection between two concepts which leads the audience to believe the two are connected after they see the message with the implications.
∙ Accessibility and applicability effects are not totally separate from each other.
∙ Accessibility is heavily effected by time flow, whereas applicability is less affected by the passing of time.
∙ There is a lot of inefficiency when it comes to framing, agenda setting, and priming theory. Sometimes there is even gridlock because of all the different definitions and understandings.
∙ We tend to think that if there is a common message presented in television over and over again in time, it should mean something.
∙ George Gerbner created the theory of cultivation, which states that people who consume mass media more regularly are more likely to believe the world works the way it does on television. For example, they might believe every crime is solved based on cop shows, where most crimes are solved by the end of the episode or series. When in reality many many crimes go unsolved.
∙ Essentially, this theory suggests heavy television viewers will have an altered perception of reality, and a lot of misconceptions of how the world really works.
∙ This theory has set a major arena in which to study the effects of television on viewers.
∙ This has to do a lot with the patterns seen on television, such as the pattern of all cases being solved by cop detectives, which engrains the notion that it is reality.
∙ Cultivation is an “agro-aquatic” metaphor for the way in which society generally works.
∙ Gebner identified three kinds of stories told on television, which are how things work when we can’t see them (fiction), how things are (news), and value and choice of what we do (sermons /instructions/law). These stories all naturally relate, and are used often in many forms.
“Brown v. Entertainment”
∙ Brown v. Entertainment Merchants Association, basics of the case: The U.S Supreme Court did not allow a Californian law to pass which would restrict minors from purchasing violent video games. It did not pass because it was deemed as an infringement on free speech.
∙ Some argue that video games are not the same as other types of media, because they create a virtual reality, and they should not be treated as the same as other types of media. Therefore, people think the ruling was unfair because the effects of video games were unknown.
∙ There was an act, the California Civil Code 1746-1746.5 which did not allow minors to purchase or rent violent video games without parental consent, and the VSDA (Video Software Dealers Association) and the ESA (Entertainment Software Association) fought the act as unconstitutional. They claimed that videogames were protected by the first amendment as free speech, the term “violent videogame” was vague, and requiring videogames to be labeled also violated free speech. Schwarzenegger signed the code and it went into effect after it defined what was considered a violent video game.
∙ If the government wants to limit the first amendment there will be strict scrutiny, and they must have a narrow interest in getting rid of only one thing, as well as the extreme enthusiasm to do so.
∙ There are some restrictions to the first amendment when it comes to free speech, especially in the media when using violent, sexual, and other foul language.
∙ Talk of restricting video games is a fairly new topic in the U.S but frequent after the mass shootings began happening more often in the 1990s. ∙ Miller vs. California was a case which began defining obscenity, and there is a test called the Miller test.
∙ The Court ruled against the California law in Brown vs. Entertainment because the court determined that videogames were protected under the first amendment, new categories of unprotected speech could not be added and California did not show that the law was in favor of government interest, nor was it narrowly tailored to serve that interest.