PHOTOSYNTHESIS, MEIOSIS, CELLULAR RESPIRATION
PHOTOSYNTHESIS, MEIOSIS, CELLULAR RESPIRATION BIO 110
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Bria Myers on Monday October 12, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 110 at Central Michigan University taught by Seefelt, Nancy in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Concepts of Biology in Biology at Central Michigan University.
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Date Created: 10/12/15
BIO 110 QUIZ STUDY GUIDE Photosynthesis Cellular Respiration Meiosis 1 Photosynthesis a b Tth Catabolic pathway release energy break down molecules into simpler compounds Anabolic pathway energy consumed to build complicated molecules from simpler ones Redox reactions transfer of one or more electrons from one reactant to another Molecules that lose electrons are OXIDIZED OL Molecules that gain electrons are REDUCED RIG A series of reactions that link together to provide energy to an organism is called a BIOCHEMICAL PATHWAY or METABOLIC PATHWAY The ultimate source of energy is the SUN Organisms that make their own food are called AUTOTROPHS Organisms that must eat to obtain food are called HETEROTROPHS The chemical breakdown of food molecules into usable energy is called CELLULAR RESPIRATION Coupled reaction when cells tie together a reaction that releases energy with a reaction that requires energy ex ADP getting a P and becoming ATP Substratelevel phosphorylation direct transfer of a phosphate group to ADP from a donor Oxidative phosphorylation electrochemical gradient of H ions on one side of cell H ows through membrane and back into the cell ADP gains P to become ATP The loss of H is oxidative the ADP becoming ATP is phosphorylation Overall reaction 6C02 6H20 C4H606 602 Light Reaction light part i Takes place in the grana stacked thylakoids ii H20 is split t provide electrons and H protons and gives off 02 iii 02 and ATP used in next process iv PSI a Light strikes chlorophyll excites electrons b Electrons picked up by electron transport molecules c Chlorophyll molecule is oxidized bc it loses electrons CYC U C PATH WAY i Cytochrome molecules pass electrons between them which release energy and create 5 concentration gradient f H ions inside thylakoid ii H ions ow through membrane releasing energy used to from ADP to ATP in oxidative phosphorylation losing H iii Process continues Linear Pathway a Excited electrons picked up by NADP which captures 2 electrons b When H20 is broken down into H and OH the free H attract to NADP to form NADPH c Remaining OH binds to form H20 and O2 and the newly formed water replaces old water and remaining 02 releases into the environment d Free electrons DO NOT necessarily return to original to original chlorophyll p Calvin Cycle synthesis i Takes place in the stroma uid ii C02 from atmosphere bind with RuBP iii Products from rst reaction go through reactions powered by ATP and NADPH to produce G3P sugar molecules iv Most of G3P converted to RuBP so cycle can continue v G3P can be used to form glucose cellulose and starch 2 Cellular Respiration a Reaction 6H1206 602 6CO2 6 H2O b DOES NOT include calvin cycle INCLUDES Kreb s cycle c Steps of CR i Glycolysis occurs in cytoplasm 1 Anaerobic doesn t need 02 but can work with it 2 Stage 1 energy investment glucose broken down into 2 G3P requires energy 3 Stage 2 energy harvest 2 G3P converted into 2 pyruvate molecules produces 2 NADH and 4 ATP molecules ii Intermediate step 1 Occurs in mitochondria 2 2 pyruvates enter mitochondria and are oxidized to Acetyl CoA The pyruvates are oxidized because NAD gains electrons to become NADH 3 Net production 2 Acetyl CoA 2 NADH 2 CO2 iii Kreb s Cycle Citric Acid 1 Occurs in mitochondria 2 Acetyl CoA oxidized to produce 2 C02 3 NADH 1 FADH2 1 ATP 3 Cycle occurs TWICE products doubled 4 Net production 4 C02 6 NADH 2 FADH2 2 ATP iv Electron Transport Chain 1 Occurs in inner membrane of mitochondria cristae 2 Oxidative phosphorylation occurs 3 FADH2 and NADH move down chain and release energy 4 Electrons eventually passed to 02 which excepts them 5 Produces ATP through chemiosmosis movement of H ions 6 Total amount ATP 3032 because energy is never 100 accurate 7 Cellular respiration can also use polysaccharides fats and proteins d Mitochondria has outer and inner membrane the inner membrane has folds called cristae The internal uid is called matrix e Alcohol fermentation yeast molecules that goes through Kreb s but there is no oxygen produces ethanol f Lactic acid fermentation happens in humans pyruvate fermented into lactic acid because there is not enough oxygen 3 Meiosis a Asexual no genetic info to create daughter cells DNA copies and splits equally creates diploid b Gametes sperm and egg are haploid and have half the number of chromosomes c Zygote sperm fertilizes and egg 46 chromosomes 23 pairs d Somatic cels all cells besides sex cells 46 chromosomes e Diploid one chromosome from mom and one from dad f Haploid one set of chromosome g Homologous chromosomes chromosome in somatic cells that have equal length size and genes h Human have 22 pairs of homologous chromosomes and one pair of sex chromosomes i Females have XX j Males have XY k Humans are diploid because they have 2 set of chromosomes l Gametes are haploid because they have one set of chromosomes m Meiosis produces haploid cells n Fertilization creates a diploid cell
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