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Study Guide Test 1

by: Biljana Martic

Study Guide Test 1 CHE 107LLR

Biljana Martic
SIM-UB (University at Buffalo-The State University of New York)
GPA 3.7
Gen Chem 1
Keister, J B

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Gen Chem 1
Keister, J B
Study Guide
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This 16 page Study Guide was uploaded by Biljana Martic on Monday October 12, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to CHE 107LLR at SIM-UB (University at Buffalo-The State University of New York) taught by Keister, J B in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 61 views. For similar materials see Gen Chem 1 in Chemistry at SIM-UB (University at Buffalo-The State University of New York).

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Date Created: 10/12/15
Chapter 1 a science that deals with composition structure properties and transformation of matter Atoms In the nucleus are protons positively charged and neutrons neutrally charged The electrons negatively charged orbit around the nucleus in multiple orbits in the electron cloud Pure Substances Ex Oxygen 02 Water H20 Table Salt NaCI Glucose C6H1206 T They are always in the same proportions Compounds combination of different elements pure substances can also be considered compounds At room temp and pressure there are 7 diatomic molecules H2 N2 02 F2 Cl2 Br2 l2 Periodic Table Columns vertical called Groups those labeled 1A 8A are the Main groups or Representative Transition metals are labeled lB SB and altogether there are 18 because SB consists of three columns also elements in a given group have similar chemical properties There are actually 32 but the lanthanides and actinides are not included because they are Inner Transition or Rare Earth metals Rows horizontal lt gt called Periods are numbered 1 7 Alkali Metals are in Group 1A excluding Hydrogen they are soft and silvery and react rapidly with water because they have only 1 valence electron These elements are never found in nature in a pure state only in combinations with other elements because they are so reactive Alkaline Earth Metals Group 2A lustrous silvery harder and less reactive than Alkali metals because they have 2 valence electrons These are also never found in their pure state Halogens Group 7A are colorful corrosive and nonmetallic they have 7 valence electrons and are only found in nature in compounds they react with the Alkali metals to form salts Noble Gases Group 8A are inert colorless gases and have very low reactivity because they have all 8 valence electrons lled in Helium and neon don t react with any other elements but argon krypton and xenon do with some Physical Properties characteristics that occur without changing the chemical makeup of the object Ex malleability bendiness freezing and boiling points Chemical Properties does change chemical makeup Ex Flammability chemical reaction with 02 Oxidizing ability to rust Reactivity SI Units Flashcards Mega M 106 Kilo k 103 Deci d 10391 Centi c 10392 Milli m 10393 Micro pa 10396 Nano n 10399 Pico p 1039 Femto f 1039 T Moving decimal to the left gives a negative exponent to the right gives a positive exponent SI Base Units Flashcards Mass Kilogram kg Length Meter m Time Second sa Electric Current Ampere A Temperature Kelvin K Luminous Intensity Candela cd Amount of Mole Mole Substance Kelvin Celsius Absolute Zero O K 27315 C Convert K 0c 27315 Fahrenheit not generally used wonder why 0c 59 F32 F95 C 32 Units of Measurement Intensive properties values are individual of amount of matter present Ex Temp Melting Point Density Hardness a small diamond has the same hardness of a large diamond doesn t matter how much is there the property doesn t change Extensive properties values are proportional to the amount of matter present Ex Volume Mass the small diamond will not weigh the same amount as the big diamond it will change Density MassVolume lt the ratio of massvolume will stay the same for the same material Accuracy is when the numbers are close to the quotcorrectquot number Precision is when you get simiar answers each calculation igni eant Figures Multiplying and Dividing always use the smallest amount of sig gs in a number 127 x 39 4953 lt Correct number of sig gs round up the 9 because of the 5 Tsmallest amount is 2 signi cant gures Adding and Subtracting always use the smallest amount of numbers after the decimal place 1378392 11223 1490622 Tsmallest amount is 2 places after the decimal point All numbers 19 are signi cant 789 Zeros are signi cant if they are between numbers 6098502 Zeros at the end of a number and after the decimal point are always sig gs 2360 Zeros at the end of a number and before the decimal may or may not be sig gs Zeros before rst nonzero number are not signi cant 00245 The unit you want to get should be the numerator because the denominator is used to cancel out the units you are starting with Ex Convert 24 inches to feet A 24 inehes x 1 foot12 inehes 2 feet The inches cancel out because the inches are being divided by themselves the leftover units are feet Chapter 2 are on the left side of the periodic table they are and all are solid are room temperature except mercury They are malleable bendy not brittle and are good conductors of heat and electricity Nonmetals on the right side of the periodic table most of the nonmetallic elements are liquid at room temp they are brightly colored brittle they break easy and are poor conductors of heat and electricity Semimetals there are only nine along the zigzag line from boron to astatine they have mix of the characteristics of and nonmetals They are in appearance by tend to be brittle and poor conductors of heat and electricity Mass is neither created nor destroyed in chemical reactions Elements have they have the same number of protons but different neutrons The charge stays the same but because neutrons have more mass than electrons it causes an increase in mass Atomic number Z number of protons in the nucleus Mass Number A number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus Isotopes have different A s Element X AzX Atomic mass unit amu exactly 112th the mass of an atom of 12C Isotopic Mass mass of an atom in atomic mass units Average Atomic Mass the average masses of isotopes of an element is the mass shown on the periodic table The percentage of how often each isotope is naturally found is multiplied by the mass number of that isotope Heterogeneous Mixture it isn t a uniform mixture Ex Sand and Sugar they are going to have the same parts of sand and sugar in individual samples taken Homogeneous Mixture a uniform mixture Ex Cool Aid and Water the cool aid dissolves in the water and is evenly distributed you don t have cool aid with spots of dark red it s all one even color atoms are the same but are rearranged differently Ex Carbon can appear as Graphite or Diamonds Chemical Formulas Molecular Formulas give the actual number of atoms in a molecule EX GIUCOSE C5H1205 C6 06 Empirical Formulas give the lowest number of ratios of the number of atoms in a molecule Ex Divide them by 6 CH20 Ratio Cl H2 Ol Chemical Bonds Covalent Bonds atoms share electron pairs bond between non metallic atoms The strongest type of bond ionic onds electrons are gained by one atom and lost by another causes ions of different charges bonds are between nonmetallic and atoms Weakest bond Bonds sharing of electrons between two metal atoms Cations positively charged ion happens when the atom loses an electron Anions negatively charged ion happens when the atom gains an electron tend to form cations because it s easier for them to lose a small amount of electrons than to gain a large amount Nonmetals form anions because it s easier for them to gain a small amount of electrons than lose a large amount lnorganic Compounds Common Polyatomic lons Ammonium NH4 Acetate CH3C0239 Cyanide CN39 Hypochlorite CIO39 Chlorite CIOZ39 Chlorate CIO339 Perchlorate CIO439 Dihydrogen phosphate H2PO439 Hydrogen carbonate HCO339 Hydrogen sulfate HSO439 Hydroxide OH39 Permanganate MnO439 Nitrite N0239 Nitrate NO339 Carbonate CO3239 Chromate CF04 Dichromate Cr207239 Peroxide 02239 Hydrogen phosphate HPO4239 Sul te 503239 Sulfate 504239 Thiosulfate 5203239 Phosphate PO4339 Chapter 3 Chemical Reactions contain reactants and products CH4202 C022H20 Stoichiometric coefficients are the numbers written in front of the molecule ion and atoms They are important because they help keep the same number of each element on both sides of the reaction There are 4 oxygen molecules on the reactants 02 2 oxygen molecules 2 02 4 oxygen molecules There are 4 oxygen molecules on the products C02 2 oxygen molecules H20 1 oxygen molecule 2 H20 2 oxygen molecules 1 carbon on each side 4 hydrogen on each side Balanced equations are important to uphold the in a chemical reaction mass cannot be created nor destroyed Displacement Reactions a more reactive element displaces a less reactive element from its compound Ex Zn ZS gt 2 ZnS Zinc displaces Hydrogen Double Displacement the cations and anions of two different compounds switch places forming two entirely different compounds Ex AgNO3 NaCl gt AgCI NaN03 Combustion the burning of a substance in the presence of oxygen EX CH4 2 02 gtC02 2 H20 Combination Reaction two reactants combine to form there are fewer products than reactants EX H2 Cl2 Decomposition Reaction a single compound breaks down into two or more elements or new compounds there are more products than reactants EX 2 H202 2 H2O 02 Average Atomic Mass average mass of isotopes same protons and electrons but diff of neutrons Isotopes of Carbon 12C 98892 13C 1108 Multiply mass by percentage of occurrence 98892x12 01108x1300335 12011 amu lt the averages are the s used on the periodic table Molecular Mass the sum of the atoms in the molecule CH4 carbon amu 120lgmo 1 atom hydrogen amu 101 gmol 4 atoms 1201 gmol 101 gmol x4 1605 gmol Formula Mass the sum of the atomic weights of the atoms in its empirical formula C6H1206 Empirical Formula CH2O carbon amu 1201 gmol 1 atom hydrogen 101 gmol 2 atoms oxygen 1600 gmol 1 atom 1201 gmol 101 gmol x 2 1600 gmol 3003 gmol Avogadro s number NA 6022 x 105 when multiplied by moles gives you the number of molecules Conversion Factors Grams lt Use molar mass gtMoleSlt Use Avogadro s gtMoecues When trying to nd grams of one molecule from the grams of another always convert to moles rst then to grams Ex 650 g of aluminum reacts with an excess of oxygen How many grams of aluminum oxide are formed 4A302 gt2A203 1st convert Al to moles 2ncl compare moles 3rCI convert back to grams 1 mol 1 atom of AI in equation lmolAl 2molA1203 10196g0fAl203 550 gAl X 2698g0fAl X 4molAl X lmolAl203 123 9 Ale3 found on periodic T AI 2698 x I O 1600 x I table grams of T atoms found T on periodic table Limiting Reactant Ex A 613 g sample of MgOH2 reacts with 316 g of HCI according to the reaction MgOH2 I HCI gt MgC2 2 H20 Find the limiting reactant In order to do so take each reactant and convert into moles lmolMg0H2 g X 583gMg0H2 mOI lmol HCl 315 9 HCI X 365gHCl Next compare the ratios of moles of each reactant needed Pick one of them to see how much of the other you need then compare that to how much you actually have 2 moles of H Cl needed 105 mol MgOH2 x 1m010fMg0H2 21 mol of HCI needed considering that we only have the HCI is the limiting reactant Since that is your limiting reactant you can use it to see how much Mng can be produced theoretically 1m0lMgCl2 953gMgCl2 X 2m0lHCl X 1m0lMgCl2 413 g M9C2 Percent Yield Suppose that is a lab a chemist actually obtained 458 g MgClz Actual Yield Yield Theoretical Yield X 100 413gMgCl2 458gMgCl2 X Stoichiometry tutorial httpswwwyoutubecomwatchvlVTOSWwEM one of the better ones Limiting ReactantReagent httpswwwyoutubecomwatchvkrioEleegc Chapter 4 Reactions in Solutions Precipitation Reactions a solid precipitate is created Usually happens during double displacement reactions when the anions and cations of two ionic compounds change partners 2 NaOH aq CUSO4aq gt Na2504aq CUOH2 S NaOH lt ionic because Na is a Group 1 element and therefore always has a 1 charge and OH hydroxide always has a 1 charge CuSO4 lt ionic because Cu is a metal and has a positive charge and 04 sulfate always has a charge of 2 Hydroxide OH39 and sulfate SO42 are anions because they have negative charges 0 Sodium Na and copper Cu are cations because they have positive charges Think of the t in cations as a sign Acidbase Neutralization an acid reacts with a base to create products of salt and water HCI NaOH gt NaCl H20 HCI is an acid because it donates Ht let unknown element M HM gt H M39 NaOH is a base because it donates OH39 let unknown element M MOH gt M OH39 Hydrolysis a reversible reaction where water breaks down 1 molecule into 2 fairly straightforward CH3C02CH3 aq H20 I gt HOCH3 aq CH3COOH aq A dehydration reaction would have 2 molecules as the and then 1 molecule and water as the products Oxidationreduction Redox Reaction one or more electrons are transferred changing the oxidation numbeILof a niolecule ion or atom i 3Mn024A gt3 Mn 2A203 t t 4 0 0 3 Oxidation is when the oxidation number gets bigger or more positive loses electrons Reduction is when the oxidation number gets smaller or more negative gains electrons Oxidation Number an indicator of how many or how little electrons the element has or if it is neutral 0 There are a few rules to consider when assigning oxidation numbers 1 2 3 4 An atom in its elemental state has an oxidation number of 0 Like in the example above when the Al and Mn were alone with no charge they had an oxidation number of 0 Even if they have a subscript like 02 they are 0 as long as there is no superscript charge An atom in a monoatomic ion has an oxidation number identical to its charge Like Al3 has an oxidation number of 3 and Ca2 has an oxidation number of 2 An atom in a polyatomic ion or in a molecular compound usually has the same oxidation number it would have if it were a monoatomic ion A lot of atoms have a set charge that they rarely deviate from The elements in Group 1 usually have always have a 1 charge Metals which are on the left of the periodic table will be mostly be positive while nonmetals will mostly have a negative charge 0 When assigning oxidation numbers there are a few major things that can be used 0 Oxygen usually has an oxidation number of 2 so whenever you see oxygen in an equation assume it is a 2 unless it doesn t give you the result you need then it has likely changed 0 Hydrogen is usually 1 but it can be either 1 or 1 depending on what kind of atom it has bonded to If it has bonded to a metal which are usually positive it will have an oxidation number of 1 If it is bonded to a nonmetal which are usually negative it will have an oxidation number of 1 0 Lastly Group 7 the halogens mostly have a 1 oxidation number because they are nonmetals Unless they are bonded to an oxygen atom in which case they will change to 1 A polyatomic ion will have an oxidation number of 0 if it is neutral If it has a charge on it then the oxidation numbers must equal the charge Take the polyatomic ion H3PO4 First we look at the oxygen and assign it a charge of 2 2 x 4 8 charge The 2 is still the oxidation number for the oxygen 8 is for the 04 So if this were a question on a test your answer for oxygen would be 2 Second we look at the hydrogen Since it is bonded to nonmetals it will have a charge of 1 1 x 3 3 Lastly we assign the phosphorous Since we need to neutralize the charge get it to 0 the phosphorous will have to have a charge of 5 So 8 3 5 0 Now take the polyatomic C0321 We need the overall charge to equal 2 As usual we rst assign the oxygen a 2 charge 2 x 3 6 Since we need the polyatomic ion to equal 2 we can give the carbon a charge of 4 So 6 4 i Another about oxidation is when they say Reducing Agent or Oxidizing Agent Back to the Redox equation i a v 3 Mn02 4 3 M 2 A203 4 O 0 3 Manganese Mn is being reduced gaining electrons but it is the Oxidizing Agent because it causes oxidation Mn takes the electrons away from the AI enabling the Alto be oxidized And vice versa the AI is being oxidized losing electrons it is the Reducing Agent because it gives its electrons away enabling Mn to take them and be reduced I know it s confusing so just try to remember that the names are switched The HalfReaction method is used to balance Redox Reactions The idea here is to split up the oxidation and the reduction equations Taking the equation Cus HN03aq gt Cu2aq NOg Assign oxidation 5 Cus Cu O HN03H1N5O6 Cu Cu 2 NOg N 2 0 2 Cu oses electrons so it becomes more positive it oxidizes 0 to 2 Oxidation HalfReaction Cu gt Cu2 1st thing to balance the oxygen with water so Cu gt Cu2 there aren t any oxygens 2ncl balance out the hydrogens so Cu gt Cu2 there was no water so no H to balance out 3rCI add electrons to balance charges Cu gt Cu2 2 e39 the electrons make the right side neutral N gains electrons so it becomes more negative it reduces 5 to 2 Reduction HalfReaction 1st balance out the oxygens HNO3 gt NO 2 H20 there are now three oxygens on both sides 2nCI balance out the hydrogens HNO3 3 H gt NO 2 H20 there are four hydrogens on both sides 3rCI add electrons HNO3 3 H 3 e39 gt NO 2 H20 the negatives and the positives cancel out Next the electron transfer must be balanced out There need to be equal amount of electrons in both of the half reactions There are 2 e39 in the oxidation halfreaction and 3 e39 in the reduction halfreaction The lowest common denominator for 2 and 3 is 6 2HN033H2e39 gtNO2H202HN036H6e39 gt2NO4H20 3Cu gtCu22e393Cu gt3Cu26e39 Now there is the same amount of electrons in both half reactions The next step is to put them back together 2HNO36H6 e393Cu gt2NO4H203Cu26 e39 The electrons cancel out and now the equation is balanced 2HNO36H3CUgt2NO4H203CU2 Solubility Rules Soluble Compounds 0 Group 1A Lit Nat K Rb Cs always soluble no exceptions Ammonium lon NH4 always soluble no exception Nitrate NO339 always soluble no exception Perchlorate CIO439 always soluble no exception Acetate CH3C0239 always soluble no exception Halides Cl39 Br39 I39 soluble unless combined with halides of Ag ng2 Pb2 Sulfate SO4239 soluble unless combined with sulfates of Sr Ba ng2 Pb2 Insoluble Compounds Carbonate CO3239 insoluble unless combined with carbonates of group 1A and NH4 Sul de 5239 unless combined with sul des of group 1A cations NH4 Ca2 Sr2 Ba2 Phosphate PO4339 unless combined with phosphates of group 1A cations NH4 Hydroxide OH39 unless combined with group 1A cations NH4 Ca2 Sr2 Ba2


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