Exam 2 Study Guide
Exam 2 Study Guide ENVD 3114
Popular in History and Theory of ENVD: Buildings
Popular in Environmental Science
This 25 page Study Guide was uploaded by Asia Peters on Monday October 12, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ENVD 3114 at University of Colorado taught by Lindsay,Georgia Lucille in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 120 views. For similar materials see History and Theory of ENVD: Buildings in Environmental Science at University of Colorado.
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Date Created: 10/12/15
Exam 2 Friday December 18 y History of Buildings Roman an nularvault aqueduct atrium attic axis barrel vault basmca ckcus sides and chariot circular or concrete rebars to dome forum temple halftimber a curving vault set in a ringshaped pattern an artificial channel for water sometimes underground but often elevated on arches the main inner court of a Roman house with an open roof and a central basin to catch rainwater the colonnade forecourt of a Christian church the story above the main cornice in a classical facade an imaginary straight line about which parts of a building or a group of buildings are arranged a long rounded vault an ancient Roman meeting hall oblong in plan with a high central space lit by clerestory windows hippodrome an ancient Roman roofless enclosure oblong in shape with one straight end and tiers of seats along both at the other end which was curved used for horse and races and gladiatorial contests an eighteenthcentury curved range of houses artificial stone made of a mixture of cement water gravel and sand reinforced concrete is embedded with steel rods or add tensile strength a curved roof usually spanning a circular or polygonal base and sometimes raised on a drum a public civic and commercial square in ancient Roman cities usually surrounded by colonnades and including a basilica and fountain a construction system in which a wooden frame is left exposed and filled in with brick or plaster Friday December 18 y historiated column a freestanding monumental column decorated with a spiral of fnezes hypocaust an ancient Roman central system using hot air ducts in the floors of the building keystone the central wedgeshaped stone voussoir in an arch sometimes decorated oculus a round window usually at the apex of a dome palisade a series of wooden posts with pointed tops set in the ground vertically as a fence or fortification porphyry purple igneous stone associated with royalty often coming from Egypt terracotta hard molded and fired clay used for ornamental wall covering or roof or floor tiles travertine a type of pockmarked limestone triumphal arch a decorated Roman gateway usually freestanding wit one or three arched openings celebrating the return of a victori ous general tufa a porous gray volcanic building stone villa a country house used as a gateway for urban elites and usually the seat of a working farm the Villa Suburbana built on the outskirts of Renaissance Rome for a wealthy cardinal was often without farming functions and featured ornate geometric gardens Concrete Concrete Revolution exploration of concrete vaults Pantheon bricks different arrangement of materials made of volcanic ash and limestone Standardization initiated by Augustus enabled proper and efficient expansion and protection of the empire all streets allowed transport of supplies war chariots armies etc Central heat Vitruvius which he nature Greek v Roman lintel front Islamic ablaq imaret tubre interlacing arches iwan kufik script madrasa mihrab minaret mosque plaza Friday December 18 y originally developed by ancient Greeks Hypocaust system of furnaces in empty spaces under the floor 807OBC 15BC Roman author architect civil engineer and military engineer wrote The Ten Books on Architecture in expressed his belief that architecture is an imitation of compare 3 column types temples dedication to public space contrast Greek less decorative Greek used marble and granite Roman used brick and concrete Greeks used post and Romans used arch Greek ceremonies took place outside in of temple Roman ceremonies took place inside Arabic term for alternating bands of colored stones in Islamic masonry derived from Byzantine opus mixtum literally quotsoup kitchenquot a Turkish term that has come to mean the campus of religious foundation that includes a cami mosque madrasa school hammam bath tomb and charitable soup kitchen an arcade or series of arches in which the arches intersect creating a lattice or basketlike pattern a large vaulted space open at one end used in Islamic palaces mosques and madrasas schools the rectangular intertwined lettering used to decorate Islamic religious buildings an Islamic theological or law school a niche in the qibla wall of a Muslim religious building indicating the direction toward Mecca a tall slender tower at a mosque from which the faithful are called to prayer by the crier or muezzin the prayer hall of Islam Spanish word for an open public space in a city portico qibla squinch shapeto Ribbed Dome Christian aisle ambulatory apse church baldacchino balustrade baptistery cathedral chevet choir coffer cornice Friday December 18 y a covered entranceway or porch with columns on one or more sides the prescribed Islamic prayer position facing Mecca to which all mosques and tombs are oriented a small arch or a series of gradually wider and projecting concentric arches across the interior corners of a square or polygonal room forming a transition from the room a circular dome or drum above perhaps inspired by basketweaving techniques or Berber tents and designed to lighten the load of domes ex Great Mosque of Cordoba a lateral division of a Christian church or an ancient Roman basilica parallel to the central nave and separated form it by colonnades a processional passageway around a shrine or flanking the apse of a Christian church a vaulted semicircular or semipolygonal wall recess or extension of a hall usually found at the sanctuary end of a Christian an ornamental canopy over a tomb altar or throne a decorative railing supported by a sees of small posts or balusters a centralplan structure usually octagonal for Christian baptism rites a bishop s church usually the principle church in a city the word derives from cathedra the bishop s throne a series of radiating chapels extended from the apse of a Gothic church the part of a church where the choice sits either incorporated with the chancel or directly in front of it a square or polygonal decorative panel embossed into a ceiling or an arch a projecting ornamental molding along the top of a ceiling or wall the top projecting part of an entablature a covet cornice is a circle crossing crypt dormer enfilade esplanade flying buttress gargoyle hippodrome lantern mansard roof nanhex nave pedestal pediment pilaster portico quoln rib ribbed vaults Friday December 18 y projecting molding hollowed in the shape of a quarter the intersection of the race and the transept in a Christian church a room or story beneath the main floor of a church sometimes underground containing graves relics or chapels a window that protrudes out of a pitched roof with its own pitched roof a suite of rooms with doorways aligned with each other a wide open landscape foregrounding a monumental urban complex an arch or halfarch that transfers the thirst of a vault or roof from an upper part of a wall to an external pylon a grotesque figure sculpted onto the downspouts of Gothic cathedrals an ancient Greek stadium for horse or chariot racing in the form of an oblong with one curved end a small fenestrated tower on top of a roof or dome admitting light to the space below a roof with a steep lower slope and a flatter upper slope on all four sides also called a gambrel roof in Great Britain the transverse vestibule of an early Christian church in either an ancient Roman basilica or a Christian church the taller central space lit by clerestories and flanked by aisles a support for a column statue or urn the triangular gable end of an ancient Greek or Roman temple also places as the crowning feature over a door or window some pediments are curved based on a segmental arch a shallow flattened rectangular column or pier attached to a wall and often modeled on an order a covered entranceway or porch with columns on one or more sides a continuous arcade rusticated stones places on the corners of a building a narrow protecting band on a ceiling or vault usually structural but sometimes merely decorative enforcing the lines of structure in Gothic cathedrals the articulation of groin vaults groin vault the crossvault spamming a bay of a Gothic structure Friday December 18 y rotunda a round hall or building usually topped with a dome rustication the separation of regular masonry blocks by deeply cut often wedgeshaped chamfered grooves string course a projecting horizontal band across an exterior wall of a building transept the transverse arms of a crossshaped church crossing the main axis at a right angle tribune the apse of a church the gallery in a church wheel window the central round window on the west facade of a cathedral often called the rose but usually depicting a wheel Roman ZOBCE 130 brick and Roman concrete limestone clay volcanic ash arches vaults stadium more decorated than Greek indoor ceremonies Maison Carree Nimes France 20 BCE resembled the north temple of the Forum of Pompeii the great distance between the two suggests Roman architect s tendency to follow easily reporoced standard models based on modular proportional system Friday December 18 y Colosseum Rome 70 CE Roman Empire s largest theater built of concrete vaults and travertine blocks fastened with iron clamps Tuscan bottom lonic middle Corinthian top level 32 elevators 8O arches wooden bandstands in the top for women and slaves Pompeii 70 CE acquired by Rome in 80 BCE bestpreserved example of Roman architecture also blended Oscan Etruscan and Greek ideas illustrates the importance of public space long orthogonal blocks Forum shows axial orientation streets paved with easily procurable dark lava stone with ruts carved to guide wagons and carts stepping intersections for pedestrians to avoid fountain water stones at Trajan s aqueduct Segovia Spain 100 CE a multistoried arcuated structure which testifies to Rome s pragmatic imposition of design over nature which channeled water from sources all over Rome and fed a number of water mills on the Janiculum put out of use by 17th century 7 Friday December 18 y Markets of Trajan Rome 110 CE designed y Apollodorus a series of commercial spaces abutting the Forum complex in a hemicycle 150 barrel vaulted taverna lit by a clerestory ground level shops opened to street 2nd level lined an annularvaulted corridor with views of the Forum V third level turned inward to the 39 39 Via Biberatica Roman Empire 125 CE The Pantheon Rome 125128 CE the most unorthodox religious building in ancient Rome emphasized curved space and sacred governance part temple part throne room combined Hadrian s desire to assimi late the value of the past while pushing the limits of concrete technology granite columns bronze doors section thickens as it descends oculus Friday December 18 y Early Islamic 6001000 rectangular plans large places for communal prayer islandfortress like intricate design Spread of Islam 630750 Kaaba 620 Mecca preIslamic cult site for Muslim pilgrims cubical granite structure containing many idols including a Friday December 18 y mysterious black meteorite rebuilt during life of Muhammad Dome of the Rock 687692 Jerusalem Isreal constructed on an elevated terrace centralplan structure resembling Christian martyrium includes a frieze interlacing kufic script pointed arches and ablaq used as propaganda to attract nonMuslims Ummayad Mosque 707714 12th century Damascus Syria abutted the Great Mosque alKhadra the Green Palace which drew upon the Byzantine precedent of combing temporal and religious authority reutilized the GrecoRoman temenos of the ancient city 10 Friday December 18 y Great Mosque 785990 Cordoba AlAndalus Spain the principle and central monument of the city near the river later known in Spanish as the Mezquita rose next to the alcazar the prince39s urban palace advertised Umayyad political independence identity wellbeing and the separation of western amir prince from the caliphate government of the Abbasid Empire Late Islamic 13001700 11 Friday December 18 y more complexintricate by design more structurally sound larger enclosed large spaces minarets no peopleanimals face Mecca Alhambra 13503 Granada last independent Muslim state in Spain developed by the Nasrid dynasty a fortress on a steep promontory used as a pleasure palace that remains the best Islamic architecture in aIAndalus took name after red clay of the hilltop first built as a home for Jewish poet Ishmael ibn Nagrila grew into a dense palacecity of courts gardens and 5 different palaces Sehzade Cami 1530 Istanbul Turkey built for the sultan39s firstborn son Mehmed who died in infancy central dome abutted with 4 semidomes windows aIIowed unified space to exude optimism light and openness 12 Friday December 18 y Lutffallah Mosque 1603 Isfahan Iran named after Shaykh Lutfallah an exiled Shiite mystic favored by the court used exclusively by the shah his court and his harem who accessed the prayer hall from an underground passage beneath the maydan entry resembled a labyrinth oriented to be viewedin full profile be the qibla as an emblem of power and greatness 13 Friday December 18 y Early Christian 1st model is rectangular apse at back long colonnade along sides ceiling painted to represent Heavens Basilica of St Peter Rome 320330 monotheistic large gathering space nave for bishops and alike Santa Sabina Rome Lazio 422432 2nd model is circular often attached tombashes in middle colonnade around space Santa Costanza Rome 337 Hagra Sophia Constantinople 530 14 Friday December 18 y Pilgrimage Gothic 12001600 shaped like cross bell towers at front chapels around apse to hold relic compared to St Peter Early both have apse nave transept towerlike things procession rectangular shape contrast to St Peter gothic longer transept cross chapels more pronounced apse convents looked like castles functioned like cities GOTHIC wheel window ribbed vaults gargoyle flying buttress Aachen Charlemange 800 postRoman futilism St Denis Cathedral France 11303 redesigned by Abbot Suger a Benedictine monk gothic church with transparency to represent Christ K with an oculus stained glass windows and spindly members 15 Notre Dame portraits of synthesis of Church interlacing pointing Renaissance 14001550 rebirth Friday December 18 y France mid 1250s started by Chelsea and Montrieul and completed by Loius lX s architects large windows a mezzanine entablature 28 niches for sculpted French Kings to create an ideological and state pitched roof on nave balance strong horizontality start to build from ideas plans flourish of private dwellings less ornament on front than Gothic 16 Friday December 18 y Brunelleschi s Dome Florence 14191446 resembled the early Christian basilicas of Rome flat coffered ceiling arcades raised on slender Corinthian columns rational clarity and luminosity for a sacred place Sta Maria Novella Florence 1450s by Alberti lower parts from midfourteenth century framed base of avelli niches for the tombs with monolithic green Corinthian columns an attic punctuated with intarsia squares and an upper story in the form of a flattened temple front 17 Friday December 18 y Villa Capra Vicenza 1565 Villa Rotunda built by Palladio perfectly symmetrical in all directions six column ionic temple front porches double height rotunda with hemispheric home ll Gesu Facade Rome 1584 model for many CounterReformation churches no side aisles to give the nave more auditory function as in Protestant churches in tense decoration two 7 E stories articulated with f I I paired pilasters and I 7 connected by scrolls 7 Michelangeloesque detail in double pediment above door 18 Friday December 18 y Boroque 15501700 dramatic aggressive more complex in geometry St Peter s Dome Rome 1560s dome completed in 1586 42 meter diameter dome flying butresses engaged Corinthian cloumns 16 ribbed arches longitudinal basilica restored Rome s role as the 1 spu ual leader of the city and the world San Carlo Alle Quatro Fontane Rome 1638 undulated twostory entry porch curving colonnade deep niches and smaller columns in the bays 5 degree axis shift marble spongelike cupola Sant lvo alla Sapienza Rome 1640s based on a composition of two superimposed equilateral triangles rotated to form a 6 point star corners with convex piers semicircle apses on each side pumpkin shaped dome zigguratlike spiral that ascends to a flaming crown implying the path to knowledge 19 Friday December 18 y Neoclassicism 16401850 return to classic orders of Roman and Greek large scale domes pillars colonnades rotundas porticos arcaded characterized by a series of arches on columns or piers either free standing or attached to a wall a covered walk lined with shops and offices and lit from the top Christopher Wren builder of St Stephen Walbrook London in 1680 St Paul help rebuild London after Great Fire of 1666 Inigo Jones 16031625 creator of most successful classical projects designed Queen s House and Covent Garden Square London s first coordinated urban plan St Paul s London 16801710 influenced by St Stephen s cross scheme dome on ring of corinthean columns 3 layers interior hemisphere dome over crossing concealed conical dome to support lantern hemispherical basilicais with choir exterior dome as long as nave 20 Friday December 18 y Parson Capen Massechusetts late 1683 SaltBox style parsonage for the local Congregational Church jetties on front pilastered chimney casemate windows English style Blenheim near Oxford 1704 classical motifs aristocratic residence and national monument Ushaped forecourt double pediment clerestory urns volutes sculptural chimneys bust of Louis XIV Karlskirche Vienna 1720s tall oval dome and side belfries with bulging crowns resembling Boroque two historiated columns on the sides of classical temple front 21 Friday December 18 y Vierzehnheiligen Bavaria 1723 bulging entry bay 2 tall bell towers interior colored marbles undulating balconies angels and rococo ornament colorful columns CU l VGS Chiswick House Chiswick 1725 cubical base supporting octagonal drum dome pedimented porch recessed arches obelisks on sides double set of bifurcated stairs at entry french style gallery in back which contradicted Palladian simplicity 22 Friday December 18 y Carpenter s Hall Philadelphia 1770 The First Continental Conoress oi the United Colonies of North America met here symmetrical Georgian Scottish style China 14001700 swooping roofs moat color as symbol big open spaces 23 wood Forbidden City figures on courts etc Temple of Heaven green Japan 1 6005 assymetry upturned eaves 24 Friday December 18 y China 14071420 relationships order hierarchy swooping roofs symmetry large open courtyards roof color distinction red procession of gates until reach the emperor China 1500s flow acceptance response axial or radial representations of heaven and earth blue gold Friday December 18 y mazelike stone base gables dormers neutral colors open to nature Himeji White Heron Tenshu 6010 openness to natural features castlelike fortified corridors large central tower Ninomaru Palace Nijo Compound 16161636 connection to garden luxury not defense 25
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