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MIC 101: study guide

by: Marlee Delgado

MIC 101: study guide MIC 101

Marlee Delgado
GPA 3.5
Intro to Microbiology
Eric Mann

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Intro to Microbiology
Eric Mann
Study Guide
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Marlee Delgado on Monday October 12, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to MIC 101 at University of California - Davis taught by Eric Mann in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Intro to Microbiology in Microbiology at University of California - Davis.


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Date Created: 10/12/15
Week 1 Microbiology I The Humoral Theory a Mesopotamia i Disease and treatment was religious b Ancient Egypt i Smith papyrus came out which was probably a war manual because all the patients were male and had wounds caused by weapons 1 1St mention inflammation ii The Ebers papyrus was a more complete medical text 1 1St to mention homeostatic methodto stop bleeding burning 2 Divided disease into 2 categories and explained triage 3 Triage a treatablerequires immediate attention b treatabledoesn t need immediate attention c not treatable c Ancient India i Atharva Veda 1 Still used charms and spells to ward off disease similar to the god theory in Mesopotamia ii Ayur Veda 1 A collection of Hindu medicine a Described the body to be composed of 7 elements and that after 5 days each component was transformed into the next b Describes how hygiene is important iii Susruta 1 Hindu surgeon a He wrote the collection of susruta which described surgery but also included bed side manner and psychology b Described disease as the imbalance of 3 humors gall mucus and wind c However it is not completely science yet because treatment involved prayer and incantations If used drug therapy it was all plant drugs d Ancient Greece i Temples of Asclepia 1 Asclepia was probably a tribal medicine man 2 These temples were built and patients sent here after physicians could not treat or diagnose them 3 How it worked patients would eat then sleep and asclepiad would visit them in their dreams and tell them what is imbalanced or wrong and causing them to be sick ii Hippocratic Corpus 1 A naturalistic approach focusing on observation and diagnosis The first treatment was diet then drugs and surgery last 2 Don t know if Hippocrates is a single person or a collection of physicians e Ancient GreeceCurrent Turkey Galen born in Pergamum 1 Went to med school in Alexandria Came back to be a gladiator physician surgeon Moved to practice in Rome Performed LOTS of animal dissections Wrote On the Usefulness of the Parts of the Body which was the used anatomy book until renaissance 6 Approved humoral theory and gave it the needed authority 9159quot f The four Humors Blood phlegm black bile yellow bile Prob based on handling containers of blood after it settled into layers Modern terms Oxygenated RBCred blood cells buffy coat WBC deoxygenated RBC plasma iv The humoral theory contains nothing supernatural and was a huge advance in medicine The Germ Theory a Louis Pasteur 18221895 vi vii viii xi xii xiii xiv Back then science was not universal and each country was competing to advance quottheirquot science ie French science vs german science 15t Louis Pasteur was helping the Lille alcohol industry because they would make alcohol from beet juice and sometimes they would get grey slime instead of alcohol Pasteur looked at healthy vats vs sick vats under the microscope and discovered that quothealthyquot ones contained yeast and quotsickquot ones contained bacteria He suggested that the yeast was responsible for the production of alcohol AND that the bacteria were responsible for the grey slime which had lactic acid PASTEUR ASSOCIATED SPECIFIC MICROBES WITH SPECIFIC METABOLIC PROCESSES This was absurd bc german scientists said it was a pure chemical process but Pasteur was RIGHT 2quot I once microbes discovered the next question was how did they arise FELIX POUCHET claimed he could prove they were spontaneous Pasteur wanted to disprove so he boiled growth medium sealed and left to sit 9N0 growth Pouchet No you are not allowing in the quotvital essence that is in the air Pasteur same but instead of seal he put a cotton plug Pouchet the plug filters out the quotvital essence Paseur ok then ill just create a swan neck flask with an S shape quot12 neck This was the quotvital essence can get in but any particles such as dust get caught in the neck 9N0 growth PASTEUR DEMONSTRATED MICROBES ARE PRESENT IN AIR XV xvi xvii xviii xix 3rd Pateur loved wine and decided to help the French wine industry with their spoilage problem He found that diseased wine contained different bacteria and quothealthyquot wine had no bacteria amphe could predict the problem ie too sour bitter etc by looking at the bacteria in the wine He developed a way to kill bacteria without hurting the wine slow heating to 63 C and maintain for 30min it s called pasteurization PASTEUR DEMONSTRATED DIFFERENT DISEASES OF WINE ARE CAUSED BY DIFFERENT BACTERIA He proposed his germ theory of the 3 bold sent And wanted to prove that different microbes or germs could cause diff disease in humans BUT he was too late b ROBERT KOCH c Back to Pasteur i vi Originally he wanted to practice in America but he got married to his cousin loveless marriage and she sent him to the rural part of Germany because she knew he would be unfaithful in America So he accidentally came across sheep fields with anthrax and decided to study it Inoculated mice with splinter covered in sheep blood r quoton He grew bacilli in vitreous humor of ox s eye on glass slide Hug Then reintroduced into a healthy mouse and the mouse jokLKA contracted Anthrax PROVED PASTEURS GERM THEORY this lead to a job in The Imperial Health office in Berlin gain 1 He determined spots of bacteria were quotcoloniesquot 3511ausk i that originated from a single bacteria m 2 Developed streak technique D d fmv Koc 3 With the help of his wife s friends inented agar 23 medium instead if potatoes 3771 ng 4 His lab assistant Robert Petri invented petri dishes rw39 V V Chicken Cholera was ruining the poultry industry and Pasteur began to study huge He was culturing batches of pasteurela multocida chicken cholera 949 Left one batch on the bench during vacation and when he came back and used it the chickens didn t get cholera So he made a new batch bc they thought the first one was just too old then inoculated the same chickens with the new batch and the chickens STILL didn t get cholera They used the new batch on different chickens and they died THEY MADE A CHOLERA VACCINE NEXT Pasteur decided to make an anthrax vaccine to spite Koch Pasteur set up a PUBLIC demonstration of French science and his anthrax vaccine that worked d KOCH WANTED TO BEAT PASTEUR i He set out to find the cause for TB ii He found it was mycobacterium tuberculosis iii He proved pasteur s theory for human disease iv Published Koch s Postulates 1 Microbe must be found in diseased animal but not healthy 2 Microbe must be isolated and grown in pure culture 3 Microbe from the pure culture must produce the same disease when inoculated into healthy animals 4 Microbe must be reiisolated from newly inoculated animal e PASTEUR SAW THIS AS A CHALLENGE ANS STARTED TO WORK ON A VACCINE FOR RABBIES i He was showing success ii A boy bit by a rabid dog convinced Pasteur to give him the vaccine iii Through 13 injections of increasing strength where the last injection contained virulent rabies virus iv The boy and physician survived physician accidentally injected himself so he had to undergo all injections v After that funds came in to establish PASTEUR INSTITUTE which is well known for vaccine study f KOCH UNDER PRESSURE i He had a mistressfinancial pressure amp under political pressure because Pasteur made France look GREAT ii So Koch releases tuberculin a treatment for TB only it wasn t iii He knew that but released it anyway and hundreds of people died and he had to reveal the real nature of tuberculin and flee to Egypt iv In 1905 Koch won the nobel prize for discovering mycobacterium tuberculosis and tuberculin bc tuberculin was used in tb TEST g BOTH HELPED DEFINE THE FIELD OF MICROBIOLOGY AS A SEPARATE AND DISTINCT FIELD OF STUDY III The Growth of Bacteria a Growth curve Stationary phase 61 2 Z 3 L09 phase 5 exponential 5 phase o E 3 z Lag phase i Lag Phase 1 When bacteria need to adapt to their new environment ii Logarithmic phase 1 Period where bacteria undergo rapid binary fission 2 Maximum growth for that scenario iii Startionary Phase 1 Cryptic growth when death rate cell divisions 2 Nutrients02 depleted 3 When immune system kicks in iv Death Phase 1 cell deaths exceeds cell divisions Pure culture i A population of cells arising from a single cell Colony i Macroscopic visible cluster of microbes on solid medium ii Each colonypure culture Media i Defined media know all components ii Unknown media actual components unknown but contains 1 Yeast 2 Peptone 3 Blood or serum 4 Beef heart extract Plating techniques i Streak Plate isolations 1 The volume in the loop is generally 1ml9100microliters iii Pour plate Isolation 1 Allows both aerobic on top and microaerophilic bacteria to grow inside the agar f Classification of bacteria based on Temperature i Psychrophiles cold loving 1 Obligate Psychrophiles a It HAS to be cold below 20C b Common in arctic mountain tops and ocean floors c Membranes have lots of unsaturated fatty acids to keep them from freezing too compact Fig 75 N lembrane fluidity Visc0u Unsaturated h drocarbons Saturated hydrocarbon tails As temperatures cool membranes switch from a uid state to a solid state Membranes rich in unsaturated fatty acids are more uid that those rich in saturated fatty acids Membranes must be uid to work orooery they are usually about as uid as salad oil 2 Facultative pschrophiles a Prefer cold ie below 20C but can grow at higher b Common in fridge ii Mesophiles middle loving 1 Optimum 2040C 2 Most common bacteria 3 Most pathogens iii Thermophiles 1 Obligate thermophiles a have to be above 37C to grow b optimum 5060C c common in hot water lines hot spring d membranes have lots of saturated fatty acids 2 Facultative thermophiles a Grow best above 37C but can grow below also b Common in compost heaps and cooler hot springs 3 Hyperthermophiles a Optimum near 100C b Archeaeobacteria near deep ocean vents c Example Strain 121 121C is autoclave temp g Classification based on Oxygen i Aerobic bacteria 1 Obligate aerobes required oxygen 2 Facultative aerobes don t need oxygen but do better with it 3 Microaerophiles require small amounts of oxygen but are damaged by large amounts ii Anaerobic bacteria 1 Aerotolerent anaerobes ignore oxygen and don t care if it is present or not Obligate anaerobesrequire NO oxygen cannot tolerate 02 Facultative anaerobes can grow with oxygen but grow best without it


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