HISTORYOFLATINAMERICASTUDYGUIDE.pdf HIST 3711
Popular in History of Latin America Midterm Study Guide
Popular in History of Latin America and the Caribbean (HSTLAC)
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HISTORY OF LATIN AMERICA STUDY GUIDE ID s Week 1 o Mesoamerican civilization in central Mexico 0 Capital was Tenochtitlan hegemony in a group of welldeveloped and structurally organized states larger than most prominent European cities Complex society with language religion knowledge about astronomy and mathematics and culture Empire of warriors like Mayans When the Aztecs conquered an area they would let the area maintain its culture and social structure 20000 sacrificed in Tenochtitlan Invaded by Hernan Cortes in search of wealth fame land and gold it was in its heyday when Spanish arrived 0 Mesoamerican civilization in modern day Peru 0 0 0 The largest empire in pre Columbian America 4 provinces and tight control of population lived in difficult terrain mountains in Peru Complex society with language religion knowledge about astronomy and mathematics and culture Access to silver When the Incas would conquer an area they would change the entire society Consisted of 4 provinces that were tightly controlled Invaded by Francisco Pizarro o 1519 Spanish conquistador that conquered the Aztec Empire 0 0 0 0 Dona Maria mistress translator for Cortes helped Cortes communicate with Aztecs Exploited Aztec for gold eventually waged a war that destroyed much of Aztec civilization Noted that the Aztec Empire was shockingly developed large Participated in the conquest of Cuba o 1520s 1530s Spanish conquistador that conquered the Incan Empire 0 Exploited indigenous peoples in search of silver 0 viceroy the regal officials living in colonial Latin America who ran the semi autonomous colonies in place of the Royal Crown 0 0 0 Throughout colonial history until independence depending on colony 1500s 1800s Use of the audiencias New Granada Colombia 1717 and Rio de la Plata 1776 appellate court established upon colonization with the hope that it would keep colonies under Royal control 0 After the audiencias were insufficient viceroys were established administrative council that governed a municipality 0 Sometimes appointed sometimes elected 0 Representative of land owning heads of households Moctezuma o Aztec Emperor o Kidnapped by Cortes and assassinated on 1524 0 Death of Montezuma leads to fall of Tenochtitlan and Aztec Empire 1521 Council of Indies 1524 0 Spain legislates laws of the Indies that heavily regulate the colonial life 0 combined legislative executive and judicial powers 0 with Bourbon reforms Minister of the Indies and a Secretary of War were created with superseded the administrative functions of the Council Jesuits 0 Portuguese and Spanish religious order that voyaged to the new world to Christianize natives o destroyed indigenous culture established religious hegemonic rule 0 also spoke to save indigenous people from their enslavement 0 Removed from Colonial Latin America by the Bourbon reforms late 18th century Bartolome de las Casas seen as most in uential missionary he traveled back to Spain to speak against native exploitation of encomiendas influenced New Laws of the Indies for the Good Treatment and the Preservation of the Indians Castas o socio racial classification designed to describe the mixture of blood and establish social hierarchies in Latin American territories pigmentocracy Spanishpenninsular creoles mestizos mulattos etc these are legal standings racial classes social Abolished in Mexico by Father Morelos Sentiments of the Nation 1813 Encomienda o slaves exchanged to Spanishcreoles so they may be converted to Catholicism labor for conversion Mestizo 0 mixed race half Spanish half native american Patriarchy 0 created order over women in the initial chaotic disorder 0 Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz yo la peor de todas Known as a poet had the choice of marriage or becoming a nun and chose being a nun Church made her give up reading and writing and eventually lost the cause that she was fighting against patriarchy Patronato 0 Royal patronage Patronato Royal established that the crown is going to have control over appointments of the Church in America and the finances of the Church tax on trade that was meant for the Church and its mission in many Ways the church is in the jurisdiction of the crown accord about the direction of the Church and how the crown is going to control it Tordesillas Treaty 1494 Spain went to the Pope and said that they Wanted to claim the land that Columbus had discovered However Portugal Wanted a division to claim their exploration territory Upon conquest conquistadores can claim the territory as their own The line was pushed back slightly more into Brazil giving Portugal that territory 0 O O O 0 J os Maria Morelos 0 Father Jose Maria Morelos Officer in Hidalgo s rebellion Mestizo More organized and disciplined army Clear goals End to slavery End of caste system End of tribute paid by indigenous people All born in the Americans were Americanos Declared Mexican independence 1813 Attracted few Creoles Morelos captured and executed Jose Maria Morelos Mestizo priest in training leader of Mexico s popular independence movement 18111814 While his military campaigns were ultimately fruitless Morelos contributed greatly to the ideology of the Mexican revolution Called for social equality of all Mexicans esp indigenous Indians and castas as much as independence from Spain Considered this a moral issueChristian mission Did not call for fighting between groups but peaceful resolution of class and ethnic conflicts The Sentiments of the Nation 23 articles Calls for independence from Spain official Catholic religion sovereignty of the people only people born in America can take office laws apply to everyone and should mitigate against both wealth and poverty abolition of slavery and caste system Other historians summed up his vision calling it A Kingdom of Christian Equality limpieza de sangre 0 refers to some type of purity Regarding the Reconquista of Iberia it refers to those whose ancestors had been Christian with no Muslim or Jewish ancestry Regarding Spanish assets in New World it refers to those pure of European blood with no indigenous or African ancestry fueros 0 Financial and legal privileges o normally given to nobility military and church 0 the fueros system fuels a social hierarchy that later constitutions would hope to dismantle in the name of social equity Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz 0 See patriarchy above Week 2 reforms made by the new Bourbon monarchy in Spain in the late 18th century 0 Administrative Reforms New Viceroyalties Nueve Granada Rio de la Plata forbade sale of administrative positions explusions of the Jesuits 1767 o Modernization of the economy no more eet system free trade within Spanish America intercontinental trade better revenue collection eliminated contraband better defenses of the colonies o Impacts of Reforms increased social amp economic tensions British blockade of 1796 amp invasions of Buenos Aires 1806 amp 1807 end of economic monopoly of Spain system which Spain sent only two eets of fortified ships between Spain and the American colonies in a year 0 3 ports Lima Cartagena amp Havana 0 Used to control tax collection and protection on sea 0 Old Rule colonies not allowed to produce anything that is produced in Spanish America sugar mills but tons of contraband everywhere Bourbon reform rule that allowed any port in Spanish American to trade with Spain abandonment of Fleet system 0 more revenue for the crown less contraband 2 1822 first Emperor of Brazil after he declares independence of Portugal local juntas governing bodies that were open to outsiders of the cabildos 0 anyone who were Vecinos standing in society it means literally neighbors could come 0 seeking autonomy in urban centers Mexican army general who was a key figure in the fight for Mexican independence in 1821 0 Plan de Iguala 1821 sought to transfer seat of monarchy from Spain to Mexico if Spanish refused Mexico had right to elect own ruler and declare independence 0 1822 Constitutional Congress amp Agustin declared emperor of Mexico tradition of Monarchy died 1824 desire to emulate what was already being done in Europe written by Father Morelos features 23 articles est Mexican independence roman Catholicism popular sovereignty voting and public office state holidays 0 abolished castas and exploitation in Mexico El Libertador leads independence push of Spanish Americas starting in Venezuela eventually frees Colombia Peru Ecuador and Bolivia 0 Separatist movement leader 0 gained support of llaneros o dies in Santa Marta 1830 decree made by Simon Bolivar that allowed any American to kill any Spaniard that didn t help in the fight for independence notable for use of an American identity Federalists wanted the Confederation of the River Plate to remain isolated from the rest of the Argentine provinces o B Aires main port of call money only for this province rather than for all 0 Federalists vs Unitarians 1820s1860s o Federalists seek decentralized power central state and localitiesprovinces have their own separate spheres of power 0 Unitarians seek centralized power everything at the state level and below is controlled by the state state appoints lower officials 0 New nations struggle ex Mexico and Argentina with how much power they should allocate to higher and lower levels of government Mexico Confederated Republic 18231834 gt Centralist Republic 18341846 gt Federal Republic 18461854 Argentina Rosas Regime Buenos Aires in the Confederationgt National Organization Federal Republic leader of independence movement in Rio de la Plata Argentina 0 attacks Viceroyality of Peru liberates Santiago 1817 and frees Peru in 1820 o meets Bolivar in Guayaquil 1822 leaves and returns to Europe legions of black slave fighters who were promised their freedom for fighting under San Martin 0 many died ampor freedom rescinded led to a wipeout of much of the black Argentine population 0 6th Infantry regiment of Pardos and Morenos were all black units Mexican priest who in 1810 raised a significant army to march to Mexico city for independence from Spain 0 grito de dolores nowadays commemorated as the Mexican Independence day 0 Although he had no military background he was a prominent leader 0 killed in 1811 0 Southern Mestizo launches guerilla warfare against Spanish rulers in Mexico killed in 1815 o 1813 declares independence in the south 0 idea that everyone Americanos Miguel Hidalgo Father Hidalgo was a Mexican priest born in Guanajuato who in 1810 raised a mobilization of peasants and criollos to march into Mexico City for independence from Spain Hidalgo s Grito de Dolores is nowadays commemorated as the Mexican Independence day Although Father Hidalgo didn t have a military background he led major events in the Mexican Revolution Hidalgo was executed by a firing squat on 1811 Jose Maria Morelos Mexican priest who upon Father Hidalgo s death in 1811 arose as leader of the Mexican Revolution Native of Michoacan Morelos was a well rounded military strategist who launched guerilla warfare against Spanish rulers in Mexico On 1813 he wrote The Sentiments of the Nation Two years prior to his execution on 1815 Sentiments of the Nation 23 articles ratifying Mexican Independence Catholicism and popular soereignty Writen by Father Morelos in 1813 Abolished castas and exploitation Agustin de Iturbide Mexican army general native of Morelia Iturbide played a vital role in the fight of Mexican independence He wrote the Plan de Iguala on 1821 which sought to transfer the monarchical seat from Spain to Mexico Iturbide then crowns himself emperor of Mexico on 1822 He was later executed on 1824 Week 3 Caudillos Leaders using violence or threat of violence for political ends Ruling with charisma seduction and fear at same time Did not replace institutional framework but ignored or bent constitutions and other frameworks in place From militarycivilians on horseback llanerosgauchos Santa Anna Antonio Paez J M de Rosas Patronage 1816 2 Optimism 1820 s Pessimism 1840 s Pessimism because of failures in 182030s conservative reaction 1840s caudillo era Unitarians vs federalists liberals vs conservatives conservatives wanted more power for church Renew Optimism 1850 s60 s Customs idea of nationalizing customs of which Buenos Aires had monopoly was contentional subject Constitution Triple Alliance Justo Jose de Urquizagovernor of Entre Rios Brazil Uruguay 1852 defeated Rosas and sent him to exile Argentine Forefathers Juan Bautista Alberdi and Domingo Sarmiento Constitutional Convention National Constitution of 1853 Federal Republic Buenos Aires rejects Constitution 1861 Confederation vs Buenos Aires acting independently and ourishing later forced to join and share its wealth National Constitution 1862 First President of Argentina 18531861 Constitution Federal Intervention arts 5 and 6 when government in danger central government can interfere President 6yr term with no consecutive reelecton Catholic State until 1994 but freedom of religion to attract immigrants because country relatively less populated Federal Capital to be resolved by law Age of Rivadavia The Happy Experience 0 Province of Buenos Aires 182029 The Happy Experience because free to develop University of Buenos Aires 1821 universal suffrage 1821 freedom of press constitution of 1826 drafted Unitarian Constitution but rejected by provinces again sources of con ict Unitarianfederalists and economycustoms had to share customs to support landlocked provinces Domigo Sarmiento Unitarian Most influential liberal of Latin America One of the Argentine founding fathers Opposed Rosas reign exiled to Santiago becomes a newspaper writer Argentine President in 1868 Juan Bautista Alberdi One of the Argentine founding fathers Opposed Rosas reign exiled to Chile Uruguay and Europe Many of his writings were incorporated into the Argentine Constitution of 1853 Despised Sarmiento Week 4 Argentine Confederation Conservative Order 18801916 Ratification of Buenos Aires as capital 1880 Introduction of the Peso National Army strengthened 1 party system PAN GDP growth Rise of immigration General Roca Saenz Pe a Law Electoral Reform of 1912 Saenz Pena Law Male secret and compulsory voting Other country with compulsory voting was Australia PAN lost and main opposition party won Week 5 o Liberalism v Nationalism 193040s 1950s 0 politicaleconornic liberalism foreign investmentcapital vs domestic productioncapital economic nationalism Braden vs Peron Democratic Union vs Peron o antagonism in uenced by the Infamous Decade o This battle would be largely won by Peron s Nationalism establishing his power base greatly supported working class Argentines who faced the difficulties of the Great Depression 0 Concordancia 0 political alliance made up of Conservatives UCRA splinter Radical Party and PS1 splinter Socialist party 0 established in 1932 by Agustin Justo Liberalbelieves military has essential role in Argentina s development Concordancia emerges out of the military coup d etat that overthrows Yrigoyen led by Nationalist Jose Uriburu Military breaks into factions and Justo s faction wins out in 1932 Concordancia political hegemony 19321943 0 employs electoral fraudadded to illegitimacy of the government 0 Paves the way for the rise of Peron Juan Domingo Peron President Castillo 0 Leader of Concordancia from 1940 1943 0 had a mix of liberals supported Allies and nationalists supported Axis in his cabinet 0 his candidate for presidency was Robustiano Costas people knew not his political affiliation how he would lead the country 0 employs electoral fraud 0 Castillo s presidency more directly paves the way for GOU coup of 1943 which overthrew him and rise of Peron PanAmerican Conference 1942 0 After Pearl Harbor US gathered Latin American countries to declare war on Axis Powers 0 Argentina stated it would not and kept its neutrality o This strained USArgentine relations 0 GOU Group of United Officers 0 Responsible for the overthrow of Castillo in 1943 o employed corporatist principles functional representation of interests in legislature armyworkers teachers political parties etc o Peron played active part in GOU movement 0 Through GOU Peron became secretary of labor builds political base with workers secretary of war builds political base with army vice president exercises political strength through weak president 0 political affiliations through GOU establish his presidential platform 1946 0 Democratic Union 0 Political opposition to Peron s increasing popularity 0 composed of UCR Conservatives Socialists and Communists 0 Political base was formed on the ideas of freedom of speech liberty free elections etc but made no mention of social issues liberal democratic rhetoric In contrast Peron policy focused on a social aspect ensuring social justiceeconomic rights democracy relies on the establishment and empowerment of working people not in political liberalism and exploitation of oligarchs 0 Democratic Union s rhetoric did not resonate with working people who suffered through the Infamous Decade o Braden V Peron o 1946 Election slogan 0 US Ambassador Braden accused Peron of Fascist sympathies in his Blue Book on Argentina 0 Nationalists dubbed it a as people s choice between siding with Braden and being a puppet of US and siding with Peron promoting Argentine sovereignty and nationalism Eva Peron Evita Peron Spiritual link between Peron and the People Fundacion Eva Peron new First Lady organization to go to social actions Feminine Branch of the Peronist Party Women s Vote 1947 Week 6 Porfirio Diaz Mexican Caudillo who ruled Mexico during the Porfiriato for 34 years Diaz ruled from 18761910 and led the nation in times of great progress and foreign investment yet it all came with high inequality and violations of human rights Diaz came into power with the slogan of Order Peace and Progress as well an anti re election campaign against President Lerdo de Tej ada39s second term President Madero sent Diaz into exile in Paris on 1911 Emiliano Zapata Local leader of the peasant guerrilla movement known as the Zapatistas Zapata is remembered as one of the heroes of the Mexican Revolution he supported President Madero in 1910 with the hopes of removing Diaz from power Zapata s main motive for helping Madero was obtaining a land reform promise that Madero made yet he never fulfilled Zapata signed the plan of Ayala on Nov 1911 ending all compromises with President Madero Zapata was assassinated in 1919 Francisco Pancho Villa Mexican Constitution of 1917 Written in Queretaro s Constitutional Convention of 1916 Two of its most noteworthy articles included article 27 and article 123 Article 27 addressed two main issues one being that the government had the right to intervene in private property and the second included various limitations for the Catholic Church Article 123 exposed a reformative labor code the most progressive at the time Article 123 Maximilian of Hapsburg o Monarch established by France s invasion and allegiance with Mexican conservatives 0 Empire lasts from 18641867 0 Maximilian displeases Liberals and Conservatives who see him as too liberal for their liking o executed in 1867 Juarez and Liberals gain immense popularity and Conservatives are vilified for bringing a foreign power into Mexico opened the Way for Liberals and the Restored Republic Catholicism lost its former prominence in society 0 Benito Juarez 0 Mexican President 18611872 President during French Invasion of 1861 removed in 1862 comes back 3rd term in 1867 after occupation 4th Term1871 lead against French occupation of Mexico 0 Four term president 0 instituted extensive economic and educational reforms to modernize Mexico 0 Unlimited terms of Juarez in uenced the eventual rise of Porfirio Diaz 0 Francisco Madero 0 Mexican President 19111913 after the exile of Diaz May 25 1911 Madero s revolution started in Northern Mexico called for liberal democracy 0 Madero s revolution transitioned to Zapatas call for the redistribution of land in Morelos and Villas call to confiscate land for his mercenary army 0 Brought down in 1913 through Embassy Pact secret alliance of old Porfiristas conservatives Huerta and US Ambassador Henry Wilson this caused Huerta to lead CounterRevolution After Huerta this lead to the eventual rise of Constitutionalists 0 Plan de San Luis de Potosi 1910 0 Political document expressing Madero s extreme disapproval of Diaz and the call for electoral reform and a liberal democracy 0 calls on groups to take arms against Diaz 0 eventually leads to the exile of Diaz and Madero s presidency 0 would usher in the revolution and rise eventual rise of Zapata and Villa Week 7 Plutarco Elias Calles 19241928 1934 0 Cristero Rebellion arose from the Constitution of 1917 severe oppression to the Catholic Church 0 creation of National Revolutionary Party Lazaro Cardenas 19341940 0 increased land distriibution by 400 o favored the ejidos 0 took national control of the economy 0 nationalization of oil 0 secularization and educational reform reorganization of PRM corporatist model 0 representation of working class agrarian sector and the army 0 functional representation of interests 0 everyone represented in Congress through the division of interests not practical in application Presidentialism 0 strengthening of the federal government 0 can be seen through the social Articles found in the Constitution of 1917 that power Would be concentrated in the hands of the State Readings 0 John Charles Chasteen Born in Blood and Fire 0 CHAPTER 1 0 non sedentary peoples mobile hunters and gatherers small groups and simple social organization Pampas people of Argentina more egalitarian o semisedentary peoples forest people Tupi adapt to thin tropical soils shifting cultivation slash and burn garden plots in agricultural techniques built villages but moved frequently more egalitarian 0 fully sedentary permanent settlement Aztec Inca Maya all hereditary nobilities that specialized in War stratified by class 0 Aztec Empire rulers called Mexicas Nahuatl language of the city states 0 Iberian monarchies first in Europe to sponsor overseas exploration spreading Christianity provided a compelling rationale for claiming and exploring the New World enslavement of the indigenous populations 0 Slave Trade 1520 died on voyage on average replaced indigenous laborers in the 1600s 0 Peru and Mexico great poles of Spanish colonization 0 Spanish weaponry produced staggering death tolls 0 1520s collapse of Aztecs and Incas first step for Spanish control for nearly 300 years 0 encomienda conquerors rewarded with people indigenous people entrusted to conqueror who had responsibility of Christianizing them and the privilege of making them work for him familiar process during Christian reconquest of Iberiagt familiar to Spaniards o Tupi swept away by disease replaced by Brazilian sugar plantations o Sedentary farming societies of Mexico and Andes survived 0 Mexico deemed New Spain 0 Spanish men outnumbered Spanish women 9 to 1 led to mestizo population 0 Ines Suarez famous conquistadora 1537 came to America to find husband found husband deadgt became mistress to conqueror of Chile led an indigenous attack terrorize attacks by throwing them heads of 7 captured chiefs she cut off first captive s head herself put aside when husband become governor 0 marriage contract pillar of Spanish social structure crucial for distribution of property religious sacrament showcased power of conformity to the church in Spanish empire 0 CHAPTER 2 0 gold rush annihilate Arawak during 1st generation of Spanish colonization silver came to structure colonial economy major silver mines in Zacatecas in Mexica and Potosi in Peru opened in 1540s mining reshaped Mexican and Peruvian society 0 Potosi everything brought by mules most populous city in America in the 1600s 0 royal fifth 20 tax on mining prime source of revenue for colonial state 0 SUGAR king in Brazil structured Brazilian colony couldn t compete with Spanish America Brazil remained poorer and less populous and more loosely governed plantation economy limited urbanization and administrative power hegemony kind of domination that implies a measure of consent by those at the bottom not the same as control by violent force people accept principle of own inferiority participate in own subjugation religion was a form of cultural hegemony sin against church was criminal offense educational institutions were religious monarchs relied on divine right royal patronage rights tithe ecclesiastical tax of 10 paid mostly on agricultural products patriarchal principles importance of honor measure of how well men and women played their prescribed social roles transculturation merging and converging of different cultures mestizo formations involuntary assimilation of culture paired with hegemony Paraguay guarani indigenous in uence fringe areas of colonization became cattle frontiers plantation agriculture high profits massive forced migration of enslaved Africans 1700 gold is discovered by bandeirantes in backlands of Brazil portuguese settlers went inland became new source of colonial profits in Brazil led to economic integration went bust quickly Spain and Portugal began to extract more revenues and tighten control of New World possessions many taxes fell on indigenous people make them act more like colonies not equal to mother countries subservient to them maintain European interests at heart led to widespread revolts and protests development of caste system money whitens gracias al sacar ability to move up by buying legal whiteness race a negotiable spectrum 0 COLONIAL REB ELLIONS Rebellion of Gonzalo Pizarro 1544 1549 conquistadors of Peru started this occurred when laws limited encomiendas in 1542 feared losing servants and revolted captured and killed the Viceroy that was sent by the Spanish king Indigenous Revolts 15001800 hundreds small and isolated seldom very threatening Pueblo Rebellion of New Mexico expelled all things Spanish for nearly a decade Rebellions against Bourbon Reform Measures 1740s1780s Bourbon attempt to tighten royal control and extract greater profits from American colonies sparked resistance rebellions targeted these measures specifically not Spanish rule still claimed loyalty to Crown 1749 Venezuelan cacao growers revolted against government monopoly control of their product 1765 urban crowds staged uprising to tax hikes in Quito 1781 Comunero rebellion because of tax increases and restrictions on tobacco Quilombos and Palenques 15001888 quilombo refuge of escaped slaves in Brazil palenques refuges in Spanish Caribbean slaves took revenge on masters French Style Conspiracies in Brazil 1789 amp 1798 discussion of new political philosophies from monarchies to republics quickly terminated Rebellion of Tupac Amaru II 1780 1783 most important of colonial rebellions called for an alliance between American born whites mestizos and indigenous peoples 100000 lives lost terrified Peruvian elite 0 CHAPTER 3 o Colonial rule known for stability despite rebellions no one saw an imperial collapse coming Latin American independence created some of world s first constitutional republics o patriotic vision of the Wars of Independence betray king risk death kill others two big ideas liberalism nationalism 0 Violent events in Europe destabilized Colonial rule 1788 Carlos IV Spanish state is miscontrolled by a hated minister because Carlos IV won t fulfill responsibilities series of costly wars bankrupt the state led to high taxes sale of high offices 1796 War with England Spanish navy overwhelmed French Revolution 17891799 and Napoleonic Wars 17991815Waterloo Spain and Portugal largely affected still 1808 Spanish king Fernando VII imprisoned by Napoleon replaced by Napoleon s brother Joseph almost everyone refused to accept this legitimacy of the Crown authority that inspires obedience Joao allowed Brazilians to trade with everybody royal court in Rio de J aniero didn t rush back to Lisbon in 1815 after end of Napoleonic Wars Central Junta national resistance committee represented Spanish not Spanish Americans Spanish professed loyalty to Fernando VII but wanted American colonies to be equal to Europe cabildo abierta caretaker juntas created at open town council meetings Constitution of Cadiz elected representative from Spain and Spanish America liberal document that would have changed the empire if implemented initiatives for independence came from Creoles creoles v peninsulares 1810 creole conspiracy in Mexico s northern mining region sparked massive rebellion of indigenous and mestizo peoples led by Miguel Hidalgo in defied many of the rules non abstinent read banned books studied indigenous languages captured and executed head put on display Spanish America underwent military upheaval and political mass mobilization Brazil remained relatively calm under J oao VI Jose Maria Morelos in Mexico mestizo man wanted to end slavery end the caste system and end the tribute that indigenous people had to pay organized army declared independence in 1813 caught and executed in 1815 1815 J oao declares Brazil a kingdom equal to Portugal Peru avoided revolt because of Tupac Amaru s rebellion afraid of mobilizing indigenous population Republicanism didn t work among country people nativism glorified an American identity defined by birthplace Americanos way to get support for independence not actually decidedly for implementation political explosion in Brazil in Pernambuco declaration of republic and discussed a constitution liberalism too unfamiliar to garner widespread support crushed after a few weeks by 1820 Brazil nudging toward independence Portugal demands Crown return 1821 J oao returns to Portugal and puts son Pedro in charge of Brazil Pedro officially declared Brazil an independent constitutional monarchy despite Portuguese assembly calling him back to Lisbon Portuguese armies defeated or withdrew within a few months 1823 Brazil becomes independent while maintaining social hierarchy Fernando VII reclaims throne renounced Constitution of Cadiz Agustin de Iturbide creole joins forces with Guerrero independence of Mexico at hand guarantees of an independent constitutional Mexican monarchy that preserved religious and military privileges Iturbide served as candidate for monarch 1821 Mexicans called for Iturbide s coronation didn t last long I Simon Bolivar the Liberator most important leader of Spanish American independence starting in 1817 used physical prowess and nativism to attract llaneros llanero Venezuelan or Colombian herder 1819 Bolivar captures Bogota 1822 Bolivar captures Quito and Caracas led the final assault on Spanish power in South America 1824 victories made Bolivar the liberator of two more countries 0 CHAPTER 4 0 John Charles Chasteen Problems in Modern Latin America 0 Chasteen John Charles Problems in Modern Latin America SR Books 2004 pp 2344 Blackboard War to the Death Simon Bolivar Speech to his fellow Venezuelans Mission is to destroy the Spaniards and protect the Americans Justice therefore demands vengeance and necessity compels us to exact it Will destroy all Spaniards who stay loyalneutral to the Spanish crown and illegitimate Spanish government in Venezuela Will pardon all Spaniards who come over to the side of the Venezuelans and help them overthrow the Spanish colonial government Will pardon all Americans regardless of which side they re on simply because they are American We are profoundly convinced that you cannot be truly to blame The Vision of Father Morelos Enrique Krause Jose Maria Morelos Mestizo priest in training leader of Mexico s popular independence movement 1811 1814 While his military campaigns were ultimately fruitless Morelos contributed greatly to the ideology of the Mexican revolution Called for social equality of all Mexicans esp indigenous Indians and castas as much as independence from Spain Considered this a moral issueChristian mission Did not call for fighting between groups but peaceful resolution of class and ethnic conflicts The Sentiments of the Nation 23 articles Calls for independence from Spain official Catholic religion sovereignty of the people only people born in America can take office laws apply to everyone and should mitigate against both wealth and poverty abolition of slavery and caste system Other historians summed up his vision calling it A Kingdom of Christian Equality Argentina s Black Legions G Reid Andrews Many Latin American countries needed to enlist Blacks to fight in their wars of independence this made the people in charge worried that they would rise against them or ask for rightspayment after To acknowledge black participation in a nation s military is to acknowledge the contributions which entitle black citizens with equality to whites This is why black participation in these wars was often ignored by policy makers and historians alike AfroArgentines served in the military as early at 1660 and by 1801 were 10 of the force 1813 Argentinian government begins redemption decrees in which slave owners in different industries have to sell the government a certain percentage of their able bodied slaves to fight in the military after which they would be completely free men In reality freedom came neither easily nor frequently Many died or deserted and were recaptured and given extra time as a slave as punishment In 1811 the Argentine army began integration of white and black units The Brazilian Path to Independence John Charles Chasteen Brazilian independence was carried out from the topdown with minimal fighting Brazil was different from other countries in Latin America mostly due to the presence of the portuguese monarch J oao VI who was eeing from Brazil Napoleon was defeated J oao left his son Prince Pedro I in Brazil Pedro declared Brazilian independence in 1822 and made it a monarchy which lasted until 1889 1817 rebellion in Pernambuco shows that the liberal ideas of Morelos s Mexico had spread 1820 Portugal s liberal revolution challenges King J oao 1820 1821 Conselhos abertos open city council meetings held in Brazilian provinces 1822 Pedro I declares Independence or death Batista Campos patriot leader and radical priest Helps start 0 Paranese first newspaper in Amazonian province of Para radically liberal Led a grassroots liberal movement in Belem Goal was to carry out the true meaning of Brazilian independence by effectively implementing the principle of popular sovereignty enshrined in Brazil s 1824 constitution 1823 revolting soldiers oust the Portuguese leaders and name Batista Campos the new Provincial President Campos captured and sent to Rio in chains other revolutionaries killed 12 years later Batista Campos leads revolutionary Brazilian Party against Portuguese Party in a series of violent clashes 1831 Pedro I abdicated but was succeeded by his son Pedro II The April Revolution 183540 Imperial armed forces crush Batista s movement Liberalism goes into eclipse in Brazil and does not come back until the late 1800s What Independence Means for Women Sarah C Chambers Plebian males felt empowered by the new system while poor women suffered disproportionately Citizenship in Peru linked to old values of Honor limits women s claims to political equality Education was to prepare them for their future roles in the domestic sphere Women s role in political life was to inspire men donate jewels The failure to identify women as citizens in the republic was typical Official attitudes towards domestic violence took the side of the man One improvement only after independence did judges begin prosecuting rape though only minors were protected All in all life didn t get much better for women after independence 0 Skidmore Modern Latin America 0 Serge Gruzinski The Mestizo M ind The Shock of Conquest o What does he want to convey What tools does he use and why How successful is he Images of chaos disorder and uncertainty Analogy to the plagues Breakage of social hierarchies New division along race New cuture religions loss of identity Time different Mestizos the in between people Rejects notion that colonial society grafted to America Instead a mix of native and colonial cultures Not a new Europe but something else Successful Yes in showing how an actually real view of the disorder of colonization o Mestizo Process Mixing of races and beliefs What kind of empire they built 0 John Lynch Argentine Caudillo Juan Manuel de Rosas a The army of Rosas was not a popular army it was an incoherent apolitical multitude of more or less reluctant conscripts for many of whom military l e was a form of imprisonment and it was led by professional officers of varying degrees of experience b Maintained a large standing army in relation to the level of population c The mazorqueros were the true terrorists recruited from sectors lower than the rosista elite and forming armed squads that went out on various mission 0 Domingo F Sarmiento Facundo or Civilization and Barbarism o Gauchos and rural people of the pampas are barbarians Keep Argentina from greatness Need to be civilized and urbanized Cities cradle of civilization Culture 0 Samuel L Bai1y Immigrants in the Lands of Promise Italians in Buenos Aires and New York City 0 Daniel J amcs Resistance and Integration Peronism and the Argentine Working Class 0 Tools Peron employed to gain support of the working class Raise in wages Union negotiations for all Appeals to economic grievances Better life Social dimensions of citizenship Not only a legal dimension but nationalists discourse Before Legal Rights everyone had to vote New Social rights healthcare education material benefits welfare rights New social class Incorporates them into government and makes appeal to them Indians women etc 0 Main Changes that took place in the organization of the working class Urbanization industrialization Expansion of unionism One union per industry recognized by the state and ability to bargain with the gov Higher bargaining power and strength Applies to every worker in the field Tremendous wealth and power control of vacations and pensions 0 Consequences Unions and working class cannot rebel against state apparatus Stamp out radicalism Become submissive Expectation of social welfare programs Need to conform and have a particular lifestyle 0 EVita My Mission in Ly e 0 Different kind of feminism Rejected typical feminism bc reject what made you a woman Women should not imitate men Thank Peron like god Women should stay in the home be paid w political power Anti feminist ideas 0 Overall Empowerment and subordination 0 Robert M Buffington and William E French The Culture of Modernity o What were the main tenets of the Porfirian Ideology Industrialization of the economy Change the social culture of Mexico Modernity campaign Economy and social culture education reforms free edu Est conformity and order Create Modern image of Mexico Cientificos New Paradigm of Order Peace and Progress Push education main administrators were the educated elite Advisory panel to the regime Purposely built regime quotBuilding the National soulquot Create one image of Mexican citizen 0 What were the main structural contradictions of the Porfirian model economic and social Main tenant of order and progress supposed to be for Mexico but unbalanced Benefit the elites often in the administration Economic Railway development Industrialization Geographic disparity Social Peasants working class Population boom more cheap labor but pressure on food Mestizo idealized over Indigenous identity 0 What was the nature of state violence Bands were the biggest threat quotsanitary riflequot Morales Use national police force to take out the bandits Army not loyal bc conflicting alliances Target the opponents of Porfirio Attract foreign investment with veneer of stability and order 0 How was the quotcitizenquot to be created System of education Led to more inequality Better education in prosperous areas Role of women Women in upper classes seen as more moral Exemplify the ideal citizen Est Prison systems Jails and rehabilitation center Prisons before reinforced bad behavior Trend to build prisons on islands Prussian army as an example Diligence Way of educating the lower classes 0 How was quotpoliticsquot characterized Political bosses and social interest groups Abandonment of constitution Lots of spoils led to corruption Mix of traditional politics and modern style Constitutional facade President had a lot of power Regional power with Camarillas Barista and Cientificos Controlled the press and filled courts with his people Power with Diaz Built alliances o What roles were women to play Contradictory of order and progress Yet traditional roles Role to teach new values of the states Bring women out into the public sphere eg journalists More powerful and positive view if head of the household amp upper classes 0 How was quotpropagandaquot used News and social magazines Targeted women Holidays and Festivals Changed the cities Modern Mexico as the mestizos Indians there as labor on haciendas 0 Land consolidation 45 million hectares of public land were privatized Village to private haciendas Village land attacked Land titles must be proved through the courts Lack of titles Huge expansion of railroads 0 Alan Knight The Mexican Revolution Gilbert M J oscph and Timothy J Henderson The Mexico Reader History Culture Politics
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