Exam One Study Guide
Exam One Study Guide SRST 200
Popular in History of Sports and Leisure in America
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Physical Education
This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alexis Harman on Monday October 12, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to SRST 200 at George Mason University taught by Mark Shriver in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 97 views. For similar materials see History of Sports and Leisure in America in Physical Education at George Mason University.
Reviews for Exam One Study Guide
You're awesome! I'll be using your notes for sure moving forward :D
-Justen Dickinson DVM
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 10/12/15
SRST 200 History of Sports and Leisure Study Guide Exam 1 Ancient Greece 0 First to formalize and organize sport 0 Greek Culture 0 Emphasis on human body and health 0 Loved competitions and sporting events 0 Homer 0 Wrote Iliad and Odyssey 0 Where we get info for sports 0 Talks of Men and women Commerce Sportsphysicalactivities Contest 0 Describes individual sport 0 Does not describe Olympics festivals and games o 5 key things we received from Homer Individual sports bloody and violent Talks about competitor maes Tribute to the gods reason for festivals Greek Citizens wealthy originally for them Relationship between sport and warmilitary 4 Major Festivals 0 00000 Nemean every two years in honor of Zeus lsthmian every two years in honor of Poseidon Pythian honor of Apollo The Olympic every four years in honor of Zeus Panhellenic festivals Herian for women only predates Olympic The Olympic Festival 0 O 0 000 Religious ceremonies Practice of cuts Establishment of the Sacred Truce Written by zeus No matter what wars or disputes are going on all citizens traveling to the games must be spared and no one is allowed to attack on the way 776 BC was the rst written record of the games Usually from the end of August to the middle of September 5 day festival 1st day oath prayer sacri ce singing 2nCI day games started chariot races 0 Single horsesjockeys bloody and violent Only one or two came out alive 0 Winner got wreath went to owner of horse Pentathalon discus javelin broad jump 200m sprint wrestling contest 0 Winner 1St person to win 3 out of 5 events wins 3rd day religious ceremonies morning foot races afternoon public banquet evening 4th day quotHeavy Eventsquot wrestling pancrethon boxing armored foot races humorous 5th day prizerewards thanksgiving to Zeus banquet animal sacn ce o quotmythquot of an amateur athlete 450 BC higher lower class participation in sports 0 Opportunity of nancing them 0 Taxes to have some people represented in events 0 200 BC athletic guilds unions 0 Bargain beforeafter games to favor individual who received 0 Lodging and pension 0 Old age employment 0 These athletes became so specialized in events they became poor in the military 0 393 AD Emporer Theodosius l 0 Calls for a ban on all pagan ritualsfestivals 0 Close on the Olympic games Hellanodikai most important men in the festival 0 Responsible to maintain legacy and rule of games o Handpicked from Elis a town known for fairness They would pick 1 member from each ruling family 10 people max They determined tness levels punished cheaters and rewarded victors Greek Education 0 2 types of Education in this time 0 Formal paid tutorpublic school 0 Informal unpaid tutornonpublic setting home 0 Training the entire person mind body and soul 0 Every citizen to give military service to state 0 Debate between liberal and private Athenian Male Education Birth7 children taught at home by master 0 Elementary 71314 only education available to most 0 Education as far as parents had 0 Physically t bodies start of physical education 0 Palestra put on by paidotribe o Paidotribe private teacher former athlete knowledge of injuries and nutrition 0 Taught javelin wrestling discus gymnastics 0 After 14 if wealthy go to secondary school o If poor stopped school and picked up a trade 0 At 18 Athenian males had to serve two years of service in military 0 After military pursue any endeavor Athenian Female Education 0 No formal education learned from home Spartan Male Education Produce soldier citizens Produce well drilled welldisciplined marching armies Believed in discipline selfdenial and simplicity Had to have 39perfect bodies39 Only healthiest babies to live Birth7 educated at home From age seven on attended military school agoge 0 Extreme form of boot camp 0 Taught survival skills how to ght etc 0 Intellectual knowledge reading and writing was seen as trivial 0 Reason for agoge produce indestructible Spartan was there until age 12 o 12 on had a trainer called an lnspirer stressed discipline and exercise 0 Given no shoes minimal clothing minimal food 0 Taught gymnastics javelin discus swimming hunting and dance 0 Great pride in how much pain one can tolerate At age 18 considered a military cadet art of war 0 At age 20 join statemilitia Stayed in statemilitia until age 60 and after was allowed to live as they pleased Spartan Women Education Received education produce healthy strong male babies 07 educated at home Training for women went beyond domestic arts Formal education by Sparta Physical education was important Stayed in school until 18 o Taught how to run throw wrestle o Taught to sing dance and play a musical instrument 0 Very strict o Needed to be strong and healthy Alan Guttman 7 Characteristics of Modern Sport 1 Secularism 2 Equality 3 Specialization 4 Rationalization rules 5 Bureaucratization 6 Quanti cation 7 Records Roman Games Thought that Greek games were too O Individualistic o Geared toward participant and not the crowd o Openly competitive but too tame for Roman standards Had more of a social community than the Spartans Games were spectacles rather than competition If the games had nothing to do with war then they were a waste of time Were more of a show events were called circuses o Dramatic staged events for diversion Agon greek word meaning struggle contest in which prizes are awarded Ludi roman word meaning public game for amusement 4 main types of spectacles o Gladiator ghts in coiseum participants were prisonersslaves O Afternoon Always fought other gladiators Lots of money time and effort Win freedom after three years be a slave for two years and then freedom would be achieved Crowd was involved thumbs up or down whether they lived or died Had perks such as good diet masseustherapist best educators could become hero women and children loved them Chariot races in circus maximus Blue red white and green teams 1 chariot four horses occasionally 6 12 races per day up to 24 12 teams at a time aggressive Animal ghts caed venations in coiseum First thing in the morning Way to get rid of Criminals socially undesirable Christians Mock sea battles would actually ll the coiseum with water Te of famous battles at sea Brought in actual ships Coud die easily had raf es and gave out food at spectacles raf es could be life changing farms houses What was the appeal of these games 0 O O O 1 Serves as a drug citizens could take out frustrations 2 Violence was a key part of roman culture 3 Serves a political purpose better ghts better poiticans looked better people looked 4 Great deal of leisure time holiday for every work day o 5 Very conducive to gambling o 6 Free space lack of it in rome Dimensions of the Circus Maximus o 3 tiers high 620 m long 200 m wide 0 Dimensions of the Roman Coliseum o Oval 24 tiers 1215 stories high 0 Over 80 entrances and exits 0 Almost 200 m long 150 m wide 50000 80000 people Roman Baths 0 Exercise beforehand played ball games Roman Education 0 Citizens did not have any formalized physical education were educated at home on farm at forum meeting square or in army Formalized education activity was important for the army 0 Swimming Horseback riding Javelin throwing Wrestlingboxing Running to increase stamina HunUng Different types of ball games 000000 350 AD Roman Empire begins to collapse 0 No longer able to bring animals to ght 0 War captures become fewer Living in city was hard 0 Taxes were raised 0 Imports were lowered Many people left city to have a simpler life farming results games and spectacles decreased Christians like the greek games not pagan or cult rituals Used games as a metaphor quotrunning the race of lifequot 0 quotwrestling with the forces of evilquot Galen of Pergamon Physician and surgeon Pioneer of anatomy and physiology His ideals of human system lasted until 1543 Used animals One of the rst to classify how to work 0 Strong digging a hole 0 Rapid running 0 Violent digging hole as fast as possible 5001400 Medieval Times Catholic church was a dominating force Where most modern games started More about goodevil lightdark but with same games Provided seasonal holidays calendar place to play location Most people couldn39t read or write Games passed by travelers Kegeles 0 Wooden ball to knock over target 0 German monks o If knocked over cleansed them 601 Pope Gregory Advised to leave pagan rituals in tact in games and festivals but change from worshipping devil to worshipping god Church unintentionally popularizes different ball games Time Sunday recreation Games participated in depended on class Wealthy encouraged people to participate 151600 this changes Time better spent on war castle crop King listens to church and vice versa 1St spectator sport eld hockey rst played by the masses 0 Hoc hook in Anglosaxon o Hocquet in French means Shepard s staff 2nCI spectator sport football 0 Played on shrove Tuesday day before ash Wednesday Stoolball played by milkmaids Cricket Rounders gt baseball Masses played team sports while wealthy played more individual sports Wealthy games o Shuf eboard Concept of shuf eboard indoors led to billiards Horse back riding HunUng The Tournament All day events war game consisting of melee and joust Melee any number of people hitting each other with blunt objects until death Joust two men on horses with rail in middle score points by knocking people off 0000 0 Tennis First played by monks amp priests Many countries have a different name and scoring system for this sport French four point win L39ouef egg 0 where love came from System of scores came from gambling crown on each match worth 60 pence hence 15 30 45 60 Renaissance 14001600 Reverting back to Greek ideals about mind and body Renaissance man 0 0000000 Scholar athlete Adept get along well with people Sensitive to beauty Good style amp taste Skilled in weaponry Strong in body physically in shape Had to be 39learned in letters39 reading and writing elitist movement 0 The Humanist Movement 0000 0 Put forth ideas of 39the whole man39 Development of physical and mental bodies equally Based on Plato and Aristotle Focus on human beings and not otherworldly things focus on self vs godothers Several sports were considered of mind amp body Swimming running horseback riding acrobatics archery swords wrestling Focus on individualistic sports Knightly training Took after Spartan model Physically active ensured a healthy body good dexterity lightness of limb quick on feet and balance grace of movement Always trying to get the ladies attention 0 Important thinkers of the Humanist Movement 0 Baldassre Castiglione Book of the Courtier 1528 Book solely for men Bestselling book until 18th century Setting takes place over four days and nights Urbino court of Book was about ideals on what an ideal court should possess Master the art of war sword play archery Must know all quotnoble sportsquot Good dancer Accomplished horse back rider Great literature Music play an instrument Good at story telling 39in an err of casual ease39 ends do not de ne the means 0 Sir Thomas Elyot Book of the Goveneur 1531 Only for men Dedicated to Henry VIII PHED mindbody connection Frowned upon mass games Saw football bachi ball quoits as undesirable Thought that sports and activities built character and made you a better person Teach you values for life teamwork perseverance Saw both physical activity and education as important for upper class 0 Richard Mulcaster 0 Knight Positions 1581 First headmaster in Merchant Taylor s School in London one of the largest Train mentally and physically Distinguished games for pastime health and war Do sports for pure enjoyment Women should also be involved at home not school Biggest proponent for football thought it developed strong health as well as physical and mental stamina Kids should be involved in noble sports And believed these principles to extend to the middle class Participants farmers horse racing relay races serpentine dances clergy discouraged play burghers middle class merchants created towns loved football popularity of sports but no formal physical education ly Training Organized and formal Defend poor and church Protect women and children Prereq kind modest enormously generous courteous forms of behavior 3 stage process page squire knighthood Curriculum of 7 knightly arts horse riding archery wrestling swim dance climb must be pro cient in tournament must be pro cient in all seven sports Horse race on shrove Tuesday while masses played football Emphasis on fencing speed technical skills Archery sport Tennis golf Sports in America Ball game in a 39T39 shaped eld Some winners and losers were sacri ced French explorers discovered Native American running canoes archery Massachusetts Native Americans played soccer on beaches Virginia and south games of quotShintiquot played by native americans and women 0 Knock wooden ball across goalline Lacrosse game and military struggle Renaissance and Reformation Challenged Church this justi ed different thinking how to think for oneself Humanist movement justi es physical education and sport Reformation Begins 1517 Martin Luther a german monk leads breakaway from catholic church Called themselves protestant protestors Demand for reform is reason for the name Reformation England Shifts Between Catholic and Protestant 14851520 England is a catholic nation under Henry VIII Devote catholic Defended nation from protestants Didn39t agree with them In 1521 Henry VIII was awarded quotLeader of the Faithquot by Pope Leo X In 1532 Henry Vlll39s marriage to Catherine of Aragon is annulled Gave birth to Mary 1533marries Anne Boyeln Anne Boyeln gives birth to who will be Queen Elizabeth I o In 1534Henry Vlll forms Church of England He is named Supreme Head of Church of England excludes Pope split from pope since he wouldn39t give him a divorce 0 3rd wife Jane Seymour Has a son Edward VI 0 Edward VI rules from 15371553 0 Devout protestant 0 Under his reign a new prayer book is published Book of common prayer 0 Mary takes over is a devout catholic o Puts pope back in charge 0 Known as bloody mary for putting 300 protestants to burn at stake bc they were not catholic Queen Elizabeth I rules from 15581603 0 England becomes protestant once again 0 Due to long reign church of England is rmly established 00000 O Protestant Reformation after Martin Luther John Calvin lived 15091564 Roman Catholic 1533 has religious conversion breaks away from Roman Catholic church general distrust of human motive Becomes one of the most rigid reformers Believed god was sovereign in power and will Man completely depraved no intrinsic value No distinction between body and soul both infected by sin Has epiphany moves to Geneva Switzerland In 20 years bands 200 types of amusement there prostitution gambling drinking dancing With rise of Queen Elizabeth moves back to England Wanted to cleanse church of all catholic practices 0 Queen Elizabeth 0 O O O 0000 0 Set up English protestant church Realized country is divided Was always concerned that England would be invaded by roman catholic crusades Comes up with protestant solution to division which happens to know offend the catholics Does not tolerate radical puritans Was not an extremist In 1559 she is considered supreme governor of Church of England All public officials have to swear allegiance to her Dies in 1603 0 James VI of Scotland 0 Becomes king of England after Elizabeth dies until 1625 0 Was then the king of England Scotland and Ireland 0 Changed his name to James 0 Created King James Bible Commissioned rewrite in 1604 3rCI translation of the bible 1St translation was by Henry VIII Rewrote to appease the puritans who thought it was wrong 0 Charles I 0 Rules from 16251649 0 From 16401649 was battling for power with Parliament 0 From 16291640 never called Parliament to convene 0 Parliament began to withhold funds 0 1642 Engand has a civil war 0 Parliament supporters were puritans o Puritans impeached Charles I then executed him 0 Oliver Cromwell 0000 ended Parliaments rule in 1653 He was a puritan Wanted to establish a protectorate Wanted to establish self as ord protector o Dies in 1658 o Protectorate was diminished in 1659 o 1659 Richard rules one year no one likes him 0 1660 Parliament is elected again 0 Charles II is king 0 Parliament keeps authority it had from protectorate 0 Power was split between the 2 o 1685 Charles II dies King James II takes over 0 James II wants Catholicism and absolute monarchy Pur ans Were not happy with reforms made by Elizabeth and practices gone on by catholic church Were extreme protestants Wanted to purify sins Believed in predestination chosen by god or eternal damnation Work ethic all work no play If one did honest hard work they39d be one of god39s chosen Opposed to recreation sport and leisure 6 contributing factors as to why they were against it o Sabbath sport on Sundays Gambling Violence ldleness undisciplined Catholic religion Public nature 0 Did condone a few physical activity sports 0 Runningkept you in shape 0 Wrestling need to know handhand combat 0 Hunting amp shing for survivalfood Made laws forbidding pastimes and sports OOOOO OWU39lbUJNH People against the Puritans Robert Dover created Cotswald Olympik Games 16121642 During England39s civil war Revival of old village games Had approval of King James I Took place Thursday and Friday from midmay to midjune Had wrestling handball races throwing bar or hammer women had sack races and chess so aristocracy would attend King James I o Puts out royal proclamation Declaration of Sports Book listed sports and rec allowed on Sundays and other holy days Archery dancing may games running races Animals ght prohibited bear and cock Reissued by Charles I James39 son 1633 00000 quotshould be read by every pulpitquot New England founded by Puritans No one to oppose views Virginia was wealthy Still had time for recreation games and sports during the time Jamestown was starving Blue laws restricted sales of goods on Sundays or religious holidays 0 some of these laws still in south Puritans had a hard time de ning what was an appropriate leisure experience Dualistic idealslaws John Cotton 1707 Benjamin Coleman wrote book 170 pages long 0 The Government and Improvement of Mirth according to the laws of Christianity in Three Sermons Mirth means amusement or pleasure Only book of its time speci cally chosen for rec and leisure Sober Mirth wholesome temperance moderation Fun but not too much fun Thought mirth leads to sin Greatest recreation of all rejoicing in god true relaxation 0 Book had relaxed attitude towards puritans belief Puritans hated the theater thought it was nonbene cial 0 Led to unwanted homosexuality 0 Going to see a play was like a puritan going to a catholic mass wouldn39t happen Puritans hated 0 Gambling 0 Music art dance thought it was poison o No instruments 0 Could do art if it was decorating grave stones or self portraits Dancing could only be men and men and women with women combining was too promiscuous Puritan era comes to end with death of major leader OOOOOO
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'