HDFS test 2
HDFS test 2 H_D_FS 1610 - 01
Popular in Intimate Relationships and Marriage
Popular in Human Development
This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sydney Mills on Monday October 12, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to H_D_FS 1610 - 01 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Ashton Chapman in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 41 views. For similar materials see Intimate Relationships and Marriage in Human Development at University of Missouri - Columbia.
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Date Created: 10/12/15
Sex and Gender Sex male or female biologically Gender person s nonbiological and nonphysiological attributes characteristics and behaviors that are viewed as masculine or feminine 0 To how people dress their feelings and expressions attitudes values and interests First thing we know or want to know about a person is their sex Primary sex characteristics needed for sexual reproduction Secondary sex characteristics ex Breasts ner skin and more subcutaneous fat for females facial hair a deep voice and greater masculinity for males develop later Tertiary sex characteristics behavioral differences that we tend to associate with males and females They include things like playing with dolls versus trucks and being interested in cooking on a stove versus repairing a stove Sex differences sex similarities Focusing on qualities summaries or metaanalyses in which many research ndings are collected and synthesized Any one study can be unbiased or biased in some unique way averaging scoreds from many studies will provide a more reliable estimate of malefemale differences in empathy 0 New average called the d statistic 0 When d 0 it means men and women do not differ on the characteristic in question 0 When d deviates from 0 the more con dent we are that these differences are robust and meaningful Negative d values indicate that females score higher than males on a speci ed dimension and positive values indicate the opposite Nature vs Nurture Nature Women and men had to adapt to some different problems and those adaptations contributed to differences between the sexes Crucial to remember that males and females differ in how they invest in their offspring Differences between men and women may stem not from how they attract and retain mates but from how they compete with other members of their own sex to gain some advantage in the mating market place intrasexual competition Women Using tactics that will attract mates but instead of aggression they rely on enhancing cues that signal their youth and health or putting down other females by insulting their appearance or calling them promiscuous or a tease Males put down their same sex though they more likely to do so by outperforming them in sports commenting on their lack of resources or goals or putting down their accomplishments Men and women differ in ways to attract keep and replace mates Nature Social structural theory malefemale differences in the division of labor are profoundly important for two reasons 0 One focused on how differences in the division of labor affect expectations for the roles in society that men and women should ll 0 Another focused on the steps men and women then take to meet these expectations Gender linked expectations associated with the division of labor channel people down particular avenues and not others Men dominant role women subordinate role Women engage in cooperation nurturing of others and adaptation to the inferior role in which they are assigned Men and women differ in their social behavior not because of their differential investment in offspring but because of how the division of labor is designed in society and the expectations following that division 0 Social structural theory holds that men and women differ because they have been led to expect them to differ Men prefer more younger and domestic women whereas women prefer older men with more resources Evolutionary psychology insists that mate preferences to be consistent across culture Empathic accuracy capacity for one person to be accurate in knowing what someone else is thinking or feeling Joining nature and nurture Nature explanation assigns greatest weight to evolutionary and biological forces yet does not deny that social factors operate on biological dispositions to produce behaviors and experiences characteristic of men and women Nurture explanation assigns greatest weight to the social roles while not denying that biological differences affect how the roles come to be established and maintained 0 Beyond biology and evolution gender development is at the same time affected by the in uence of one s family peers society and culture Sec role identity Way people view themselves in terms of masculine and feminine traits sex role identity Individuals who are high in both masculine and feminine traits are referred to as androgynous o More likely to adjust their behaviors according the demands of the situation via direction when possible but accepting it when it is out of their control 0 More desired as relationship partners Sex and sex role identities represent more than simply key aspects of our own and others identities 0 They serve as schemas cognitive categories that organize ideas and beliefs about certain concepts in this case sex and gender Alter out perceptions of others and how we relate to them Sex gender and intimacy Men tend to trust another person more if they share memberships in groups with that person whereas women tend to trust another person more if they share personal acquaintances Males and females have more relationship awareness than men do Women develop more differentiated and complex cognitive representations of relationship events allowing them to recall prior experiences with the partner with greater ease and more emotional richness Divorcing men are 810 X more likely than their wives to say they do not know why their relationship ended Women are more likely than men to try to understand their relationships Quality of interaction 0 Men interactions with men are less meaningful than those with women whereas women s interactions are equally as meaningful regardless of the partner s gender 0 When the same spouses reported on how much stress they experiences and how much partner support they received each day over the course of the week husbands stressful days were met by increase in support whereas wives stressful days were met by increases in support and increases in criticism Meaning of intimacy Women more likely than men to state that their current relationship does meet their standards Men and women tend to enter relationships with similar standards in mind Men are 7X more likely than women to mention sex Men much less likely than women to think of expressing appreciation as a part of their intimate experiences Women and men both de ne intimacy in terms of positive feeHngs Sex and physical intimacy consistently greater sex drive that men posses men s desire for sex does no decline as time passes but their desire for closeness does women desire less sex as time passes but their desire for closeness increases 0 creating a kind of perfect storm in which men and women must negotiate their differencing and changing needs for physical and emotional intimacy Relationship dissolution Women lead the way in seeking therapy by recognizing problems earlier accepting the need for counseling earlier and initiating contact with practitioners Women more likely to want a divorce Women tend to be the last in and the rst out Period of greatest stress women occurs before the relationship has dissolved and for men after the relationship has ended Men report relatively stable incomes but larger drops in life satisfaction and well being Women report the opposite relatively large drops in life satisfaction and well being 0 Women appear to fare better through these difficult transitions because they tend to be the noes initiating the divorce Men enter new partnerships more quickly and in higher numbers than women The death of a spouse takes a greater toll on men than women and this effect is stronger at older ages Same sex relationships Attraction The basis for liking someone Attraction evaluating someone positively We are attracted to people who have positive personality characteristics and dislike people with negative ones Pratfall effect we are even more attracted to people whose great qualities are tempered by a few undearing aws Phantom other technique the more people have in common with someone else the more they will nd that person attractive we are attracted to people who possess qualities we lack o intuitive appeal to this idea familiarity liking what we know mere exposure effect simply being exposed to something can make that thing intrinsically reinforcing we tend to like people who like us romantic and sexual attraction romantic or sexual attraction experience of nding someone desirable as an intimate partner matching phenomenon tendency for people to pair up according to similarity in appearance physically attractive people are less likely to be convicted of crimes and when they are convicted they receive shorter sentences romantic attraction in long term vs short term strategic pluralism humans have developed the capacity to pursue long term relationships or short term involvements as their circumstances warrant o the fact that men and women report different preferences for different types of relationships 0 sexual strategies theory attempt to explain and predict what sorts of qualities men and women tend to look for when they pursue long term vs short term relationships 0 theory suggests that women may bene ts from a short term relationship if it promises them access to resources or high status men who were otherwise not accessible as long term partners 0 men are willing to lower their standards to engage in short term relationships women in several ways have higher standards for short than long term at least with respect to resource status and physical appearance romantic attraction in different contexts o misattribution arousal the tendency to mistakenly believe that physical arousal stemming from one cause is actually the result of another cause a source of situational effects on romantic and sexual attraction unrequited love attraction or love that is not returned stalking de ned as unwanted and disturbing attention from someone seeking a romantic relationship from chemistry to connection mate selection process through which a committed relationship is formed 0 speed dating mate selection is a dyadic process proximity makes senses that a prerequisite for relationships 0 proceptivity anticipatory behaviors behavioral synchrony they mimic each other s movements unconsciously leaning forward when the other leans forward stretching when the other stretches looking directly into each other s eyes etc social penetration theory development of a relationship is associated with the kind of personal information partners exchange with each other 0 research shows that not only do we tend to like people who disclose personal info to us but we also like people more after we have disclosed personal info to them disclosure reciprocity when one person shares something personal the other person immediately share something equally personal 0 people who disclose highly personal info too early in an interaction are viewed more negatively than people who wait for a more appropriate moment courtship developing commitment stage theories relationships as developing through steps that proceed in a speci c sequence problem is that intimate relationships rarely follow the orderly pattern of development that Personality distinctive qualities that characterize an individual that are relatively stable over time and across situations Trait approach to study relationships identify a core set of personality traits by conducting extensive statistical analysis of the adjectives people use to describe themselves and others Big 5 traits Neuroticism inclination to experience unpleasant emotions o Extraversion preference for social interaction and lively activity Openness receptiveness to new ideas approaches and expe ences Agreeableness sel ess concern for others generous trusting Conscientiousness degree of discipline and organization Personality emotion and intimacy Measures of personality taken in childhood predict relationships later in life 0 Individuals high in neuroticism or negative affectivity appear to be vulnerable to poor relationships 0 Partners who are more agreeable and conscientious tend to be happier in their relationships 0 Couples in which partners have low levels of agreeableness and high levels of neuroticism tend to experience lower levels of satisfaction 0 Couples high in neuroticism are more likely to cite self centeredness jealousy and dependency as difficulties in their relationship 0 Couples personalities do matter Dependency regulation model 0 Individuals with low self esteem underestimate how favorably their partner views them 0 4 key phases 0 low self esteem underestimating the partners regard for self assume partners do not regard them highly and also that others share the pessimistic view they have of themselves perceiving the partner in an unfavorable light and expressing discontent perceiving the relationship in an unfavorable light partner sensitive to rejection became less happy with the relationship as time passes thus highlighting the interpersonal costs of the heightened sensitivities of the mate with low self esteem in uence of childhood family experiences family of origin the family you were raised in generational transmission effects effects your family of origin has on who you are as a person as well as on who you are as a relationship partner later in life impact of con ict and divorce on relationships adverse effects of marital discord and divorce on children are evident in a range of domains including academic achievement conduct and behaviors psychological adjustment self esteem and social relationships divorce doubles the risk of adverse consequences for the offspring family s economic circumstances and parental mental health reduces the amount and quality of the child s contact with one parent typically the father and makes the family vulnerable to new kinds of stresses children show behavior problems 0 0 same appears to be true even if the separation or divorce doesn t take place children exposed to higher levels of parental con ict in adolescence has lower self esteem happiness and life satisfaction in early adulthood compared to children exposed to low levels of parental con ict well being of adult offspring depends on a complex combination of whether the parents divorced and what that marriage was like before the divorce Children of divorce
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