CLAS 220 Exam 2 Study Outline
CLAS 220 Exam 2 Study Outline CLAS 220 001
Popular in Introduction to Classical Mythology
CLAS 220 001
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Classical Studies
CLAS 220 001
verified elite notetaker
This 17 page Study Guide was uploaded by Hayley on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to CLAS 220 001 at University of South Carolina taught by Jason Osborne in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 215 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Classical Mythology in Classical Studies at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 10/13/15
Test 2 CLAS 220 Study Outline Nature Known as o celestial Aphrodite I From Uranus alone 0 Aphrodite of all people I From Zeus and Dione Goddess of beauty love and marriage Has a magic girdle o Irresistible powers of enticement Associated with prostitution In early classicalarchaic period 800400 BC she is a clothed beautiful woman Late classical Hellenistic period 40031 BC she is depicted as woman covering her nudity o Idealization of womanhood Attendants The Graces Charites o Personifications of aspects of loveliness The Hours Horae 0 Children of Zeus and Themis 0 Seasons Aphrodite s Son 9 Has a huge deformed erect penis Fertility God Comicalobscene stories about him Penis was popular charm 0 Good luckprotection o Apotropaic device Women of Cyprus denied Aphrodite so she turned them into prostitutes and they lost all human feeling Pygmalion repelled by these women so he sculpts the ideal woman out of ivory and falls in love with it Prays to Aphrodite and she turns the sculpture into Galatea Modern portrayals 0 My Fair Lady 0 Pretty Woman 0 Father is Cinyrus and the mother is Cinyrus daughter Myrrha o Adonis is born from a incestuous relationship after Myrrah turns into a tree Loved by Aphrodite 0 She warned him of the dangers of hunting Killed by a boar and transformed into anemone ower Parallels of Adonis and Aphrodite with Cybele and Attis Zeus wants revenge Aphrodite falls in love with mortal Achises o Achises doesn t keep relationship a secret and is made lame by Zeus s lighting bolt Had son with Aphrodite o Aeneas 9cupids brother 0 Hero of Romans aka Cupid is while is a type of Origin stories 0 Cosmic deity Hesiod 0 Child of Ares and Aphrodite Mischievous child and Beautiful young man God of Male Homosexuality classical Greek period 0 Plato s Symposium I Platonic love 0 Eros as creative force I Two males who are attached to each other are epitome of maleness Relationship with 0 Love and soul 0 Fairy taleish o The Golden Ass I Apuleius mid empire time 2nd century AD 0 3 sisters motif 2 evil 1 virtuous Marries Eros she never see s him sisters try to convince her he s a snake Eros leaves her and returns Happily ever after ending as she is turned into a goddess Birth Appearance and Nature Zeus and Leto 0 Twin of Apollo Born on Mt Cynthus on Delos o Called Cynthia Artemis is quotpurequot Virgin Goddess 0 Meaning young and unmarried Goddess of Childbirth and hunting 0 Also associated with nature Bow and arrow sandals loose clothes Associated with childbirth young humans and animals 0 Fertility goddess Goddess of Moon 0 Association with menstrual cycle 0 Links with concept of Virgin mother 0 Sometimes identified with Selene and Hecate Goddess of Nature 0 Virgin huntress Misandry o Hatred of men 0 The Amazons Lesbian Overtones o Rejection of sexuality 0 Bond with followers 0 Purity from love of nature Stories associated with Artemis Niobe The women of Thebes honor Leto and her children Apollo and Artemis except Niobe who was conceited a mother of 7 and possibly the queen of Thebes Artemis and Apollo are sent down to kill all her children and turn her into stone on top of mountain in Phrygia Actaeon He accidently see s Artemis bathing naked at a spring and she gets mad He was punished attacked by hounds because of the sacred chastity of Artemis Callisto and Arcas Devoted follower of Artemis Callisto loved by Zeus He raped her and became pregnant with Arcas For this Artemis banned her as a follower Callisto turned into a bear by Hera Zeus takes pity on them and turns them into Ursa Major Callisto and Ursa Minor Arcas Orion A hunter who attempted to rape Artemis She sends scorpions to kill him He is turned into constellation Birth Zeus and Leto Born in Delos Twin of Artemis Nursed by Themis o Ambrosia and Nectar Associated with Prophecy Lyre 0 Music Archery Birth place 9 Delos Sacred island where Apollo was born 0 Leto had to search for a place to give birth because Hera was furious about Zeus s affair and nobody else would take her Home of Delian League 0 AntiPersian league made up of Greek city state members Independent Delphi Associated with Delos Foot of Mt Parnassus Defeat of the dragon python 0 Sun defeats dragon which is associated with Apollo Omphalos o Navel of the world Apollo Delphinius 0 Apollo turns into dolphin to recruit Cretan priests Pythian Games 0 Athletic and intellectual competition 0 Second to Olympics 0 Honored winner Temple complex 0 International city 0 Amphictyonic council Greek UN 0 Near Athens but doesn t control it The Oracle 0 Offering sacrifice by inquirer I Inquirer goes through process 0 Conduit for the Gods to speak to humanity I Inquirer must ask specific questions and give offering The Pythia o Prophetess of Apollo Young virgin before inquirer fell in love and seduced her 0 Located in inner sanctuary of the temple I Called the adyton o Hallucinates and interprets talks to Gods o Priest or Prophet decode Pythia s ramblings and communicate it to the inquirer 0 Closed in winter because Apollo is in land of Hyperboreans o Plato s Apology I Socrates wisest person I Knows what one knows and what doesn t know 0 Loves of Apollo Multiple attempted affairs with o Cumaean Sibyl I Asks apollo for everlasting life in exchange for sex gets gift but changes mind about sex so Apollo gives her everlasting life without youth 0 Cassandra I Agrees to sleep with Apollo in exchange for the gift of prophecy gets gift but changes mind about sex so Apollo curses her to where no one will believe her prophecies o Marpessa I She chooses mortal Idas over Apollo so that they can spend life together 0 Cyrene I Athletic nymph that Apollo successfully seduces and has child with I Aristaeus o Daphne I Would rather be a tree than be with Apollo I The sacred Laurel o Hyacinth I Spartan youth that Apollo was fond of Who was killed by discus thrown by Apollo o Cyparissus I Male youth from Ceos who turns into a cyprus tree after loss of pet deer Asclepius Son of Apollo and Coronis o Coronis has affair with Thessalian and Apollo kills her Archetype of doctor God of Healing o Incubation Hippocrates Trained by Chiron Staff with snakes on it 0 Can only be rightly associated with medical professional doctors Musical Contests Marsyas the Satyr o Challenged Apollo and ayed alive when Apollo won Pan 0 Flute vs lyre 0 King Midas said pan would win so Apollo gave him donkey ears Birth and Nature Son of Zeus and Maia Made a lyre out of a turtle and teaches Apollo how to play it A divine yet mischievous child Thief rogue o Archetypal trickster God of thieves and liars o Deceptive speaking o Stole Apollo s cows when he was an infant Messenger 0 Travelers hat 0 Sandals 0 Wings 0 Caduceus Heralds wand Role as a creator and crosser of boundaries 0 Youth and adulthood Athenian Herms Statues Alcibiades o Sicilian Expedition 415 BC 0 Got drunk and knocked all the penis s off the statues with a hammer on the eve of the greatest military expedition of Athens I Bad idea Statue associated with luck penis o The penis was sacred and they were all around Athens Hermes and Aphrodite Have child named Hermaphroditus Pure child who wasn t sexual but noticed by women 0 Salmacis the nymph interested in him but he doesn t care 0 Attacks Hermaphroditus and prays their union will never be broken and they are fused together I Hermaphrodite I Both sexes Ori ginN ature Worship Son of Zeus and Semele o Zeus takes mortal form to have affair with Semele She finds out and convinces Zeus to grant her a wish and she asks to see his divine glory Hera s plan to get back at Semele for her affair with Zeus and she burns at the sight of him 0 Pregnant with Dionysus at the time of her death I lncubates inside Zeus s thigh until ready to be born I lno takes care of Dionysus when he was a baby Phrygian o Mycenaean age 0 Connection with east 0 Associated with Olympian gods but doesn t do a lot God of o Vegetation o The vine grapes wine o Mob fury 0 Religious Ecstasy I Ecstatic spiritual release through music and dance Possession of followers 0 Disturbing and uncommon Ripping apart animal and eating its raw esh Followers 0 Drinkers o Sexuality o Weirdness o Orgy Male leader plays part of Dionysus in play Bacchae maenads o A play 0 Female devotees 0 Mortal women who become possessed by Dionysus Dionysia Festival of wine theater 0 Second in importance to panathenaia 2 competitions o Tragedy I Trilogy satyr play I Goat 0 Comedy Satyrs Male counterpart to Maenads o Goat association 9part man part animal 0 Loves singing music and wine 0 Sexually aggressive and often chasing maenads o Often seen with erect penis Sileni same characteristics of Satyrs 0 Older and more lecherous version of Satyrs King Midas Theme accept limitations don t give someone what they want Dionysus gives him gift of everything he touches turning gold 0 Turns his child gold and cant eat The cure is washing off the gift in the river of Pactolus where the river s sands turn gold Nature Pan means all association with all nature a god Similar to satyrs and seleni o Horns ears legs of goat Love of music 0 Creates panpipe Lustful Various origin stories 0 Hermes or Apollo o Musician 0 God of Shepherds Honored by Athenians 0 Appearance to Phidippides Shows up in battles and creates a panic by blowing his horn 0 Similar to shield of aegis Narcissus a beautiful youth Echo a talkative nymph that was in love with narcissus While Zeus was sleeping around with all the nymph s Echo s job was to distract Ilera o Hera nds out she has been tricked and places curse on her where only Echo s voice remains of her I When we speak a echo talks back Narcissus only loves himself 0 Runs away from Echo and all other women 0 Nemesis goes against him and when he see s his re ection in a puddle he falls in love with it and has to spend the rest of his days looking at his re ection but not being able to touch it o Metamorphosis change I He is transformed into Narcissus ower Narcissism o Evident in todays society 0 Someone who really loves themselves Maj or themes Arrogance of Chastity 0 Acting morally appropriate Humanness of sin 0 Sin is human 0 Humans are more comfortable with sin Injustice of the man god relationship Hippolytus refuses to honor Aphrodite Relationships are emotionally complicated Hippolytus wasn t burdened by love 0 Acknowledged Aphrodite but didn t care for her because he was proud and not involved in love Hippolytus learns the truth Nurse tells him that step mother wants to have seX with him He says its sinful nature and people who have these feelings are beneath him Nurse says man is sinful and its only human Hippolytus re ections on women Negative view They bring little benefit and he separates himself with women Dumb women are better than smart women because they bring less problems On himself Believes he is purer than everyone else 0 Pridesinful hypocrite o Arrogance rather than purity He is later dragged by horses says he is too good to die and asks for help because he is a innocent man Adultery and Hypocrisy Must have pure thoughts and acts inside and out Nurse to Phaedra Denial of love denial of Aphrodite 0 Living out of bounds of nature Extremes are bad Sin amp love are common in humanity Not good to rationalize things we want to do Play Themes 0 Hubris I Disrespect of gods I Think you are more than what you actually are I Atheism Disrespect to Gods leads to this topic 0 lnequity of man god relationship I Gods will not treat you like you treat other people 0 Righteousness of divine punishment I Whatever the Gods will is right Dionysus 0 Opening of play 0 However Dionysus wants to be honored he will be 0 He has to be worshipped I Divine dignity I Don t do it get punished Pentheus o If a god has a very strange requirements that are troubling to society I Rejection I He rejected Dionysus o Bacchae I Drunk 39 Orgy I Strange ceremony Teiresias 0 Blind o Lived as men and woman 0 Knows the mind of the Gods I No one pays attention I Kind of like Cassandra o Gods have absolute power I In our own human hubris we only have a little bit of force C Says there is a notion of truth I Live outside of truth you re foolish Capture of Dionysus o In chains 0 Insulted o Threatened o Cant ght against the Gods their word is law Fate of Pentheus o Profaning the ceremony o A just death I Family thinks he is a lion and kills him I Pentheus gains wisdom this way I He had this death coming Dionysus 0 Normally a happy god but if you cross him something disturbing happens I The fate of Pentheus The Myth Rape of Persephone daughter of Demeter o Picking owers and Hades shows up and kidnaps her to the underworld and makes her his wife because nobody wants to go to the underworld with him 0 Zeus gave Persephone to Hades without telling Persephone or Demeter o Rape 9 sexual act is implied but it means more of a kidnapping The wandering of Demeter o The palace of Celeus 0 Nursing Demophoon 7th century big for having a relationship with divine force Demeter recalled by Zeus 0 She wont go because she refuses to have anything to do with the Gods 0 Goddess of Earth 9wrath 9 kills all crops on earth and cause problems in natural order Persephone and Hades o The pomegranate seed 0 Hades gives her pomegranate seed so she will have to return to hell if you eat in hell you have to return The Seasons 0 Demeter gets sad when her daughter goes away winter The Mysteries Interpretation Birthdeathrebirth 0 Crop cycle ZeusDemeter 0 Sky GodEarth Mother relationship 0 Life is result of the two RedemptionImmortality of the Soul 0 Demophoon o Mysteries Eleusinian Mysteries 0 Eleusis 0 Near Athens I So they had a important role 0 Not everyone is a initiative but it isn t inclusive to certain group of people 0 Open to men women slaves kids Secret Ceremony 0 Really don t know what happened because they couldn t write it down I A lot of speculation D Hymn to Demeter most important source U Alcibiades 9 got drunk disrespect the mysteries I Lesser mysteries U Preliminary steps B One time of year D Not really a inducted if you just go through lesser mysteries I Greater Mysteries D Full initiation Chapter 15 Views of the afterlife The Realm of Hades People are mainly concerned with life rather than death The Underworld Realm of Hades Eternal existence Development of views overtime Homer s view The odyssey book 11 0 About Odysseus and his return home from the Troj an War Odysseus in the Underworld 0 Shades blood I Looks like people who are dead ghosts I Good or bad I They only react to blood they return to a certain state of mind he can talk to them I He holds them back with a sword deny them the blood then they won t take it o Tiresias I Odysseus goes down to the underworld to ask him how to get to Ithaca o Parade of Heroes in The Underworld I Achilles U The afterlife he rather be a slave to a landless nobody than to be the king of the underworld because there is nothing but darkness eternity is awful down there and it doesn t change I Agamemnon D Tells Odysseus all the bad things that have happened to him D Murdered by wife and her lover D Hostile and suspicious towards women U Doesn t want anything to do with Odysseus D Committed suicide bc Odysseus received Achilles armor over him D No peaceful existence beyond death I Punishments U Tantalus D Sisyphus U Under extreme circumstances have to have done something really bad I It s a joyless eternal existence Plato s view on the Underworld 3 00400 years after homer Myth of Br 0 The Republic 0 Religious and Philosophical concepts 0 Br went to the underworld and came back I Found out it wasn t as bleak as Homer described Afterlife has Judgment and Reward Reincarnation o Mouth 9soul was good sucked up to heavens Bad life 9 Goes to hell to work sin off 0 Choice of life I Choose life of peace and prosperity or a life of tyranny a bad life 0 The river Lethe I After you make decision drink from this river so you don t remember your past life I Notion of Deja vu comes from this 0 Rebirth I You then live the life you choose and it starts over again Vergil The Aeneid 0 1st century BC Focuses on Aeneas o Trojan hero 0 Visit his father in the Underworld 9 Sibyl tells him how prophetess of Apollo 0 Father of Roman race I Vergil wants to outdo and exceed homer Twin aspects Odyssey and Iliad Descent in Italy 0 Charon the Ferryman I At the River of Acheron o Mythological Catalogue I Centaurs Gorgons Briareus Harpes etc I Cerberus I Creatures found in the underworld Divided realms 0 People go to places based on their position in life 0 Aeneas goes to Fields of Mourning I Sees Dido 9 eXgirlfriend of Aeneas who killed herself refuses to talk to him I Wasted and consumed by relentless and cruel love 0 Fields of heroes I Died in combat o Tartarus I Place of punishment for the wicked I Sisyphus titans I Regular people who did bad things 0 Elysian Fields I Paradise I Anchises Aeneas Father I Live eternally happy where good people go Chapter 16 Orpheus and Orphism Orpheus and Eurydice He plays the lyre Death of Eurydice o Snakebite o Poets differ on why she was bitten by snake o Goes down to the underworld Homeric underworld o Orpheus wants to go down and get her he plays lyre for them and is allowed to bring her back I Katabasis 0 Go down to the underworld I Can t look back until he is completely out I He looks back and he loses her forever I Doesn t get a second chance o Orpheus misogyny I Because of losing Eurydice I Origin of homosexuality in Thrace 0 Death I Frenzied by gang of women I Plays music to de ect rock but that doesn t work Orphism Mystery religion 0 Dionysus I Music wine but vegetarians which was strange for that time Transmigration of the soul 0 Why are they vegetarian I Eat meat eat a soul Emphasis on Musical Harmony In uence on Plato Vergil
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