PSY350Exam2.pdf PSY 350
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Erika leon on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 350 at Arizona State University taught by Dr. Robert Short in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 422 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Liberal Arts at Arizona State University.
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Date Created: 10/13/15
1 2 3 4 5 Internal attribution you blame personality attitudes or some other dispositional factor for the action Eg deciding your date is late because he is inconsiderate External attribution you attribute situational factors for the action Eg if you decide your date is late because of the traffic or some emergency at work Fundamental attribution error correspondence bias when people attribute behavior to dispositional factors when there are clear situational factors at work Eg assuming your date is late because he is rude when there is heavy storm outside Modesty can either benefit or hurt your first impression by managing how you express modesty by the type of situation you are in and you can strategize the impression you make on your audience Eg have less modesty in a job interview because you want to promote yourself to the employer or show an increased amount of modesty when someone you ve just met compliments you calls you prettyhandsome Women smile agree with other present themselves more modestly compliment others and buy nice clothes Men more disagreeable more testosterone cars sports and more confrontational ngratiation Strategies of impression management drives being liked Express liking for other verbal and nonverbal flattery create similarity and make ourselves physically attractive project modesty YerkesDodson Law proposition that some arousal is better than none but too much can hurt performance Performance will increase with mental arousal to a certain point but when arousal is too high anxiety performance will decrease 5 7 After reputations have been shaken by failure But not if their true competence can be easily checked by others Also selfpromoters often create a social environment in which others feel compelled to self promote Self promoters create social environments in which others feel compelled to selfpromote as well Eg at school or athletic team competitive parts If you sabotage your own success then failure is expected and you can maintain to yourself and for others that if you had really tried you would have succeeded When others are more confident in your success than you are selfhandicapping allows you to maintain that positive image others hold 8 Cutting off Reflected Failure the process of distancing ourselves from unsuccessful others They don t want their reputations affected b associating with the people who are considered failures 9 Emotions last only a few seconds or minutes mood can last for days 10 Perspective that much of social interaction can be thought of as a play with actors performances settings scripts props roles and so forth 11 Discounting Principles as the number of possible causes for an event increases our confidence that any particular cause is the true one decreases Eg If a student gives an apple to the professor we are less likely to attribute the gift to kind motives if the gift might improve the student s grade Augmenting Principle if an event occurs despite the presences of strong opposing forces we give more weight to factors that lead towards the event Eg If a girl gives a guy flowers we are more likely to think she really likes him if she had to walk through a rainstorm to get them 13 When people are put in the spotlight they assume that people are paying attention to them more than they really are Eg If a student had an assignment due in class and did not prepare as well as then they should have the student may start to panic and think that simply because they did not prepare well the teacher will know and call on them for answers 14 Process of presenting our associations with successful highstatus others and events Eg I met so and so my friend is friends with 15 Process of distancing ourselves from unsuccessful lowstatus others or events Eg One might change the language they use to describe the game after a defeat or win A Knicks fan might say quotWe won when the Knicks win and when the knicks lose they might say quotKnicks lost or quotThey lost 20 Situation in which a person needs to present different images to different people often at the same time Eg Troy wants to remain popular with his basketball and win the championship but also wants to sing in the school musical But his friends don t think that a jock should not be singing in a musical 21 People create an excuse for a later failure by doing something that is likely to hinder their success Eg A student may play a card game last at night before or final or employee may work on other projects instead of preparing for an important presentation Shawna stay up late playing video games before taking the SATs creating an excuse for her low scores 22 The tendency to be chronically concerned with one s public image and to adjust one s actions to fit the needs of the current situation 23 African Americans most tolerant of bragging Asian Americans most likely to project modesty 25 Heuristics shortcuts we use in making judgements likely to come up with a pretty good answer quickly and sometimes can make an incorrect judgement Availability Heuristic involves the tendency to make judgments about the frequency of something or the likelihood of an event occurring by considering how available it was in memory Eg Are we more likely to find R as the first letter or the third letter of the world Most people respond that they are more words with R as the first letter since they first think about ow many words they know that they start with R then they think about how many words have an R as the third letter and start think that there are more words that start with an R In reality there are more words with R as the third letter Representativeness Heuristic involves making decisions based on how similar someone or something is to the typical r representative person or situation Eg Walt reads big books and plays golf is he more likely to be a professor or truck driver Truck drive because there are more of those in the word so there is a better chance Affect Heuristic use gut level reactions to help us make decisions Eg 20 out of 100 similar criminals let on parole commit a violent crime instead of saying 20 of criminals commit this crime on parole because the 20 sounds better than 20 out of 100 26 Scripts expected series of events we use these to make sense of and organize our experiences involve events or sequences of events Eg Just like in a play a common script can help us know what to do or what is expected of us in a given situation Schemas knowledge structures that organize what we know and that can affect how we process information Eg When put in your professor s office and then taken out you are asked what was in your professor s office You may rely on your normal professor s office schema this could lead to you thinking there was a stapler when there wasn t and since in your schema there isn t a teddy bear you wouldn t have thought to say teddy bear High SelfMonitor inconsistent across situations and good at assessing what others want and tailoring their behavior to fit those demands Low SelfMonitor look inside themselves to decide how to act and don t change as much across situations Public SelfConsciousness the tendency to have a chronic awareness of oneself as being in the public eye Self Promotion an attempt to get others to see s as competent Attitude Affect feelings Behavior actions you would take Cognition thoughts beliefs 3 conditions under which attitude predicts behavior 1 When other influences upon our attitude statements and our behavior are minimized 2 When the measure attitude is specifically relevant to the behavior 3 Induce people to focus on their attitudes by making hem selfconscious Footinthedoor putting the alarm system sign in someone s front lawn for a couple of days then coming back to offer free trial then having them sign up for an membership LowBailing more likely to volunteer for an experiment when given less details then volunteering after the person says it starts at 7 am Consistency Principle the principle that people will change their attitudes beliefs perception and actions to make them consistent with each other SelfServing Bias the tendency to take credit for our successes and to blame external factors for our faHures Downward Social Comparison the process of comparing ourselves with those who are less welloff Eg cancer patients comparing themselves to those who are dying Upward Social Comparison the process of comparing ourselves with those who are better off than ourselves Eg someone got A so I need to study more False Consensus the tendency to overestimate the extent to which others agree with us ActorObserver Difference the tendency for individuals to judge their own behaviors as caused by his or her personality SelfFulfilling Prophecy when an initially inaccurate expectations leads to actions that cause the expectation to come true Social Comparison helps us understandmeasure the degree of accentuation and all knowledge is socially derived by this process Social Cognition the process of thinking about oneself and others 4 Core Processes of Social Cognition Attention the process of consciously focusing on features of the environment or oneself Interpretation the process through which we give meaning to the events we experience Judgement the process of using info to form impressions and make decisions Memory storing and retrieving info for future use SelfPresentation the process through which we try to control the impression of other Stable vs Unstable someone compliments you you have to decide if the event is likely to never happen again such as you just got a free a makeover unstable or it will always be around since you have an attractive face stable Optimistic Explanatory Style Positive events internal stable global Negative events external unstable specific Pessimistic Explanatory Style Positive events external unstable specific Negative events internal stable global
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