THE US 1865 TO PRES
THE US 1865 TO PRES HIST 2057
Popular in Course
Popular in History
This 51 page Study Guide was uploaded by Edna Boyle on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to HIST 2057 at Louisiana State University taught by Robert Outland in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see /class/222460/hist-2057-louisiana-state-university in History at Louisiana State University.
Reviews for THE US 1865 TO PRES
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 10/13/15
Reconstruction o In 1865 the United States ends a very bloody and costly civil war in which neither side thought would turn out the way it did The war started because both sides wanted to answer the questions that the constitution failed to Could a state leave the union once it joined What is the status of slavery After north wins they get to answer these questions North says you cannot leave the union How would the south come into the union North says no slavery What would the blacks be considered Citizens or not citizens The Civil War was the rst war in which that a region s economy morals and workforce becomes a target for the opposition Size and power of National Govemmentby the end of civil war the Us government was stronger and bigger than it ever was before in late l9Lh century the national government by our standards was tiny and its policies didn t affect the lives of everyday Americans very few newspapers inactive congress weakened presidency today our lives are very much impacted by the national government Cultural transformation US late l9Lh century the culture is generally described as a producer culture lived on small farms on rural country side produced basic items of consumption transformation occurs in late 19111 century to now we have a consumer culture what we focus on is earning money to go out and buy consumer products most of it unnecessary Race Relations change dramatically from 1865 to the present good example of how some things don t necessarily go from worse to better overtime not a constant progression Major players a White southerners 1 Most had the attitude that the war had been fought and had been lost and slavery was over and they accept that the south would be a part of the Us 2 Most had ideas on how they were going to come back into the union 1 They want the south to just come back in no questions asked and no demanding 2 They also want to determine the labor institution that replaces slavery they accept that slavery has ended but they wanted to decide what would replace slavery O O O O O b Blacks 1 Had attitudes similar to white southerners 2 Acknowledge that war is over and slavery is done like white southerners 3 They have ideas for what the south will be like but they are different from white southerners and they want full citizenship rights from reconstruction l Full citizenship rights equality under the law voting running for public of ce education land ownership 2 Most of the slave population was illiterate and they wanted education 3 Land ownership l The old school idea of liberty and freedom was in order to be free you must own your own land 2 They wanted farm land the south was an agrarian economy so if they were going to make a living it was going to be from farming they thought that in order to be truly free you should own a farm a If you didn39t own your own land then you had to work for someone else and this even affected voting c White Northemers l 2 LA 5 UI Don t know what they want keep changing their minds There are very diverse opinions In the north there were 2 parties Republicans majority and Democrats minority Democrats based the war on preserving the union law and order etc once war was over thought no big deal mission accomplished and just let the south back in Republicans were the dominant party in the north and they wanted the south to lea1n a lesson they are not sure what they want they said the civil war happened because the south got out of control and they started pushing and shoving their way around 1 Want the 13111 amendment slavery to stick 2 Want less power for the south in Washington 1 The feeling before the civil war was that the south was too powerful 3 South has to adopt a free labor economy instead of a slavery economy 4 Free Labor Economy supposed to be introduce to the south 1 The north like to compare it self to the south and the north had a free labor economy and thought it was wonderful 2 Men had the choice to work for themselves and also had the choice to work fro someone else if so choose too 3 This economy doesn t look as good as they thought many labor abuses in factories 5 Most republicans were considered to be modernist they agree with the l3Lh amendment but weren t quite sure what they wanted 1 A minority of republicans wanted more a Full rights for black population b Land redistribution 2 PresidentialReconstruction a Lincoln s plan 1 2 In 1863 Lincoln said that Louisiana and Arkansas could come back into the union since the union had large parts of these states under control these states had to pledge loyalty to the United States and say no more slavery this was an easy plan seems Lincoln wanted to make it as easy as possible for the southern states to come back into the union He thinks seeing this other states would see it and leave the southern states 3 Louisiana and Arkansas do not come into the union under this plan because congress rejects it 4 Lincoln shot and killed shortly after the civil war just days after Lee surrendered to Grant so his plan never is taken on b Johnson s plan becomes president after Lincoln Andrew Johnson was a democrat and was chosen because Lincoln had trouble getting reelected so he went outside his party for a running mate and a southern democrat from Tennessee he was a southern senator who would not leave his senate seat after Tennessee seceded from the union and he kept occupying his seat in the senate and this is what makes him available to Lincoln 1 He resented the wealthy and educated because he grew up very poor and illiterate and he worked his way up in Tennessee politics by appealing to people like him He says there s going to have to be a loyalty oath no slavery the confederate debt does not have to pay back its debt from selling its war bondsdid this because he doesn t like wealthy people the southern states would have to repudiate their decision for succession the former confederate leadership is not going to be able to participate in politics anyone with taxable wealth of more than 20000 could not participate either A lot of confederates get pardons from the president the south grumbles but goes along with it congress doesn t want to go along with this plan watches what happens but don t like it he39s basically socking it to the people he39s resented his whole life 4 he does not ask for voting rights for black menwomen cant vote at this time 1 Southern response 1 Limit voting rights to white men 2 After the pardons most former confederate leaders run for office 3 Congress doesn t like the old confederate leadership in congress and don t allow it 4 Don t like the way the black population is treated after the war a There were big race riots in Memphis and New Orleans whites start rioting against blacks b There were codes directed across the black community i Blacks couldn t serve on juries ii Blacks had to sign labor contracts to work for a planter for a year if you didn t sign you were arrested for vagrancy then you were either put on a chain gang or rented out to planter by the sheriff iii In Mississippi blacks could not buy there own land 2 Northern response 1 To northemers it looked like slavery was creeping back up although it wasn t there was abuse of black labor 2 Responses a The northern voters went to the poles to vote for members of congress they overwhelmingly voted for republicans and a N L good number were radical republicans not a majority but a greater in uence than before b Congress could pass any bill they wanted and have Johnson veto it and then overriding the veto and just keeping passing what they wanted 7 begin of radical reconstruction 3 Radical Reconstruction a Congress plan 1 The l4Lh amendments had to be recognized by the south which de ned who was a citizen of the United States 2 Former confederate leadership could not hold office design to take the former leadership and do away with 3 Land redistribution doesn t ever happen b Republican Party in the South Takes control in the south after 1867 before this it didn t exist in the south 2 Before the war Lincoln wasn t on the ballot for president in the south because there was no republican party 3 Carpet baggersmen from the north that came south during reconstruction the understanding in the north was that the south had to be made over and there were opportunities for economic and political gain 1 Luggage was made from carpet 4 Scallywags a term used in 1860 used for white southerners that supported the republican party 1 2 Estimated that about 25 of white southerners supported the republican party Supported for various reasons 1 Some southerners remain loyal to the union throughout the war 7 Unionist tended to support the republican party 2 Some wealthy plantation owners supported the republican party because of its economic plan a Tariffs on sugars imported 3 Realist thought the republican party was the only game in town because they ran things 5 Blacks the republican party that ended slavery and the l4Lh amendment which defined blacks as citizens and the 153911 amendment which is design to give black men the right to vote c Problems 1 Taxation taxes increased 1 30 5 The radical republicans wanted to start up services in the south like free education people in the south couldn t afford to pay the taxes for these free programs because the south was in economic ruins so borrowing starts and a lot of debt develops Political corruption at national and state level Congress goes after president Johnson tries to impeach him it fails most historian consider this an abuse off the impeachment power Bibles 1 N When the war ends most white southern except basic realties they lost the war and no more slavery but they think they will set the details on how the south comes back in the union and their labor system and over the years after the war the tension starts to build and violence begin in 1868 The KKK begins most southern starts have a KKK or group like the KKK P 09quot 09 4 Changes in African American Life The black community is better of and the end of reconstruction because there was no more slavery No more break up of slave families because of slave trade Traveling without the permission of whites Changing jobs have a choice now with some restrictions Black churches develop during reconstruction Economic change the white south wants to decide what labor system replaces b c d e f slavery 1 2 3 1 2 3 5 Reconstruction ends a These groups operated independently of one of other They operated in secret Terrorized supporters of the republican party i Carpet baggers ii Scallywags iii Blacks biggest supporters of republicans Wanted to intimidate people from voting republican The democratic party did start making a come back in the south Want to go to wage labor but want to pay a very small wage to former slave and expect to have strong labor control with labor contracts and to decided when they started and when the stopped something similar to the slave system Blacks wanted land and wanted to be able to call there own shot A compromise was worked out Sharecropping a piece of land was owned by the plantation owners but was worked be the black family and at the ended of the season the black family would get a share of the pro ts the owners might have a say of what was planted and the blacks family would decided on how it was worked This system consumes the south The south stays hooked on cotton but other places in the world start growing cotton so prices go down and the economic situation in the south goes down and even whites are not making money and in poverty This goes on until WWII In decline in the south by the early 1870 because the KKK is so successful In 1876 only 3 states are controlled by the republican party and barley controls then Louisiana South Carolina and Florida 1 2 LA 4 Outcome 9 In 1872 Us Grant was President he was a really bad president and his administration was consumed with corruption In 1876 the democratic candidate won the popular vote and nearly wins the electoral vote people see that if the 3 republican states in the south votes were challenge and won by the republicans the republican can win the election people go crazy Compromise of 1877 this compromise that end reconstruction 1 The democrats agree to let the republican candidate RB Hayes wins presidency 2 The democrats get a republican promise that military action will not be used to reinforce reconstruction this was seen as the republicans would end reconstruction Politically when reconstruction ends the democratic party controls the south and will remain in control in the south into the 20 century b Economically the sharecroppers industry leads to economic disaster that keeps both the blacks and white poor economic mess 1 It39s a big change but some things stay the same whites still dominate the political and economic situation 0 Racial the black community is disproportionany poor compare to the white community 30 Makes adjustments illiteracy goes up but then it all comes crashing down with Jim Crowe laws Things are a lot better for the black community in 1877 than in 1865 Are some black people in political office even representing southern states in the US house of representatives Changes in American Societv and Economv Rise of a national business and industrial system a Contributing factors The north is more industrialized relative to the south but as far as a country the Us was not nearly industrialized 30 France Britain Germany were all very industrialized and far past the U S However by 1900 the US led the world in industrialization it surpassed France Britain and Germany combined how did the Us surge in industrial production within 40 years Several factors L In the late 19th century the Us had an abundant supply of natural resources they could easily supply the basic building supplies for factories iron ore and timber are plentiful same with coal and oil coal is especially important The US was bursting at the seams with workers potential workers for factories immigrants were coming to the Us by the millions to try and make a living In order for factories to do well you have to have consumers there s a rise in the urban population and people in the cities have to buy a lot of stuff that people in rural areas can produce themselves 5 Technology improves railroads weren39t new but what is new is how rapidly rail lines were being built almost all rail lines were east of the Mississippi and in the north but several transcontinental lines were created by 1900 in 1916 there are over 250000 miles of rail lines they were everywhere 1 So the US was linked up as one big market and trains made it quotsmallerquotit was also cheaper and faster to use trains instead of horses 2 Refrigerated box cars were introduced 5 Us has steel re ned iron steel is lighter than iron but can support 20 times the weight of iron and lasts longer because it doesn39t rust or corrode as much Before the introduction of electric lights life just stopped when the sun when done because it was too expensive and too dangerous to burn candles whale oil kerosene etc 1 Electric lights transform all that you can light up your home or a factory by our standards the electric lights were dim about a 15 or 20 watt bulb today and they make it possible to make factories work into the evening Telephones were also introduced before the telephone you could send messages fairly quickly with a telegraph but the telegraph was kind of cumbersome compared to telephones 1 With the telephone there could be a conversation and you could get clarification it just makes it easier Typewriters and adding machines are invented which makes it easier to run a big office 9 The government facilitates industrialization at this point the US producers are playing catchup compared to Europe so the government had a protective tariff on the imported goods so that more people in the Us would buy the domestic products 1 They also worked against labor unions labor unions were not new but it is new for how large they are the government policy wants to oppose it and attack it 2 The government commits itself to private property rights corporations have the same rights as individuals 3 The government is also stable in the late 19th century In the US no one believed that the government was going anywhere so it seemed safe to invest in industry b Motive for largescale operations 1 There39s growing efficiency 2 Couple ways for companies to grow 1 Horizontal integration the company expands what it does its specific specialization 2 Vertical integration the company expands the production 1 The steel industry the companies control the industry from top to bottom They start buying mines and also control the rail lines that 9 gt1 9 connect the mines to the blast furnaces and control the rolling mills and have people checking that the customers are happy controlling from top to bottom with this increased efficiency Excessive competition is eliminated companies are competing so hard against each other that it is causing the economy to be like a rollercoaster N c Industrial work Most people who come to do factory work are from agricultural backgrounds In the late 19th century a lot ofpeople in the Us are leaving farms going to the city the focus is on the city because that is where the action was There39s also millions of immigrants from eastern and southern Europe who had a peasantfarmer existence People were used to variety on the farm every day was different not what industrial work was like The work was bad by our standards and it was jolting because it wasn39t what they were used to you stayed inside all day long 1214 hour work days most of the factories were not well ventilated and not well lighted there wasn39t much variety for the 6 day work week with low pay about 20 cents an hour which wasn39t enough to raise a family on 1 2 4 l N Adult man39s average was 20 cents an hour so women worked in the factories too but they were only paid a fraction of what women made so the children had to come in and they made a fraction of what the women made There were no safety standards it was very typical for people to be killed or injured on the job and if that happened there was no disability insurance d Reason industrialization continues If everything about industrialization seems to be so crappy why does it continue 2 A lot of Americans are concerned 1 l N Most Americans didn39t live in cities or work in factories most were on farms most Americans do feel affected by industrialization most thought they lived in the land of opportunity where you could do what you wanted to do and be what you wanted to be but industrialization seemed to be changing that scenario the rise of big business comes and they39re really powerful some get so big that they control sectors of the economy it seemed hard to compete with these companies 1 Railroad companies started getting really big so it was in corporate boardrooms where executives would look at a map and decide where the rail lines would go the towns that had the rail line going through it then that crossroads would probably grow and be prosperous while the towns nearby would dry up and the business would go away There seems to be some instability with industrialization a depression begins in 1893 and was worse than one in 1873 the economy would grow and then crash and burn 2 3 Labor unions were also picking up 3 However most people found it a lot easier to live in an industrial society there were a lot of material products available so many things were available Kodak photographs washing machines phonographs food even starts being mass produced such as readytouse our cereal fresh beef fresh fruit and vegetables canned meat 1 All that stuff is available at affordable prices as wellincome didn t go up very much but buying power did 2 How do you get access to it 1 N L Immigration Immigration from Europe is not new but there is a new twist the number of immigrants begins to soar Many of these millions of immigrants stayed in cities in such large numbers that major urban areas were dominated by recently arrived immigrants It39s estimated that 3 5 s of New York s population in 1890 was either first or second generation American Not many immigrants go to the south but a good number of them leave urban areas and go west they were used to being farmers These immigrants were coming from places in Europe that had not previously provided many immigrants to the US they are coming from more Eastern Europe like Russia Poland etc Because of this they were very different from everyone else the people from western Europe were fairly well educated literate and protestant but the eastern a N 3 1 If you did happen to live in cities and towns you do start seeing large department stores opening that are designed to make consumption pleasant it s designed to be almost like recreation to be a fun activity a Start to see chain storesprecursers of WalMart Most people lived on farms but the consumer economy still reached them so the post office starts delivering letters and packages to rural areas for free by train which meant people could mail order products a Sears and Roba come along and by the 1880 s they sent out 6 million catalogs a year which is nearly every American household you could get everything even houses b Americans start consuming differently it would take a month or two to get your orders from the catalog People have to be convinced that they needed things that they don t really need people had to be convinced that it was ok to go out and buy all this stuff which was the job of marketing and advertising a Expenditures on marketing went up 10 times in the last 3rd of the 19th century b The methods used for advertising changed they went from just notifying that a product was available to very lushly illustrated and bigger ads that were designed to catch the consumer s eye you start seeing lifestyle being sold Europe people didn39t have any job skills or education and on top of that they were not protestant Christians if they were Christian they were catholic or orthodox The immigrants who came to the US chose to come to the Us there are some eastern Europeans moving to other countries they wanted to learn about American ways and take part in all the opportunity at the same time there is an interest in cultural and community preservation so there would be fairly large communities that would specialize in certain cultures 1 There is a desire to preserve their ethnicity and to assimilate 2 The kids lived in 2 worlds they could speak 2 languages and do well with both sides but by the time you get to the 3rd generation that seems to be lost Immigration unnerved most Americans they did not like them and immigrants were seen as a danger 1 One concern has to do with race race is a cultural construction by our standards they39re all white in the late 19th century Victorian social scientists classi ed humanity into races of which there were better Europeans and some worse Europeans eastern and southern Europeans were not on par with western Europeans who were superior they were seen as another race that was inferior 2 So people in rural areas saw inferior people lling up cities every year 3 They also didn t like that a lot of them weren39t protestants they didn t like Catholics especially who they viewed as agents of a foreign dictator the pope who they fear sends his people out to take over and there starts to become a fear that America is lling up with agents of the Vatican e There was also a fear of political radicals and there was actually some reason to be concerned about them 1 In Europe radicals were very common and there was a fear that there were millions of political radicals coming into America there were some not millions though and they made their presence known 2 There were also some instances where radicals took it upon themselves to blow up some stuff in the states William McKinley is assassinated by an anarchist 0 2391 3 Cities a New nature of cities 1 Cities change they were growing in size becoming more numerous and more people were living in cities US is still technically not an urban society though 2 In the year 1860 about 16 ofthe US population lived in the city or large town by 1900 U3 and by 1920 a little over U2 3 The US population from the end of the civil war to the beginning of WWI rose 300 3 times but city population rose 7 times and a as the cities grew they began to function differently 1 Most cities before the civil war were walking cities where you could get by walking to where you need to go they change though and grow incredibly fast 2 They39re growing with no direction no city planning which meant that sewer systems were starting to become completely overwhelmed 3 Mass transportation has to come in to make the cities work industrialized was of getting around cities start coming up such as electric street cars 5 subway systems which enabled the cities to get bigger and to start with specialization suburbs develop and people of different classes can live farther away from each other 4 Start seeing sections with different ethnic groups or areas of business offices b Problems Wasn t really a sewer system no garbage collection and as a result cities become nasty places There39s horrible overcrowding very little sanitation whole families living in one room if there was indoor plumbing it probably wasn39t working and most didn t have a tub While there is mass transportation developing there s lots of congestion and traffic jams because of horsedrawn carriages l The horses crapped a lot and there was nothing to really pick it up so it piled up as a result city life was pretty unhealthy It39s estimated that in 1890 25 of kids died before the age of 5 life expectancy was going down because of how dirty and unhealthy the cities were The cities were not run well because of crooked politicians who were very corrupt and they didn39t necessary hold the office but the controlled the people who did and no one was taking control over all this There is a concern people in cities live differently than those in rural areas mom and dad grew up on the farm but now these hellhole cities were viewed as exciting places where the action power money etc was and if you re young and want the excitement then you go to the city A lot of Americans were horrified because the kids were leaving the farm 2 In the countryside everybody kept tabs on everyone else and your parents could be rest assured that their kids couldn39t get into too much trouble but not in the city because no one knew who you were and no one cared For younger generation it s new and exciting but for the older generation it s dangerous and scary Closing of the western quotfrontierquot for European settlers and people of European ancestry the frontier had been where white settlement stopped and something else began a Initial movement of whites to the West 1 Up to 1890 the European people had always had a frontier this deals with a development where that situation concludes N L 5 VI 9 LA 2 Before the civil war white people only traveled through central US places like the great plains to get to the west the soil in the great plains was tough and the terrain was treeless and very dry 3 Ranchers start going out to the great plains and start ranching cattle sheep etc and what made this possible was industrialization why go graze all these sheep and cattle out there if you don t have a market and there s no market out there but the rail lines start crossing the great plains so it becomes possible to heard the cattle and sheep onto cattle cars to be slaughtered in Chicago it39s profitable for a while 4 There are Indians living out there b Confronting Indians l The plains Indians economy depended on buffalo that migrated so the Indians were migratory and were able to pick up their camp and move quickly 2 Everything they had all came from buffalo 3 But there are white ranchers that are in the great plains and the buffalo herds are moving around and Indians and whites start bumping into each other so policy makers in Washington work out a solution 1 They thought it was a spatial problem so they decided to assign different spaces to different people 4 The government tries a reservation system land will be reserved for Indians they will stay on there land cattle ranchers will do there thing on there land 1 This doesn t work the Indians don t agree to it 2 The treaty system was corrupted 3 Wouldn t work because the Indians followed the buffalo 5 The policy shifts to hunting Indians 1 In almost all cases the US army wins c quotCivilizationquot of the West 1 Civilize the Indians based on the reformers standards of civility l Opened schools for plains Indians some were on the great plains others were east of the Mississippi river 1 Taught them how to read and write in English 2 How to dress 3 How to act 2 Breaking up the reservation into fa1ms l Civilized people had a permanent dwelling and did not move around 160 acre farms 2 Land left over after this so sold the land off 1 Land was not meant for farming 2 In the year 1890 there were a couple of interesting events that mark a great change in the west one last Indians battle to fight off the Us army US army wins the great plains is open for white settlers 3 Apparently they have been coming into the great plains before the 1890 no more real frontier line spread from coast to coast 4 After the year 1890 with the perception that Indians were no longer a threat white settlers poured into the great plains region 5 There was always a frontier what was going to happen to the Americans where they going be sloppy and lazy like Europeans they fear they are going lose there tough and ruggedness so Indians began being held up as the ideal oftough and ruggedness 6 In 1890 plains Indians were culturally a wreck then all these white settlers come out there the buffalo start being hunted by whites almost to the point of extinction so the plains Indians are desperate 1 In 1890 some Indians came together to perform a ritual a ghost dance and that if they performed this correctly all their bad circumstances would reverse 1 2 However the US military was spooked and moved in and attacked quotthe battle of wounded kneequot and after this attack the Indians don t mess with whites anymore 7 The US census was taken in 1890 as well and it showed that there was no more frontier people were living from coast to coast 1 There was a historian in 1893 who delivered a paper in which he described what this might mean to the US that the frontier had closed what made the US unique He asked in the paper he also answered it Americans were tough rugged individualistic could hack it etc while Europeans were so sloppy and lazy He then asked why is that the case It was the frontier experience that made it like that so now that the frontier experience is gone how would Americans be now N Religious and intellectual confusion a Victorian culture was still going on and before the civil war most Americans could afford to be smug because everyone was the same but now people are starting to come in who are very culturally different from Americans so now their ideas are being challenged and questioned when Americans see these new cultures b Day in and day out most Americans encounter people like themselves this start to change in the late 19th century people by the millions start pouring into the united states 1 Religion is different 2 Come up with new ideas 1 Economics 2 Science 3 New way of looking at the world 1 Old thought stuff happen by natural law 2 New thought humans are very complicated and things happen because of humans c Society is based on how humans think society should work 1 Education changes it was a affect by all these new ideas coming in 1 Teachers just gave facts but that starts changing interpretation starts becoming more important d Self discovery having new ideas rather than memorization American world is changing very rapidly they are shaken up about this Independence is fading away less opportunity for a small business to compete with a major business Economic depression lack of confidence in the economy and the traditional understanding of the world The old order just was not working anymore Living in a city and working in factories suck Baseball becomes a professional sport music business comes about can buy records and record player exercise becomes popular if you were rich you went out west or on African safari s bicycles become popular people start scheduling time to be outside and physical exercise Tensions and Final Decision Tensions P The world was changing and opportunity with small businesses and farms were having to compete with large corporations that were controlling parts of the economy b There39s a loss in con dence there were two panics or depressions the population is being introduced to ideas that they39re not used to 99 The city39s a crazy chaotic place there s no order Labor unions seemed to make people nervous and made class warfare which was pretty much unAmerican to have at the same time 2 Responses a Social and Cultural accommodation more than reaction 1 N L 5 V39 9 b Religious l N L Entertainment becomes more commercial hardly anything was commercial at this point commercial entertainment is becoming more widespread and people are getting used to paying money to be entertained at vaudeville shows it was just something people did in the city Industrialization allowed for the mass production of phonographs which needed records so the record industry started typically if you wanted to hear music someone had to play the piano but not anymore Sports start being professional baseball is the first and is a huge deal big cities had ball parks and the national and American leagues were formed There39s a new emphasis that gets placed on outside activity people start focusing on intentionally going outside to engage in outside recreation activities to be healthy people are encouraged to go out to the frontier or at least ride a bike outside the city So there s a good chunk of the population who s spending most of their time indoors in their apartments or they39re in office buildings being outside meant busting your ass on a hot day behind a plow in the past and now people are intentionally going outside There39s a new obsession over professionalization the number of colleges and universities skyrocket and the enrollments go up as well it was still not typical in the late 19th century to graduate high school or much less go to college but it s happening more frequently because there s a growing demand for professional training People start wanting credentials 1 If you wanted to be a doctor at this time you didn t have to go to medical school you just studied under some other doctor and they just made up stuff 2 If you did go to medical school there were no entrance requirements didn t even have to pass the classes same with being a lawyer or anything 3 That starts changing because everything is getting bigger and whoever is put in charge of these institutions need to know what they39re doing some people start requiring medical school and passing exams etc When the going gets tough people go to church there s a renewed interest in religion at this time Some celebrity evangelists go around and hold big revivals the south becomes highly religious around this time Also start seeing an effort to Christianize the law to make people to behave morally 4 There39s an attack on birth control in the late 1800 s states outlawed birth control and distributing information on it through the postal service was outlawed 1 It was outlawed because the view was that if you were talking about birth control you were talking about consequence free sex and if you were talking about that you were talking about lust and being lustful was bad 5 Temperance stopping alcohol consumption is reinvigorated at this time stopping it not just limiting it becomes a renewed effort and they39re willing to use the law a lot of states pass laws to become dry there is effort to pass a national law banning alcohol c Social Justice 1 A broad movement with a lot of reformers including the temperance reformers 2 There39s a widespread belief that competition is out of control and there s too little cooperation and too much emphasis on competition 3 Reformers made out to try to make things better trying to get children out of factories and make cities cleaner etc 4 One area of reform some of the reformers got involved in settlement houses institutions designed to aid recently arrived immigrants the government did very little to help so the reformers made these houses of which some were small and some were large 1 These people arrived knowing and having nothing 2 The reformers helped with cooking medical care and English classes 3 A lot of times the volunteers looked down on the people they39re helping they39re very complicated a lot of the reformers came from prominent families and are educated women d Organization 1 Labor 1 Organized labor what39s new is the size of the organizations so organized labor gets bigger 2 3 major labor union groups 1 The Knights of Labor in a way they kind of stand out and are kind of exceptional they were extremely inclusive when it came to their membership they included producers people who made things nonproducers executives bankers lawyers etc weren39t allowed a Women and blacks were also allowed to join very rare for men and women to be a part of the same group especially different races b They put out immediate action stuff the desire to improve the daytoday life of the workers they wanted to shorten the workday to 8 hours they pushed for safety conditions higher pay child labor laws etc However ultimately they envisioned a world where the producers owned and controlled production workers controlling and owning factories 2 The American Federation of Labor AFL eventually overcomes the Knights they were much more mainstream and re ected more 0 3 of the way most Americans felt they did exclude based on gender and race only white men producers could join a They fought for the same things but they never said they had a problem with the capitalist system they just wanted the industrial workers to bene t more than they were The Industrial Workers of the World IWW small in size of members but had a big voice they were much louder in their demand that the workers control the factories and that the industrialists were booted out they had a small membership though Labor unions were challenged and had several issues that were hard for them to overcome l The first was that labor unions were downright unAmerican Americans were supposed to be individual and rugged not gang up in class warfare so popular opinion is against the labor unions In the late 19th century you re still in an era where people think the world works by natural law but idea that the world works by the way humans run it starts creeping up a Still natural law meant that they thought supply and demand didn t matter on human behavior so that if workers would come in for 5 cents an hour then that was natural b Labor unions asking for a living wage makes people think it s against the natural law and doesn39t make sense 3 The government had no patience for striking workers and congress president supreme court etc didn t like labor unions military has even attacked unions L N 2 Farmers 1 LA 5 9 Farmers and industrial workers had a bond in that they both felt they were getting screwed over farmers said the world was turning against them and in fact the culture is turning against them Farm commodity prices were dropping every year they seem to be paid less and less for products Farmers also complained about the railroads that is the transportation that people relied upon especially farmers which meant they were had to pay these big powerful railroad companies that would charge whatever they wanted To keep farming a lot of farmers had to take out a mortgage to continue farming This was some perception l The cost of farming commodities was going down but so was industrial products and in some cases farmers actually had more buying power because mass production drove down the prices of industrial products The farmers decide that their circumstance isn39t good and they need to help themselves they need to help themselves e Politics 1 N The farmers start forming local and state farming organizations and eventually get the National Farmers Alliance which was about farmers helping farmers They decide the middle man is getting in on their action so they try to come up with their own supply stores grain buying operations etc but it doesn39t work because they don t have much experience in running these business and they39re competing with well established businesses so they try to get involved in politics 1 Democrats and Republicans l The government at this time was tiny and supercheap There wasn39t much different between the democrats and republicans at this time and they were pretty evenly matched in number they think it s ok for big businesses to do what they want The presidency is pretty weak during and following reconstruction So there s no direction no planning no organization there39s no central economic planning So the national farmers alliance wanted to end the protected tariff for industrialist the tax on imported manufactured goods 2 5 VI 1 2 LA VI 9 They also want an income tax it was designed as a tax that would only hit the super rich most Americans would never have to pay it They also want individual voters to go directly to the polls and vote for senators which is not what the founding fathers wanted the constitution had the idea that the last thing they wanted was to have quotthe peoplequot involved in government They want the railroad companies tightly regulated They also want free silver will be explained later The de ning issue is the sub treasury they put all their money into their farm and crops and they were hurt because they lack the exibility to work in futures and what was happening they said when they would throw all their stuff onto the market the market prices fall so ifthey could sell at any point in the year they could make more money a The sub treasure would get the national government would loan farmers money based on their harvest then farmers could sit on their crop and wait till it was a good time for them based on the market price The farmers get burned by politicians39 fake promises so they create their own party the populist party a The party knew they had to make it appeal to farmers and industrial workers but really the sub treasury was not going to help the industrial workers so they searched for an issue that both groups could support so they push for free silver as the populist s main issue b Going back to the civil war the national government issued paper money called quotgreenbacksquot farmers liked the greenbacks there s more money in circulation and borrowers liked that farmers are borrowers but bankers and creditors didn t like the situation they greenbacks started causing a problem after the civil war with in ation so congress started pulling the greenbacks out of circulation and you go to a system where the US is strictly on the gold standard i The idea was that if there was more money in circulation then they would be better off and there was a good way to do that and still stay on a metal standard ii They wanted the government to base the money on gold and silver which is what they meant by free silver this is the major political issue of the time almost a social movement 1 Alliance 2 Populists see above f Depression 1 In 1892 Grover Cleveland is elected president the economy collapses and the panic was worse than the 1873 panic 2 When the factories closed there were millions of people who were in the city with no aid to fall back on 3 Unemployment was running 20 we39re about 7 or 8 right now 4 Cotton prices dropped to an all time low etc 5 Stuff go scary because of the new circumstances and in 1894 a marched protest went to the white house which didn t happen back then like it does now 6 There are some huge labor strikes railroad and mining workers go on strike and in the time coal was the fuel source so there s no coal supply and no transportation g Election of 1896 1 In the election there were two candidates William Jennings Bryan was the democrat and William McKinley was the republican 2 McKinley promised that if the Us would hold on it would get better and he wanted a tighter money supply based only on gold NOT silver too 3 Bryan was a huge political gure at the time he runs for president about 4 times he s a very active campaigner he supported free silver however as the democratic candidate he was not advocating everything that the populists were advocating the populists decided they should support the candidate that somewhat supports their ideals but even with their support the republicans still won 4 That says that the majority of the voters in 1896 decide to stick it out and have faith that McKinley is correct and also says that there are a lot of voters who have huge questions about all these changes 5 In the next few years the economy stabilized just like McKinley had promised he was pretty popular 6 He then ran for reelection with Teddy Roosevelt as vice president they put teddy on the bill to rid of him because he was viewed as a threat so you put him in as vice president 1 Then McKinley is assassinated and teddy becomes president which was not the republican party s plan Foreign policy 1 Early foreign policy a Old policy was to expand area in North America and make them states b In the latter half the US starts going offshore where the main purpose is to keep the places as colonial territories and use the native people not have whites move to 2 Changes that led to policy shift a There are several changes not just one big factor b The closing of the frontier the idea had been that there was a frontier and that s what gave the Americans an edge however there s not more frontier it was all settled 1 Foreign policy makers start deciding that the US is always expanding and what now that there is now frontier 2 Well maybe there should be a new understanding of territorial expansion c The US had exported before the civil war the principal export was cotton well the Us is now industrializing so there start to be finished merchandise that has to be sold and by the end of the 19th century the Us market couldn39t consume all of these finished products at the same time farms were doing well and producing more 1 As a result of all this export values soared 2 In the year 1870 Us exports were valued at about 400 million 20 years later in 1890 they39re at 850 million but in 1900 they39re at 14 billion d The US was not a super power yet and didn t have much of a navy they were ranked 12th in the world 1 So from 1880 to 1900 they build the navy with top of the line ships and starts sending the ships out overseas you need bases across the globe where your ships can come in and get supplies start getting into some islands in the pacific e The intellectual idea of social Darwinism if you were going to survive as a country you needed to be among the fittest 1 Who was among the fittest Not the US Could the Us withstand the pressure from countries like Britain France and Germany Understanding of race Victorians categorized races in ranks western European were at the top seen as most intellectual and advanced and Chinese were at the bottom 1 This gets into foreign policy because the Us does go out into places in the pacific and the idea was that the US was actually doing the people there a favor and they really should go into areas where there were darker skinned people and help them help civilize them 2 The Us is going to help its quotlittle brown brothersquot N 3 Hawaii a The US starts getting interested in areas away from the continental US b The US purchased Alaska and at the time was viewed as a bad move and the Us annexed the midway islands in the pacific 1 These didn t look like a big change in foreign policy c In the mid 1870s the US cut a deal with the kingdom of Hawaii which was a nation with a monarchy US said that Hawaiian grown sugar could be exported to the Us 5 2391 FD quot1 9 taX free if Hawaii agreed to come under the US protection under the protective wing of US 1 This meant to the wealthy people in Hawaii they gained a new market for this sugar 2 The US got reliable use ofthe Hawaiian islands the US wants to use Hawaii as a stopover to help them have an active trade with china In the 1880s they make another agreement that gives the US exclusive rights to some harbors in Hawaii especially Pearl Harbor By the 1880s the situation in Hawaii had changed a lot of US business men had gone to Hawaii and invested in sugar farms 1 The Hawaiians were working on these farms and the king didn t care to stop any of this he was very westemized It looks like the US is about to take over Hawaii 3 The Hawaiians are doing hard labor on the sugar farms and they start dying the conditions were horrible In 1890s the US changes its policy with sugar from Hawaii the taX free status of Hawaiian sugar ended which hurt the plantation economy in Hawaii 1 The king also died at this time so there are a lot ofUS people owning parts of Hawaii and working the people then the king s sister takes the thrown and she advocated a new policy because she didn t like what was going on in Hawaii She wanted more power put in the hands of native Hawaiians she seems to resent the fact that there are all these wealthy businessmen running her kingdom however she s married to one of them In 1893 there was a revolt the palace is stormed by the businessmen and the businessmen wire to the US that everything39s crazy and the marines need to be sent 1n N N 1 Grover Cleveland was president at the time and no one really checked on the details to nd out what was really going on the marines were unwittingly used to help solidify their control of Hawaii by the businessmen 2 Then the Cleveland administration realizes they sent in people to take over the island 3 Hawaii begins to be governed by these businessmen who want the US to annex Hawaii but the US won t do it SpanishAmerican War a Cuba 1 Cuba was one of the few remaining parts of the Spanish empire 2 There was a rebellion in Cuba to try and gain independence from Spain the Cuban rebels were very savvy and used American newspapers to spread the story 3 The Spanish had started putting people in concentration camps 4 Americans start being told of terrible things that are happening in Cuba and there s a growing interest in the US sending a military force to help them which had never happened at the time 5 McKinley was president and knew how terrible war could be so he stayed out until 1898 the US was trying to mediate negotiations at the time but in 1898 the US believed that the Spanish were just dragging things out 1 Also a US battleship blew up as it sat anchored in Havana US had a pretty nice navy by then just to remind them that the Us had a good navy this ship was just sent to Havana to just be seen and let people know well it blew up and Spain is blamed for it even though it was not sure how the ship sank it killed a lot of soldiers 2 There is a large outcry to declare war against Spain and the Us does go to war in the spring of 1898 6 It39s an interesting war it s the rst war that the US is involved in since the civil war so the south gets to really demonstrate where it s allegiance lied there are also a lot of blacks about a quarter of the force that went into Cuba were black 7 It was pretty easy for the US but it showed that the army was behind and needs some updating they were trying to ght using some of the same equipment that was left over from the civil war b Philippines 1 The Philippines were part of the Spanish empire and the Us also had sent some of its navy to the Philippines and Spain is defeated easily there as well 2 One thing that39s interesting is that there had been a rebellion in the Philippine islands with rebels ghting the Spanish but the Us stays 1 Is the US going to become a fullblown imperial power or would it keep a distance from imperialism 2 The US does give up Cuba Cuba technically is free from US but the Us helps set up the government and the US can keep a watchful eye over Cuba and if Cuba couldn39t straighten things out the Us would come in which does happen later 3 The Philippine islands become a US colony and the rebellion continues 4 Puerto Rico also becomes a colonial possession ofthe US 3 Then in 1898 the Us does anneX Hawaii 5 Open door policy a Deals with the US and its policy with Asia speci cally china b The Us is different it s not a superpower but it is getting fairly active in foreign affairs 6 Roosevelt Corollary History 2057 Exam 2 Study Guide New Racial Order Jim Crowe svstem 11 Opposition to immigration a Nationally there is a reaction to nonwhite people a fear of racially inferior people Most people in the US are western Europe ancestry and when east Europeans started coming in it was racially inferior people c There was a movement to strictly limit the number of eastemsouthem Europeans in congress several times d Only one group of immigrants who are shut out the Chinese the Chinese exclusion act is passed which excluded Chinese immigrants from entering the US the feeling was that the Chinese were the most racially inferior people on the planet Race relations in the South a Status of blacks after Reconstruction c When reconstruction concluded the southern whites were back in control with the democratic party while the blacks in the south supported the republicans 0 There s a new labor arrangement sharecropping 0 There s no land redistribution However in 1877 black men could and did vote there are efforts to suppress the black vote but not eliminate it Black men were elected to political offices There is segregation but it s not legalized it s more cultural segregation the races just separated themselves During reconstruction churches become segregated There are advancements in literacy rates life expectancy and land ownership for southern blacks Around 1890 this improvement stops and you start seeing decline for the black population in the south this comes with the beginning of the Jim Crowe system a new racial system b New racial system 3 components that are key to imposing Jim Crowe system c Disfranchisement O A term meaning to take voting rights away 0 This happens in certain areas of the south around 1890 o The 15th amendment guaranteed voting rights for men who said you could no deny the right to vote on race previous servitude etc gt Basically no state could pass legislation that said quotblack men can t votequot 0 What happens is the voter requirements that appear color blind make it much harder for black men to vote than white men 0 Different states had different ways some of the most common were V b V gt To vote in a district you had to live in that voting district for a year reality was that black families moved more frequently than white families in a search for better sharecropping arrangements gt You had to own a certain amount of land black men were less likely to own land gt Some states said you had to pay a poll taX if you couldn39t afford the taX you can t vote I You had to pay and you also had to keep record that you paid it and hold on to the receipt hard for blacks because their on the move a lot more Also you had to stay up with poll taX and pay it year after year if you missed a couple of years you had to make up for those years gt There were literacy requirements you39ve got to be literate enough to read part of the constitution and then explain what it meant to some county official39s satisfaction 0 These regulations did hit white men as well as had a class dynamic O gt Most black men did lose their right to vote about 4 were still allowed in LA gt However about 40 of white men lost their right to vote in LA Generally southern states factored in a quot grandfather lawquot that said if you had a male relative who had been able to vote before 1867 then you could get around the laws and vote 0 Segregation O O O 0 On the surface it seems to be about segregating the races there was segregation before this but it wasn39t legalized segregation more of cultural segregation Now we start seeing legal segregation wide spread legalized segregation such as segregated buses bathrooms etc it wasn39t company policy it was the law The segregation begins with the railroad and they start having separate train cars for white and black passengers Louisiana is one of the first states to pass one of these separate train car acts LA law is important to Jim Crowe system because it39s LA that is the first one to be challenged to the supreme court with Plessey v Ferguson 1896 gt What happened was Homer Plessey was a black man legally defined as a black man who boarded a white train car in New Orleans and refused to leave the white car and was arrested gt The law said that anyone who was 1 8th black was black Homer Plessey was 1 8th black one of his great grandparents was black and the other 7 were white gt Supreme court holds that legalized segregation was constitutional and after this everything in the south becomes segregated 0 Many instances there would be things like parks for whites but no parks were built for blacks 0 Day in and day out whites and blacks saw each other all the time and knew each other very well what the segregation seems to do a betterjob ofis creating a 2nd class social system for blacks where everything for blacks is inferior if it even existed at all 0 Violence 0 This is a system that has to be imposed on the southern black population so the question comes up where is the revolt against this Why is the black population not standing up 0 There is a lot of racial violence that imposes the system that forces it into the south and keeps it there 0 The violence takes 2 forms gt Riots there are some race riots in the south whites rioting against blacks Lynching it was not peculiar to the south it went across the nation and the victims of lynching were not only blacks I However there39s a pattern that starts developing in the last decade of the 19th century most lynching occurred in the south and about 2339s of the victims of lynch mobs were black Over time it s becoming something that happens more frequently in the south Lynching is the extralegal punishment for people who are suspected of a crime by a mob It39s done outside the legal system In the late 19th century this stuff is going on in back woods areas but later it morphs into a public spectacle One case in Georgia a black man was suspected of raping a white women a mob grabbed him and held him until the weekend so that people from Atlanta could board an excursion train to come and watch This is happening more in the lower south than in the upper south but on average in each southern state there was one lynching a month it happens regularly but it doesn39t involve thousands of people being lynched It39s reminding the black community of the penalty if they don t follow the system of the time V c Reasons for the change Consider the timing it s roughly 1890s when this stuff begins several reasons Around 1890 there s a young generation coming of age who had not experienced slavery and they seem to have behaved differently toward whites than their parents and grandparents behaved to toward whites o Slave children were taught that to survive in a world where there was slavery you needed to always be cautious of whites just keep a low pro le However this new generation will speak up to whites look whites in the eye etc Whites believed that the institution of slavery had been a necessary system that ordered the social system the way it naturally should be where whites were superior and blacks were inferior o It was a very controlling mechanism The black community was making progress at the same time that the white community was sta1ting to digress sharecropping was starting to do worse for whites because cotton prices were down so they went to work in a textile mill if they lost their farm 0 There s probably a great deal of resentment that starts to build and the fact that whites are regressing and blacks are progressing makes no sense so they start looking for something someone to blame Somehow the black community was to blame and there s a white 0 O o backlash against the blacks o The populists dared to bring white and black voters together and other things 0 The democratic party is running the south at the time and is terri ed of what they re seeing o The national government allows this to go on everyone knew what was going on and the national government decided it was ne d Black response 0 Protest O Protest was not viewed by most blacks in the south as a viable option 0 WEB Dubois is the most wellknown black intellectual of the 20th century from the north and very well educated he spearheaded the protest movement gt Him and some others formed the NAACP most of the members were actually white 0 Accommodation 0 Means dealing with things the best way you can 0 Booker T Washington was born a slave in the south said blacks in the south should focus on economic advancement Flight 0 Progressivism O O O gt He thought blacks should get an economic stability and then the white community might view the blacks in a more positive light and the Jim Crowe stuff would fade away gt That doesn39t happen though Dubois said protest Washington said deal with it they didn t really get along Blacks start leaving the south and heading north The great migration does not begin until 1915 because there s a push to leave the south but no pull yet however in 1915 northern factory owners start employing blacks gt In 1915 European immigrants stop coming over because of WWI so Europeans are not coming over and the industries in America are trying to make things to sell to the European countries during the war time but the factory owners needed a labor force so they start employing blacks There is a back to Africa movement that becomes very popular gt Marcus Garvey a curious character begins the movement with a good number of followers they create the quotrepublic of Africaquot of which Garvey claims he s the head of it gt They try to start some blackowned businesses but tend to not work out gt The US ends up deporting Garvey who doesn t really stand on the same level as Washington or Dubois o Garvey did advocate black pride so did Dubois 1 Changes and problems a Cities were continuing to grow rapidly and out of control Immigration is continuing until 1915 Businesses and corporations are getting bigger b But you start see full blown mass production and really improved factory effrciency c Henry Ford does not invent the car he just released the model T which at the time was cheap compared to other cars even though it was 800 however he39s able to make things so efficient that he brings the price down to 300 and his factory becomes huge extremely efficient and runs on a moving assembly line That does mean however that workers are losing whatever control they had and the machines are working the workers not the workers working the machines The labor is very unskilled and speci c the workers have no control over what they actually do 11 Nature of Progressivism a If everybody is progressive all the candidates and parties it means there is a lot of diversity III New ar 2 V b 38 D V Progressivism is contradictory some people are trying to take voting from blacks while some are trying to keep blacks voting and both sides say they39re progressive These people were progressive by the standards of their day not necessarily what we would think of as progressive So in general what were progressives about 0 They tend to be interested in reforming the economy in reforming big business they are not interested in attacking big business however they did identify problems associated with big business that they wanted to x 0 They seemed to be very optimistic people more people were going to college and their understanding is that they were the most educated generation up to that point and had a great deal of con dence in themselves and their ability to x problems 0 They are con dent in their ideal of morality they thought the world was a messed up immoral place and they thought they knew what was moral and would try to convince people to change their behavior to a moral fashion and would even use the law to enforce morality eas of reform Journalists get involved in reform If you wanted to sell your magazine newspaper book etc you exposed problems people wanted to read about problems because they wanted to x them So muckrakingwas the writing style it s what sold and everyone got into newspapers and magazines would sensationalize stories One of the best known books in this style is quotThe Junglequot by Upton Sinclair it was intended by Sinclair to be an expose on the meat packing industry especially the labor abuses in the plants 0 The book sold like crazy he also exposed the unsanitary conditions that were in the meat supply which helped people be interested Women get involved in reform activity more than ever before they get involved in the temperance movement to stop alcohol in the US Ultimately they are successful in amending the US constitution to stop alcohol consumption They said it was immoral to drink alcohol and after convincing a lot people they were able to get an amendment to x it across the country In the early 20th century women were more likely to be educated a lot of them were trained professionally as doctors and lawyers there were some women who remained unmarried by choice Some of these women push for the women s vote 0 Understanding at the time was that there were huge differences based on gender 0 Old argument Women were viewed as being pure and delicate and because of that nature women should not be allowed to vote because politics was so dirty nasty 0 Women were not making a case against the gender differences they just ipped the argument around and said they39re delicate and stuff because if you want to reform stuff and to clean stuff up to improve morality then you need women to vote 0 Their argument works and they begin voting nationally in 1920 f There are reforms in government at the city level at the state level and some stuff at the national level g Everyone wanted to know about problems and they wanted to try to x them the progressives try to straighten out a lot of these problems 0 The progressives were very con dent in their ability to x these problems 0 They get involved with city politics and start hiring city managers engineers accountants doctors nurses professionally trained police men etc to help run things in the city 0 Progressives are into expertise 0 At the state level they want to make the state government more responsive to the voters o Progressives implement the voter initiative typically the way state laws are introduced is by the state legislators start discussing and proposing laws they decide to get voters to propose new legislation 0 The progressives introduce the referendum let the people decide the people voted on these laws instead of just state legislators o The recall progressives decide that one way of getting a politician out of of ce was to vote him out at the next election but they also bring in the recall when everyone doesn39t like someone you can start a recall petition and get the politician out of of ce 0 Direct primaries there s a two party system and before the progressives the head honchos of the republican and democratic Parties met and decided who the candidates would be under the primaries the voters would go to the polls to decide who would be the candidates h 4 big constitutional amendments occurred in the early 19teens 0 16th amendment said that it was ok for the national government to impose an income tax and that same year 1913 the government creates the income tax 17th amendment changed the way senators were elected they had been selected by the state legislators now senators would be selected directly by the voters 18th amendment prohibits the consumption of alcohol the progressives were con dent that they knew what was moral and immoral so they imposed it through law 0 19th amendment gives women the right to vote 1920 IV Presidents a Roosevelt o Ran in 1900 as McKinley39s vice president in the republican party Roosevelt was put on the ticket to get rid of him because the only power b Taft vice presidents really had was to break a tying vote in the senate however McKinley is assassinated in 1901 and teddy becomes president Teddy still holds the record as being the youngest president of the US at 42 he is not the youngest person ever elected to the presidency that belongs to Kennedy 0 By the time he was 42 Teddy had served as the NYC police commissioner became a hero in the SpanishAmerican war was assistant secretary of the navy which he resigned from so he could go ght and to get in on the action governor of NY and then vice president He described the presidency as a bully pulpit as president you were in a very powerful position you were very visible He shows that he is willing to get very active he used the Sherman Anti trustAct which was passed by congress in the late 19th century but had not been used 0 The act outlawed monopolies and he was the first president to use it he also went after the major corporations that were monopolies He s easily elected in 1904 most Americans liked his style Now he really takes off and in his next term the national government starts getting involved in business and the economy in ways it never had before 0 O O 0 He helped push through the meat inspection act in 1906 which said that the national government would set sanitary standards for the meat packing industry these plants would have to meet the standards and the national government hired inspectors to make sure the inspectors were being met Pure food anal drug act passes which said that the labels on food and drugs had to list the ingredients gt In the early 20th century everything was sold by drug companies you didn t have to list ingredients so someone would go into a drug store and you would see packaged drugs and what they claimed to accomplish people would buy the drugs with the more positive things that were claimed With the act you could compare ingredients instead of just names and claims Also legislation passed that allowed the national government to set the railroad rates New laws get the government involved in regulation and protecting consumers that they never have been involved in before V Chosen by Roosevelt to run Seen as Roosevelt successor assumed that Taft would follow Roosevelt legacy but didn t happen Taft was different from Roosevelt personality and politically V Pushed for national safety standards for coal miners and railroad workers Pushed through a 8 hour work day for federal employees l6Lh amendment and 173911 amendment 0 l6Lh 7 income tax 0 l7Lh 7 voters vote directly for senators gt These don t pass when he is president but he did push for them In 1912 Roosevelt came back because he was not happy with Taft so he tried to run for president again Taft was nominated by his party so Roosevelt decides to start the progressive party so he can run for president Woodrow Wilson run for the democrats in this election there seem to be 2 visions Roosevelt s the national government controlling everything Wilson s more moderate approach there is room for regulation by the government but the government has a place and there should be competition Wilson wins c Wilson 0 Under wood tariff act brought down the tariff on imports forced manufactures to compete more on the international market Income tax only target the rich to make up for the lower tariff anyone who made less than 4000 a year was not taxed if you made 500000 you had to pay 7 only very few people pay income tax Federal reserve act was passed in 1913 the national government gets involved in regulating the economy Clayton antitrust act corporate officials can be held responsible for anti trust violations Federal trade commission can look inside publicly traded companies books 0 Under Wilson the government gets more involved than ever before Le gacy a By the end of the l9teens the progressive have completely changes the expectations of the national government by the end of the Wilson s second term the president is looked on different from before is seen as a bigger deal than congress Government power and the role of govemment government power increases tremendously under progressives 0 Consumer protection 0 Investor protection business regulation 0 Worker legislation Broker state the national government has become a broker between large interest You don t have to go to the polls to have a in uence on government you can join a interest group US starts becoming a major player in world events has always been interested in expanding starts colonies this happens because there is no more frontier just because there is no more frontier doesn t mean that the Us can expand just change how expanding industrialization continues to grow and exports are going 9 up and you want the foreign markets to be stable because of so much exports so US beefs up their navy social Darwinism survival of the ttest darker skin people where inferior to lighter skin people US colonizes in darker skin areas US becomes much more powerful and takes a bigger role in the world beats Spain in the Spanish American War over Cuba In 1914 you have extreme nationalism in each country each country jealous of the other and having nancial problems they are ticking off each other and they all are very well armed complex web of treaties some were public and some were secret everything okay until the summer of 1914 when everything blows up C9 United States and World War I 39239 Summer of 1914 the heir to the thrown of AustriaHungary was assassinated it starts a World War because the conditions were right with other countries relationships 39239 The assassin was linked to Serbia so AustriaHungary moved against Serbia then Russia joined with Serbia then Germany moved to ally with AustriaHungary playground antics 0 By the end of the summer of 1914 there are 2 sides the allied powers ghting the central powers Allied powers main ones Britain France and Russia Central powers main ones Germany AustriaHungary and Turkey It gets out of control quickly both sides are trying to exhaust the opponent War starts having trench warfare millions of men lived in the trenches and by the time the war ends there are 25000 miles of trenches 0 It39s a very mechanized war which meant it was possible to kill people faster more easily machine guns poison gas etc I Neutrality a In the US they were wondering what was going on b The nation was committed to neutrality no one wanted anything to do with the war government people etc c Historically the US stayed out of European wars it s still the policy in 1914 II Problems with neutrality a There were some weaknesses b Even though most Americans did not want the US to be involved that didn t mean that they didn t care who won most Americans supported the allied side because Britain was on the allied side it was a war between Britain and Germany for most Americans c When you look at how money is loaned by bankers in the US it doesn39t look like the US is being very neutral 0 By 1917 US banks had loaned the allied powers about 2 billion about 27 million to central powers these are private lending institutions not the government d The biggest weakness probably has to do with trade as a neutral nation the US expected to have neutral trading rights and trade with whomever it wants but the US could not Q o 00 O 0 0 Britain didn t want the US to trade with Germany and vice versa so both sides harassed US merchant vessels 0 They interfered with the US ships in different ways 0 Britain had the largest navy in the world so it was a joke for them gt Would get people off the ship and then torpedo it 0 Germany had a navy not as big as Britain39s gt They primarily used submarines which had to remain on surprise attacks they couldn39t just surface next to a boat These attacks resulted in loss of life One of the best known incidences is the Lusitania a British passenger ship that was sunk by a German submarine NOT the reason the US joins the war the ship left New York headed for England and as it rounded Ireland a German submarine saw it and red a torpedo that hit the boiler high pressure steam and the whole ship exploded and was under in 15 minutes About 1200 died some of them were American bodies starting washing up on the coast of Ireland Germany believed that the US had war material in the hull of the Lusitania both sides denied it but it was true This isn39t the only time that the Germans sink a ship where people died it would happen and the Wilson administration would come out pissed Germany would then back down for a little while then it would happen again and so on and so on for a couple years gt gt V V V 111 Demise of neutrality a 3 things 0 There s a revolution in Russia not the main one people think of earlier that year though where the Czar is overthrown and a sortof democratic system takes over 0 The Czar had absolute power now there39s a new system that takes the place of the Czar gt This seemed to change things for US they think that this war might be able to facilitate the spread democracy gt If the central powers defeated the allied powers that democratic spreading would be pushed out so the US starts considering supporting the allied powers so the spread of democracy might survive o The interception of the Zimmerman note the German foreign minister sent the note to Germany s embassy in Mexico 0 The British intercept it and happily turn it over to the US 0 It indicated a crazy plan that kind of brought the war close to home for US 0 It instructed the ambassador to go to the Mexican leader and tell him that Germany wanted to ally with Mexico in this con ict and 11 if Mexico would ally with Germany if and when the US came into the con ict fought Germany and lost to them Germany is assuming that they will defeat the US Germany would get Mexican territories back 0 Mexico did not take the offer BUT in the US that brought the threat closer to home 0 In early 1917 Germany announced a new policy that the US was to stop trade with the allied powers and if they did not all American merchant vessels would be targeted by German submarines and Germany made good on that threat 0 There s a time where every other day there s American ship sunk O Wilson goes to congress on April 2nd 1917 and asks to go to war against Germany that means that all of Germany s allies declared war on the US the US wasn39t prepared for it though Wilson now has to set about creating a decent military IV War a There were very antiwar feelings in the US there were a lot of questions asked b Wilson had to call up men to be trained because the US military was way too small about 200000 c The men had to be trained get them equipped and then get them to Europe to ght the US was not ready for war when it made the declaration d It39s really not until 1918 that the US has a force in Europe but when it happens it makes a huge difference 0 This infusion of troops into the war effort really tipped the balance in favor of the allies 0 US forces fought as their own units e Germany was banking that it could crush the allied powers before the US could make good on any declaration of war but Germany wasn39t able to do that f It became clear by fall 1918 that the Central Powers would not win in November of 1918 an armistice was signed an agreement that just stops the fighting NOT the treaty that ends the war V Fourteen Points a The US had spent most of the years of the war trying to stay out of the war but then came in and made a huge difference this means that there s a country that has not been directly involved for most of it but because it made a big difference it would have a big part of the treaty b Wilson had a vision for what the world should look like at the conclusion of the war progressive era so Wilson wanted to solve problems c Wilson wanted to fix the world the fourteen points were not just about ending a war they were about fixing the world so that another world war wouldn39t happen again d Fourteen points 7 o Wilson39s talking about selfdetermination he believed this war happened because the geographical map of Europe was just messed up so they literally set about redrawing the European map as a result Czechoslovakia is created AustriaHungary is split up the border of Romania is reshaped and Yugoslavia is created 0 Germany was told it had to give up its colonial possessions c Free trade Wilson said that a lot of this jealousy that was going on had to do with trade barriers and Wilson thought the world would be better if everyone could enjoy free trade 0 If the world would become a world with more free trade the US would bene t The league of nations Wilson proposed this to operate as an international clearing house for diplomacy where nations would discuss big issues before they erupted into another world war 0 He believed that a lot of this craziness could have been avoided if the countries would39ve talked stuff out e Wilson was a very hard worker but could be extreme he really wanted his plan enacted so when they start working on a treaty to end the war Wilson went to Europe himself he went over on a steamship and he left the US for a few months unprecedented for the time 0 Wilson had some problems trying to get his ideas made part of the treaty the US had a different experience with the war than the other allies Britain and France Britain and France were in ruin their economies had crashed and they had lost millions of men the ones who survived were very messed up while the US did extremely well economically during the war and the US only lost thousands of men Britain and France wanted the Central Powers to pay they wanted to eliminate Germany as a country as a part of Wilson39s redrawing of the European map they blamed Germany Wilson actually had to fight to keep Germany on the map As a country Germany survived but was officially blamed for the war so they had to pay reparations to the tune of 33 billion a tremendous amount by the time s standards g Wilson didn39t get everything he wanted almost didn t get the league of nations 0 He had to fight day and night negotiating trying to keep league of nations VI Treaty at home a According to the constitution the senate has to approve the treaty by a 23 vote for the treaty to be adopted in the US Wilson had some problems adopting the treaty 0 Wilson was a democrat and was reelected on the promise that he was going to keep the US out of WWI that pissed a lot ofpeople off The republicans start doing better In 1918 the republicans did well in elections so Wilson had to come back in 1919 and try to sell the treaty to the senate that had a lot of republicans 0 Wilson had said that republicans were not American enough also when Wilson loaded up his entourage for Europe he doesn39t include a single CD republican even though the head of the foreign relations committee was republican Not one republican was with Wilson on this and they asked a lot of questions wanted some changes and wanted some explanation Wilson was stubborn he thought he had compromised enough so rather than communicate with the senate directly he wanted to appeal to the American people and explain the brilliance of his plan they would pressure their senators and then they would approve it Wilson went out on the presidential train and went across the country with multiple speaking engagements a day He had worked himself into bad health in Europe his blood pressure started going way up and he was over working himself when he got back 0 He got to where he was having constant blinding migraine headaches Wilson collapsed in Colorado and they rushed him back to DC In early October 1919 he collapsed from a stroke in the White House he became paralyzed on his left side couldn39t speak and a diminished mental capacity When this happens news of it doesn39t get out and they keep it a secret for weeks all anyone knew was that he was sick and recuperating only his wife secretary and physician were able to see him Mrs Wilson was probably making the decisions Congress became suspicious they went to investigate and they saw him for a minute Wilson remains a shell of what he was he does recover the ability to walk speak and could get some work done but for only a couple of hours a day and that s how he finishes his presidency till 1921 The senate never ratified the treaty although the European countries did because the senate had questions and Wilson couldn39t physically answer them VII Effects of the war at home a The interest in progressivism goes away after the war b The government takes over the economy during WWI o The war industry board to oversee factory production in the US told companies what they could make or what they couldn t set prices 0 Government agency to organized food for families 0 Agency that rationed food 0 The size of government employees double at the end of the war c Workers 0 Factories in the north had relied on cheap immigrant workers because of the war immigrants couldn t get out of Europe so factories need to higher different workers women and blacks 0 There is still discrimination on the blacks go the crappy jobs 0 O O O O O 0 Some conditions for workers improved because Wilson threaded that the national government would take over businesses if it had to d Government directly involved in morality and patriotism 0 Wilson tried to get people to support the war 0 The committee for public information tried to get people to support the war gt Describe the Germans as evil and anything German was bad 0 Espionage and sedition acts were passed if you hinted that you didn t support the war effort you could be arrested 0 National government cracks down on prostitution o Prohibition nally shuts down drinking 0 Constitution amended for this VIII United States39 world status a Not that much changes 0 The US was not a super power before the war beefs up military but then after the war brings military back down and goes on as it usual self b Economy changes 0 Industrialization as the Us did this they borrowed money from Europe but all this changes during the war Everything goes downhill for European nations and the US emerges as the worlds economic power The 1920s I Postwar reaction a Right after the war there is a Red Scar b A fear that the Us was full of communist and anarchist and they were going to try and take over the US c Virus out break at the end of the l9teens sweeps the world 25 million people world wide die the war is still going on all of a sudden it just went away 11 Republican administrations a Harding Had the theme quota return to normalcyquot and the idea stuck throughout the campaign for the presidency This seemed to mean to most people that the world had been crazy and he wanted everything to be relaxed and everyone could enjoy life etc Harding won he was awful as president and he even knew that and wished he had never run for the office he simply lacked the capacity to govern His administration is associated with scandals and corruption He got worn out and had a fatal heart attack during his presidency and died in 1923 b Coolidge c He was Harding39s vice president so he becomes the president and also wins election in 1924 Politically Harding and Coolidge were similar but they were different in personal life Harding wasn39t president long enough to hurt the presidential of ce Coolidge was viewed as a very moral upstanding guy He was against the progressives they thought the president should back off a little c Hoover He was elected in 1928 Hoover also thought the presidency should back off he believed that there was a place for the national government but the government should not lead with a heavy hand The tragedy is that he39s the wrong president for the wrong time if he had been elected earlier he probably wouldn39t have a bad of a reputation 111 Social Changes a Economic The economy was amazing there was unprecedented prosperity or so it seemed Aviation begins in the 1920s same with the chemical industry The trend where big business gets bigger continues in the 20s Start seeing massive corporations that are traded with publically traded stock there39s a lot of mergers the companies are getting so big that you can t identify the company ownership with one owner Corporations are owned by thousands of shareholders and the corporations are answering to the shareholders who want the company to be stable and pro table Factory working conditions improve still not great but much improved with shorter work days wages go up safer conditions Productivity and pro tability doubles over the 1920s for the factories mostly because of electricity People were making more money than before and products were sold more cheaply it seemed great By the end of the 1920s most American homes had electricity and are in the cities which meant you can buy all these electric appliances It was the quotmodernquot lifestyle By the end of the 20s people in the US were the most affluent in the world they had more stuff than anyone else in the world and the perception of big business corporations and big cities changed in the 20s b Intellectual The ideas aren39t brand new but they39re becoming popularized the younger generation accepts these new ideas the older generation were part of the old Victorian Modern psychology 0 Freud studied the human mind and described humans as being a lot more complicated that Victorians thought O Freud thought there were different levels of the human and at the core human beings weren39t much different from animals he said that human minds lter out a lot of stuff he also said to reject any and all of those impulses you would run yourself crazy if you stuck to that Victorian way you would go crazy 0 Modern physics 0 Victorians were con dent in their ability to observe the word but then physics are pioneered by Einstein who says that everything is relative the physical world was relative it was perception 0 Modern anthropology o Said that really wasn39t such a thing as superior culture and inferior culture 0 Culture was just culture and that different people had different ways of dealing with their world 0 Recognized that people had different ways to do things It is the younger generation that is absorbing all of this There s a popular jazz movement in the 1920s jazz was all the rage O The intellectuals helped make jazz popular 0 The way jazz was understood in the 1920s was that it was black music music coming out of the African American community 0 This is fascinating because jazz was popular because it was understood as black music although the culture of the time was very racist and bigoted Intentionally doing things that were thought of as quotnaughtyquot was popular and so this young generation who39s parents and grandparents started the Jim Crowe laws seemed to listen to jazz to kind of go against authority piss off parents etc 0 Having an all black jazz band in a white club would sell admission with people dancing the Charleston very wild dance style 0 c City 0 1920s is when the US becomes an urban nation 0 Prohibition O The 18th amendment outlaws alcohol consumption that s not exactly accurate it s the quickest way to explain it o Technically you could drink as much as you wanted to what was outlawed was the making selling and distribution of alcohol 0 The 18th amendment is pushed through by the progressives finally in WW1 the progressives said it was immoral to drink and it was pushed through as a patriotic effort and that only a sober society could win the war gt It became effective in 1920 for a generation that isn39t interested in prohibition and it becomes a bad joke 0 It is true that alcohol consumption during the 1920s however it s a disaster in another regard prohibition did not outright stop consumption V A new problem started the mob took over the illegal alcohol trade you could get alcohol if you wanted with a little effort gt The alcohol trade goes underground and the mob takes it over era of Al Capone Capone ran Chicago 0 Nationally there were 3000 agents hired to enforce prohibition so it was a joke to the government as well 0 Flapper 0 It39s an urban experience it s quite a change from young ladies mothers grandmothers etc 0 Women were very restricted they could be arrested for smoking drinking swearing in public and for driving an automobile without a man beside them 0 The way women were expected to appear was very restricted 0 Good Victorian ladies were supposed to be very restrained and modest not show very much skin so you usually only saw their faces especially shouldn39t show feet or ankles women were not supposed to tempt men in any way a lot of Victorian furniture doesn39t even have legs gt Women had long hair but they would put it up and put a hat on top gt They also wore corsets they valued an exaggerated look with hips and busty but no waist o By 1920s women wore as much fabric as Victorian ladies wore as underwear 0 Women were supposed to be thin an tiny all over women would try to make themselves look at gt Dresses didn t go to the ground women showed feet ankles legs knees and they cut their hair and had a short hair cut In the Victorian era only prostitutes wore makeup in the 20s women caked on makeup women even put makeup on their knees in the 1920s 0 There is a youth culture that develops the economy seems to be doing great and there s a generation of kids teenagers in the 1920s with more freedom than ever before they could stay in school previously it had been common for kids to quit school to go to work 0 Since time are easier for a lot of people and the kids had more free time to go do stuff quotfor the hell of itquot breaking world records becomes a pastime seeing how long you can sit on top ofa ag pole how many people can you cram into a model T etc V d Automobile 0 Most families get a car in the 20s 0 By the end of the decade there was one automobile for every 5 Americans 18 o If you traveled you were most likely going by car typically one car per family 0 They were affordable with increased production in factories If they couldn39t afford a new car they could get a used one 0 Auto makers figured out in order to keep selling cars they need to update the style they wanted to be seen in a new car 0 Fords competitors figured out if they changed options colors etc every few years you could tell if the car was new 0 Culture was to have new cars and a used car market develops 0 Makes it possible for farmers to get to town Dating took off with cars 0 Before cars men and women didn t date a guy had to talk to a girls parents to get permission to go over and talk to the girl in front of her parents 0 Guy drives up in a car and girls runs out her parents house and drive off and have fun 0 Everyone knew what was going on in the cars e Entertainment media 0 Radio took a while for details to be worked out who was going to make them and who was going to put up programming 0 Government 0 Radio manufactures 0 Commercial programming ends up working out gt Independent radio station began to appear and produce and ran the programming gt Changes life I Cuts down on rural isolation I The consumer culture gets beamed into houses new form of advertising I Radio stations were conservative didn t want anyone to get offended so they could hear the adds 0 Movies 0 People were going to movie theaters and expecting a lot 0 By the mid l9teens the expectation was a feature length film gt In 1915 Birth of Nation was released I It was long 35 hours I Before movies were bore like short stories I Before this movies were look like a play being lmed birth of a nation is more like a modern movie I Different types of shot angles out door shots Very different from previous films No one had seen anything like it People loved it 39239 By the time of the 1920s people want feature length films and took this seriously lt People would dress in their best clothes People went to movie palaces not theaters People began copying what they saw in the movies Consumer debt went way up twice as fast as income Many attributed this to the masses wanting to copy the movies They challenged the Victorian morality Victorians didn t talk about sex and the movies were very sexed P f Advertising 0 People are taught that they don t need to spend there money on what they need to survive you need to spend money on stuff that will make you happy 0 The amount of money spent on advertising in the Us triples by the 1920s 0 Advertisers come out and saw that one product is not enough wouldn t it be better if you had 2 of one things 0 Come out and say you don t want to be a associated with old cars but a new car this leads to a used car market 0 Social fear evolves 0 Push the lifestyle not the product the life style you will lead with this product 0 Selling lifestyle and social fear consumers were told that there lives would be ruined if they didn t buy the right thingsListerine o If you don t have the right stuff people wont like you IV Responses a Acceptance 0 Mostly younger adults people who accepted change were ones that were driving change 0 Older people resented all the change b Opposition o A lot of people thought the US was moving in the wrong direction and there were even organized groups whose purpose is to oppose these things 0 One group religious fundamentalist which is going on well before 1920 s but it grows in popularity and support during the 20s 0 At the same time that the culture is emphasizing all this fun there s a counter culture that s deep in religious fundamentals 0 They held that you should go back to basics the bible was easy to understand and described actual events as they happened 0 There were a lot of new ideas at the time and a lot of people just don t know what to believe anymore a lot of people are just O scared and the old stuff isn39t followed as much and that made religious fundamentalism easy to turn to because it was so simple Scotes monkey trial religious fundamentalists said that the way life was created was described accurately in the book of genesis and therefore Darwin39s evolution was invalid V VVVVVV V V Some states outlawed the teaching of evolution in public schools Tennessee was one A high school teacher named John Scotes deliberately taught evolution to test the law This is sometimes thought of the trial of the century This is a trial where the modern world and modern way of thinking is on trial Everyone covered this trial it was even broadcast live on radio Williams Jennings Bryant this celebrity politician was brought in to help with the prosecution team for the traditional side The celebrity defense attorney was Clarence Darrow he personally represented the new ideas he was from Chicago People brought monkeys to this little town in Tennessee it became a circus the trial was crazy and got so wild that one day Darrow put Bryant on the stand as a witness This trial also proved to be the undoing of religious fundamentalism because so many people heard it that a lot of Americans decided religious fundamentalism was too much Other group is the Klu KluX Klan 0 They were all about suppressing support for republicans in the 0 south but after reconstruction the Klan goes away for a while lynching and stuff during Jim Crowe laws is not the Klan just racial violence but not organized The Klan reforms in 1915 upon the release of the movie quotbirth of the nationquot the movie dealt with reconstruction in a way historians in 1915 described reconstruction VV V They talked about reconstruction as being an effort on part of the north as a way to punish the south They also said the way the north did that was by putting black men in charge it39s a very racist culture To us the movie would look like a joke There are no black actors they39re white men wearing 39black face The movie swept the country and it renewed interest in the Klan the movie depicted the Klansmen as the heroes so the Klan gets resurrected and grows in popularity in the 20s it becomes like a 21 shriners organization and it claimed that there were millions of members gt It attracted average folks from small towns but not so many members from the south most of the Klan membership comes from the Midwest It39s not a secret organization anymore they didn t cover their faces The focus was different now too they went after people who seemed to be driving these new changes the Klan wanted to protect traditional ways 0 The Klan starts having some problems because things start getting violent and the average people in the Klan did not want to burn temple synagogue and be violent there s also a problem when the leadership gets busted in financial and sex scandals and that was following traditional values V V c Division 0 Most Americans were divided Younger folks embraced the changes and older folks reject change Most people saw the world as changing very rapidly and didn t know how to deal with it Things were easier and life was more fun There was also a lot to be scared of Most embrace some of it and reject some of it Americans owned a lot of stuff and had bigger paychecks and more stuff than ever before Economists assure people that things were only going to get better The 1930s 1 Beginning of the Great Depression a Causes 0 Everything seemed to be ok in the 1920s the economy seemed to be solid 0 The stock market crash of October 1929 does not cause the depression things were coming apart before then Sales of durable goods slumped some in the 20s things like dishwashers well it was the job of the federal reserve board to regulate the economy so they stepped in and lowered the interest rates this triggered behavior where people began buying consumer products again 0 The problem was that the economy was raised on borrowed money Another problem was the stock market in 1925 publically traded stocks were valued at about 27 billion by 1929 they were at over 80 billion those companies weren39t really worth that kind of money 0 Companies poured capital into the stock market 0 Everyone starts getting in on the stock market It gets out of control and then starts to sputter in late October 1929 0 At the end of the trading day on the 28th it dropped then on the 29th the market plunged not its lowest point but dropped significantly II 0 This was not a cause it was a symptom it was set up by a lot of different causes 0 The stock market crashes because a lot of investors realized how bad the economy really was b Conditions 0 The real estate and automobile industry had become too large it caused problems for other industries because car manufacturers were the largest consumers of steel glass rubber etc There was trouble with banking the banks got themselves in trouble because they began investing in the stock market this was a huge problem The biggest problem was this wide division of income in the 20s on average people were making more money but there was a big gap between blue and white collar workers When everyone realized what happened the federal reserve tightened the money supply the opposite of what you should be doing There s also a trade war that begins the US threw up trade barriers to make it harder for other countries to buy and sell in the US also the opposite of what you should be doing There s a gradual decline over the next couple of years the economy doesn39t hit rock bottom until 1933 there were periods of hope but then things would start falling off again By 1933 the GNP had been cut in half unemployment was at 25 it39s at about 8 right now The banks collapsed and all 6000 banks went broke and went out of business and took everyone s savings with them People began living in tarpaper communities in parks and vacant land they went through trash dumps looking for food etc The number of hobos went up men freaked out lost their job couldn39t find another job freaked out and left their wives and kids became hobos but they wore nice suits that tended to be tattered they had office jobs The middle class is affected by this the worst they don t know how to take it Hoover responds a Hoover39s just the wrong guy at the time his reaction described it as a mental O V V problem the economy was sound but people were just freaking out and needed to get a grip so his initial response was to put up signs that things really weren39t that bad and they should be confident this became harder to believe as things got worse He believed there was a place in government for being involved with business and the economy but he thought the progressives took it too far he thought the government should take more of a leadership role By 1932 although he denied he was changing his policy he39s starting new initiatives and spending money on constructions like Hoover Dam were used to hire people unfortunately these projects came too late to make much of a difference Q V Also in 1932 the whole world economy had some problems and a lot of Americans were looking to the Hoover administration instead they saw the Hoover administration screwing over WWI veterans Hoover did not order to come in and ght these WWI vets communication gets mixed up and some renegade military officer sends armed soldiers through Washington as these WWI vets were being forced to leave the city although Hoover didn t call for that he was blamed for it Many Americans decided by 1932 that Herbert Hoover did not give a damn not true Hoover did have enough support to be renominated where the democrats nominated Roosevelt the governor of New York they were two very different men 0 Hoover was pretty much a selfmade man whereas Roosevelt was part of a very powerful and wealthy family Hoover had support from businessmen while Roosevelt was known as the poorman39s friend weird because you would think the opposite based on their backgrounds o Roosevelt was very exible while Hoover was not Roosevelt responds Roosevelt is the first president to use the radio effectively he could speak over the radio in such a way that people felt like he was in their homes these are his quotfireside chatsquot As he goes out and campaigns he hides the fact that he had been crippled by polio he could stand with a lot of difficulty he hid the fact for PR reasons and he knew it would be a political liability if people found out most Americans never knew he was crippled As he campaigned he presented himself as someone who embodied hope and he promised a better future He told Americans that they39d have to change the old order to preserve the traditional system he39s very vague on the details he promises to wage war against the crisis For a lot of voters he wasn39t Hoover and that was enough a First administration 0 Both new deals happened in Roosevelt s first term 0 These new deal programs are reform programs designed to reform the economy and get a grip on the stock market banking industry etc others deal with relief work relief getting relief out to individuals he believed that if you were going to get money from the government then you were going to work for it 0 New deal 0 He assembles the quotbrain trustquot when he gets in office and they start working out programs 0 The new deal is not one big system it s best thought of as a bunch of individual programs some worked and some didn t some contradicted one another for each problem these are isolated fixes for them and it s a mess D V C9 00 V O In his rst 100 days he puts through a lot of legislation he39s able to do this because of how bad things are voters didn39t care what the plans were as long as there was a plan First thing is the quotbank holidayquot during which Roosevelt would x the banking system it was really a forced closure of all the banks in the country but he couldn t say that where he sent accountants out to every bank still in business and once the holiday was over he allowed the banks that were in decent shape to reopen he told Americans what happened and he told them that the banks that he reopened were good banks FDIC federal deposit insurance just in case Roosevelt messed up and the bank went broke the government would get you your money back 0 SEC 7 Securities and Exchange Commissions companies that sold stocks were required to provide reports 0 NRA National Recovery Administration did not do as it intended and failed AAA 7 Agricultural Adjustment Administration dealt with what had traditionally been a weak area of the economy the problem seemed to be overproduction with the new technology and large amounts of farm land production was lessened to bring the prices of goods up to get farmers a pro t and eventually help the whole economy in order to put the new adjustments into place FDR paid farmers to take portions of their crops out of production also caused Southern farmers to mechanize and get rid of sharecroppers gt He s trying to build con dence in the banking system Next he moves to the stock market There are arguments among historians whether FDR was a radical or conservative leader gt Radical under Roosevelt the government expanded it became more expensive and involved that ever before some felt that he was working for so much change that he steering the country towards Socialism Conservative others felt that even though FDR s ideas were new they were just ways to repair and build back up the old Capitalists ways that had taken a huge hit 0 Second new deal 0 Not much different from the ISI New Deal but did focus more on the relief versus the reform gt WPA 7 Works Progress Administration gave people projects to make money created work for artists ie writers painters historians actors gt SSA Social Security Act takes reliefto a new level welfare given to people who couldn t work or couldn t nd jobs like orphaned children and the elderly 65 0 O O 00 V 0 Opposition 0 Many people felt FDR was pushing the country down the path of Socialism gt Political Right 7 a group that found Roosevelt very scary they felt that he was caving in to the pressures of the day they felt Roosevelt and the government was not suppose to be doing these things 0 The Radical Left Socialists and Communists felt that Roosevelt was not going far enough and not doing enough to help the economy gt The Communist party felt that the Capitalism system was to blame for the economy s downfall and all Roosevelt was doing was trying to hang on to it 0 Huey Long 7 one of Roosevelt s most dangerous critic gained political strength because of his simple explanation and solution of the Great Depression the economy of the US was not the problem it was the fact that there were too many wealthy people who were not doing what they could to help he began the Share Our Wealth Program gt Long proposed that the wealthy should be taxed and the wealth from these taxes would be so great that every family in America could live comfortably Long s simplicity was appealing to the people even though it was not all factual Roosevelt began to feel threatened by Long and is probably one ofthe reasons he passed the SSA O The Supreme Court shot down some of Roosevelt s programs gt Ruled that the NRA and AAA were unconstitutional gt The NRA went down without a fight since it was unsuccessful anyway however the AAA was working and providing help and he began to feel the Court was against him V V 0 Support O Roosevelt had overwhelming support 0 1936 7 the South voted for Roosevelt Southern White men blacks during this time could not vote like the AAA 0 Organized labor supported FDR since he had helped push through the NLRA or National Labor Relations Act which said that workers had the right to strike and the government would assist them in overseeing their administration this suggested that the national government supported even encouraged labor unions and membership greatly increased 0 Urban ethnic groups supported Roosevelt since he had a diverse cabinet according to standards of the day not by our standards today O Roosevelt also had the black vote the Great Migration caused the black population to grow substantially in the North Blacks were included in relief programs although it was not equal to what the white men were receiving he pushed some for antilynching appointed lowerlevel positions to blacks Eleanor Roosevelt visited black neighborhoods and homes and spoke to black people 7 an unprecedented move b Second administration 0 Problems 0 Although he is easily reelected in 1936 Roosevelt experienced many problems There were many people that greatly disliked Roosevelt and felt that many of them sat in the Supreme Court Roosevelt felt that justices of the Court were too old and during his time many of them were over the age of 70 even though they were appointed for life Roosevelt wanted to find a way around this I Roosevelt proposes that once a justice reached to age of 70 if they did not decide to retire another justice could be appointed to the Court I Many people realized what he was trying to do and he begins to lose support the people saw it as a power struggle gt Economic Recession I In 1937 which had been slightly improving since 1933 took another dip During this time the government was spending a lot of money which began to greatly worry Roosevelt he felt that it was time for a cut when he did industrial production fell by l 3 although there were other factors in play this caused his approval rating to take a dive as well gt Congressional Support decreases I Congress begins asking questions and is not easily going along as once before gt Foreign Affairs I There were many problems in Asia and Europe most Americans were determined to stay out of WWII they could see the problems and decide that it was way too messy Roosevelt was terrified by what he saw and was unsure of how to handle the trouble brewing oversees it begins to take over all of his attention and he begins to neglect domestic affairs IV New deal changes govemment s role a Governmental power greatly increases Supports organized labor and workers 0 Organized labor was supported and backed 0 Fair Labor Standards Act 7 created a national minimum wage at 40hr and said a work week was to be 40 hours and if exceeded overtime was required Involved in aid to individuals 0 The relief programs and social security Economy 0 Continues to try to break up big businesses 0 Agriculture 7 controlled production techniques and many other aspects 0 Rural Electrification Administration 7 facilitated rural communities in receiving electricity many people did not have electricity even though the world was becoming based on it ie radios o TVA 7 Tennessee Valley Authority 7 redoing the TN valley that was very poor constructed damns to control ooding b The New Deal was not brand new but the levels it reached was Roosevelt was building on the ideas of the Progressives and ideas from before ulture a b c d Most people in the 1930s were living horrible lives Advertising changes from upbeat to resentment of life in the 20s adds are plainer the value is emphasized Movies in the 1930s now had sound initially voices and eventually music was added talkies became popular just to hear their favorite actors and actresses speak on screen the content was greatly toned down from the 20s the sexy nature and vulgar language was toned down Popular Themes 0 Overcoming diversity 0 Fantasy themes 7 The Wizard of Oz 7 in Technicolor 0 Shirley Temple movies 0 The common man and detective movies Gone With the Wind 7 tailormade for the 1930s set in the l 8601870s but greatly re ects life in the 1930s 0 Displays extreme wealth of plantation owners of the time 0 Survival and struggle o Scarlet O Hara s character suggest that maybe the US shouldn t have gotten so carried away with Industrialization Photographers 1920s glamorous leisurely parties nicely dressed 1930s people are depicted thicker and more muscular suggesting hard working people struggle and hard work is glorified N 5 P U The Liberal Hour How did the United States change socially and economically during the 2 decades following WWII People were now wealthier because of wages and salary increases Life expectancy went up after WWII and they were healthier Education went up due to the GI bill and more people were attending college than ever before The landscape changed as people flocked to suburbs via the newly built interstates Finally TVs and media changes how people acted They now felt as if they were part of national issues because they could view it on the TV right in their home How did cultural and political changes in the mid 20th century contribute to liberalism s popularity in the 60s The expansions of suburbs help to weaken the southern democratic congressmen who had a hold on the committees that ruled legislation At the same time people becoming wealthier helped increase optimism that the liberals could accomplish their goals of fighting poverty Also they remembered the Great Depression and didn t want to have to live through it and felt the liberals would increase the Governments handling of those issues How did presidential policy and supreme court decisions contribute to a more involved national gov t Kennedy and Johnson help push through legislation against poverty and legislation that would make Americans lives better The Supreme Court somewhat reshaped by Kennedy help enforce these liberal issues by their rulings Combined they opened up many opportunities for blacks women poor and other minorities What enabled the passage of meaningful civil rights legislation in the mid 60s and how much real change did those laws bring about TV helped make Civil Rights a national issue instead of a local one by showing the violence of people like the Alabama law enforcement Also Civil rights made the nation look bad compared to communism because we said US was land of the free but we segregated the blacks Finally Johnson and Kennedy strategically moved legislation through congress passed the conservative ruled sub committees such as the rules committee Johnson also used the death of Kennedy as a martyr to help move this legislation IT took a while for the legislation to have an effect because Johnson had to increase Government spending to enforce the newly enacted laws What enabled the gov39ts shift in environmental policy and the passage of meaningful environmental legislation in the 60s First the environment was not a main issue before the 60 s It took research of air quality and books written by people like Carson to bring the issue to one of the top three issues of Americans Secondly it took a big event like the smog killings in London to finally get a massive push for it from the Liberals Like the air quality controlled act and other research legislation 0 How did the kennedy administration alter the direction ofthe cold war at least temporarily Kennedy administration first increased government spending on military to after realizing our equipment was out of date and the creation of the Berlin Wall He advocated spending millions abroad to help poverty stricken nations because he said this is where communism grew from He also inspired young Americans to join his Red Cross organization to also help these nations During many crises he averted direct contact with the Russian like in the Cuban missile crisis and instead used a blockade This earned him the respect of the USSR leader and opened up talks especially about atmospheric nuclear testing How was Johnson39s policy of increased US involvement in Vietnam part of his liberal vision and how well did his plan pan out Increased involvement in Vietnam ment it would not fall to the communist because if it did so would Loas and other democratic nations in Asia This also is in keeping with Containment policy At the same time he did not want the campaign against poverty to fall and show the US had failed in combating communism The plan however did fall because growing budget concerns forced him to commit more troops and cut back on his domestic agenda What events and circumstances brought about quotthe end ofthe liberal hourquot The liberals had started to lose popular support The Vietnam War had gone on too long and was too costly both with lives and money The liberals had met the policies they had set out to enact so people figured they had done their job they could leave now Also the policies they enacted were not living up to what people thought they would Finally the Democratic Party was in disarray by the time of Nixon s election
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'