MUS APPRECIATION MUS 1751
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Date Created: 10/13/15
Material for Exam 3 114 The Romantic Period Romantic Forms Monumental and Miniature The monumental forms Expanded sonata allegro Expanded orchestra Longer works Symphony Opera Miniature forms Shorts with whimsical titles like arabesque or romance to name a couple Often simple binary or ternary forms Famous composers of the Romantic include Hector Berlioz Felix Mendelssohn Frederick Chopin Robert Schumann Franz Liszt Guiseppe Verdi Richard Wagner Franz Schubert These were unconventional people the personified the Romantic spirit Selfexpression Passion Excess Love of nature Literature lrresponsibility Even a bit of lunacy Life and how they lived it also became an art The romantics became very interested in literature and in having their music express some sort of literary content There was a great output of poetry and that poetry lent itself well to writing songs This popularized a genre called the Art Song a song for solo voice and piano accompaniment Art song was most popular in Germanic countries which is why these songs are often referred to as lied or the plural lieder A young Viennese man who was most famous for his lieder was Franz Schubert 17971828 In his short life span Schubert wrote more than 600 lieder He also wrote 8 symphonies 15 string quartets 21 piano sonatas seven masses and sour operas This is a huge output for someone who lived to be only 31 when he died He died just one year after Beethoven Schubert lived the life of a llfree artist He was often broke but spent his mornings composing his afternoons in the cafes and his evenings were often spent at the hoes of friend performing hi music These evenings became very known as Schubertiads A famous Art Song by Schubert Erlking 1815 Based on a narrative verse by Goethe Tells the story of the king of the Elves and his malevolent seduction of a young boy The legend said that whoever was touched by the King of the Elves would die This exemplifies the Romantic fascination with the supernatural and the macabre The song requires the singer to use four different tones voice to represent four different characters A narrator The father The boy The Erlking The piano gets to be the galloping horse The interest in the use of literature in music took more than one turn The art song is the most obvious Another type of literary inspired music is program music Program music is instrumental music that is meant to tell a story using musical sound The story can be from a play or a legend or a poem or even something made up by the composer The program symphony is when a program or story line is associated with each movement of a symphony A program symphony can have more flexible number of movements than the traditional symphony One of the most extreme examples of Romanticism can be found in a program symphony by Hector Berlioz called Symphonie fantastique 1830 Berlioz had been groomed to be a Doctorjust like his father but he found the study not to his liking and discovered the concert hall irresistible Even though he had no real formal training he decided to become a great composer He supported himself writing music reviews while he honed his craft Symphonie fantastique has its beginnings in an unrequited love story Berlioz fell in love with an English actress named Harriet Smithson He wrote her passionate letters She thought he was nuts He scared her Spurned Berlioz turned to music to express himself and he invented this idea of a symphony based around what he called an id e fixe This is a musical tune that is associated with a person or idea In this case it is the tune of the beloved He writes an elaborate 5 Movement symphony based on unrequited love attempted suicide imaginary murder and revenge Reverie Passions A Ball Scene in the Country March to the Scaffold 5 Dream of a witches Sabbath Required listening Points of interest PWN enormous orchestra adds new instruments Ophicleide an early tuba English horn Harp Cornet Uses the Dies lrae chant 116 Double counterpoint combines the witches dance and the dies irae into a fugue Uses strange effects such as col legno in the strings play with the wood of the bow Other types of program music Dramatic overture Concert overture Symphonic poem tone poem Another main facet of the Romantic period is the importance of the piano as an instrument A few great pianists took what was essentially a parlor instrument and turned it into a medium for great performances and displays of virtuosity Also the piano was improved It was made bigger stronger and louder Consider the little pianofortes you can see in the plantation houses around here These are the Classical period instrument Then consider this grand piano here in the classroom This is the instrument as it was starting to be made in the romantic period Fredric Chopin 18101849 The poet of the piano Born in Warsaw Poland Trained at the Warsaw Conservatory Went to Paris and Vienna Spent the remainder of his life in Paris due to the Russian occupation of his homeland This led to a tendency of Chopin to use the traditional Polish dance form the Mazurka in many of his compositions Listen to Mazurka in Bb major Chopin was a first in history to write almost entirely for just one instrument the piano He did his best work while in love with and under the protection of Aurore Dudevant 18031876 also known as George Sand When she left him he was broken hearted and basically stopped composing He took on a taxing concert tour to earn money This wore him out and he contracted TB and died at the age of 39 The pieces that Chopin is considered most famous for are his nocturnes for solo piano Nocturine means llnight piece Listren to Nocturne in C minor Opus 27 No 1 ABACA form A friend of Chopin s and another great pianist of the Romantic Franz Listz 18111886 Born in Hungary trained ln Vienna Became a phenomenon and one of the most legendary pianists of all time Patterned himself after Paganini Established the format of the modern piano recital attendance quiz question All piano all memorized with the piano turned so the performer s profile could be seen Lisztomania swept across Europe He developed a quotreputationquot with the ladies He wrote a series of quotEtudesquot requiring what he called lltranscendental execution Listen to transcendental etude No8 quotWild Hunt Liszt also perfected a style of playing that sounded like the performed was more than with 2 hands 1111 Listen to un sospiro Music and Nationalism Due to several ethnic groups seeking to free themselves from the rule of foreign countries a great deal of Europe started to take National pride in their individual countries heritage Music ends up being influenced by these politics Already we have seen some examples this Musical Nationalism A flood of national anthems native dances protest songs and victory symphonies ensued This is when we get music like our own National Anthem the Star Spangled Banner Folksongs Native Scales Dance rhythms Local instrumental sounds National subject matter Examples of Nationalistic Titles Hungarian Rhapsodies Liszt Russian Easter Overture Nikolai Rimsky Korsakov Slavonic Dances Anton Dvorak Finlandia Jean Sibelius Russian Nationalism Russia establishes itself as a major voice in music during this times separating itself from the traditions of Germany and Italy Started with the music of Mikail Glinka in his opera quotThe life of a Tsar The Russain Five Alexander Borodin 18331887 Cesar Cui 18351918 Mily Balakirev 18371918 Nikolai Rimsky Korsakov 18441908 Modest Musorgsky 18391881 Dedicated themselves to writing Russian Music Pictures at an Exhibition is based on the work of a close friend on Musorgsky s the Russian painter and architect victor Hartmann When Hartmann died they did a memorial exhibition of his works and Musorgsky wrote this music describing that exhibition To get that Russian sound he uses a pentatonic scale pg 311 Listen to Pictures at an Exhibition Originally written for piano Orchestrated by Ravel Excerpts Great Gate of Kiev required listening The Czech Republic has had a very rocky past with many different countries holding power over the thnic groups The modern Czech Republic has several ethnic influences small groups Bohemia Moravia Slovakia It is a mixture of German and Slav heritage that make up the modern Czech Republic Dvorak spent the first part of his career in relative obscurity working in Prague as a freelance musician Played violin and organ in dance bands and in opera orchestras Composed tirelessly Most of It went unheard He then came to the attention of another composer Johannes Brahms Brahms encourages a published to publish some of Dvorak s work A set of eight piano pieces called quotSlavonic Dances These became popular and Dvorak s name spread across Europe Johannes Brahms 18331897 The Three quotBquot of Music Bach Beethoven Brahms Composer of Absolute Music in the Classical tradition Considered by many to the Heir of Beethoven Born in Hamburg Given a strong Musical training by his father in piano and music theory He studied the great masters of his own and worked playing in bars Practiced in the piano showrooms of local music stores Became famous with the Help of two other famous Romantic Musicians Robert and Clara Schumann They became his mentors and Brahms became part of their life helping Clara after Robert was confined to a mental institution 1113 Brahms wrote Absolute Music he followed very carefully and respectfully in the way of Beethoven but still continued to develop his style in the Romantic vein Listen to Brahms Symphony No 2 in D major 3rd movement Peter Tchaikovsky 18401893 Born to an upper middle class family Even though he had a good ear for music he went to law school and became a clerk for the ministry of justice But music called and he went back to school at the St Petersburg Conservatory Then he assumed a professor at the Moscow conservatory Tchaikovsky s music is extremely famous and popular He wrote in the classical genres as well as in the programmatic romantic genres He is very famous for his ballet such as quotSwan Lake and quotThe Nutcracker He also write in important operas Listen to Romeo and Juliet Feud Theme 1st theme in exposition Love them 2nd theme 19 h century called the Golden Age of Opera Opera engaged people of this time period much the same as we are today engaged by the cinema Romantic Opera has three categories ltalian bel Canto Verdi German music dramas Wagner Realistic Opera Bizet Puccini Ben canto means beautiful singing ln Opera of this style the energy is focused on creating melodies for the solo voice The orchestra usually just provides harmonic support Because of this importance placed on the solo voice the lyric soprano becomes the most important person to the art form hence the name for the soprano such as prima donna first lady or diva goddess Giuseppe Verdi Joe Green 18131901 Son of a tavern keeper not a prodigy could not play well and was rejected from the conservatory Stayed in Milan and found a way to study composition First opera Oberto 1839 was produced at the famous La Scala Opera House in Milan His opera form the core of the Opera houses repertoire today and include Rigoletto La Traviata ll trovore Aida Otello Falstaff Verdi became very wealthy and lived and worked until a happy old age Verdi said quotThere is one thing the public will not tolerate in the theatre Boredum His opera s are packed with non stop action and intense passion Created with Verdi s introduction of Recitativeo Accompagnato Recitative with full orchestra accompaniment Arias have beautiful melodies but push the singer to the outer reaches of his or her range When the hero or tenor or the heroine the soprano sing their highest notes these are literally the high points of the Opera La Traviata The woman gone astray Violetta a courtesan resists and then succumbs to a young lover of good social standing She then disappears so as not to bring disgrace to his family He tracks her down insults her and fights a duel with her new man So he is banished from France Later on he figures out what happens and rushes to her side He is too late she is dying ofTB and sings one last aria before dying Let us listen to when Violetta meets Alfredo her new love and rejects him Act 1 scene 4 Now the famous aria or cabaletta a fast concluding aria from Act 1 1118 German opera and Wagner So far the only opera out of Germany has been the comic singspiel that was appropriated by Mozart Richard Wagner 18131883 created a new national voice for german opera Wagner Composer Philosopher Politician Propagandist Operas of monumental scope Controversial theoretical writings Some consider him to be an object of adoration To others the most detested composer of western music For wagner opera was the most perfect form of artistic expression with the composer being the quotprophetquot and the audience the congregation Born in Leipzig Germany Lareg self taught in music Tried to make a name In Paris as an opera composer but was met with indifference turned to music criticism and went broke for a while even spent time in prison Big break in Dresden his opera Rienzi was given a performance an became the director of the Dresden opera Had to flee Dresden in the wake of political upheaval Ended up in Switzerland Took on a big project and started to create a cycle of operas on a vast and unprecedented scale Ultimately these were to become The Ring of the Nibelung a set of four operas Das Rheingold 25 hours Die Walkure 45 hours Siegfried 45 hours Gotterdammerung 55 hours They were to be performed in four evenings Wagner wrote his own libretti for these operas based on German mythology The ring cycle Because of the massive scope and fantastical subject matter Wagner had a hard time talking anyone to bringing his vision to the stage until he came to the attention to King Ludwig H of Bavaria The king paid of Wagners debts built him a special theater and paid for the first performances of the ring Wagner did not like the term opera to describe his operas he called them Music Dramas attendance quiz question He felt that the music drama was the perfect synthesis of all of the arts Or quottotal art work which he called Gesamtkunstwerk He did away with the whole of idea of aria and recitative and instead focused on quotcontinuous melody long flowing non repetitive not particularly songlike lines There are distinctive melodies but not very often are the sung rather the important melodic material is in the orchestra which is massive The orchestra is everything it acts as the sunconscious and the emotional gauge of the drama He was inspired by the philosophy f Arthur Schopenhauer 17881860 quotMusic expresses the innermost basis of the world the essence behind appearances To do this Wagner developed a complex series of what came to be called leitmotifs musical fragments that are used to describe a person place thing stat of mind or emotion signature tuneattendance quiz question In his quotMusic Drama Tristan and lsolde 91865 Wagner uses the leitmotifs mostly to describe emotions such as quotLongingquot quotDesirequot quotEcstasyquot p 229 Realistic Opera Subject matter that reflected the everyday life of people in Europe at that time Based on the mundane the ordinary the poor the working man the starving artist and the gypsy life Gritty characters and situations Carmen 1875 geroge bizet 1st important realistic opera Plot on page 304 Listen to habanera from Carmen The Italians took the idea of realism in opera and gave it its own name verismo opera This came to its high point in the hands of Giacomo Puccini and his opera La Boheme the bohemian life
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