HISTORY OF JAZZ
HISTORY OF JAZZ MUS 2000
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jimmie Smith on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to MUS 2000 at Louisiana State University taught by W. Grimes in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 113 views. For similar materials see /class/222485/mus-2000-louisiana-state-university in Music at Louisiana State University.
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Date Created: 10/13/15
MUS 2000 Final Exam Study Guide 1 Know something about each of these jazz musicians Cootie Williams 0 Trumpet 0 Was in Duke Ellington s band 0 Concerto for Cootie was written for Cootie Williams Scott LaFaro 0 Bass 0 Revolutionized the technical approach to the double bass 0 In the Bill Evans trio Jaco Pastorius 0 Bass electric with Weather Report 0 Jazz Fusion 0 He was a troubled genius who had lots of drug and health problems greatly imitated o Beaten to death by a bouncer Luc Havan in a South Florida nightclub Chet Baker 0 Trumpeter and singer o In Gerry Mulligan Quartet had no piano no harmonic instrument Walkin Shoes 0 Counterpointcontrapuntal relationship between 2 or more voices that are independent in contour and rhythm and interdependent in harmony 0 Success hampered by drug addiction and was eventually imprisoned in the 60 s Died from falling through a hotel window Django Rheinhart 19101953 0 Guitar 9 Belgian QIpsy Guitarist 0 First important European Jazz musician 0 Lost 2 ngers in a fire accident and had to compensate with a new technique Paul Chambers 0 Was featured in the album Kind of Blue by Miles Davis and was also in Miles band from 195963 Art Blakey o Drummer 0 Leader of Jazz Messengers 0 Used loud intrusions and epitomized the loosening of jazz drumming styles Stan Get 0 Tenor Sax 0 Made Brazilian Jazz Jobim famous Art Tatum 19091956 0 Re harmonization severely limited vision Willow Weep For Me and Tiger Rag John Coltrane o Tenor and Soprano Sax 0 After Charlie Parker he is the most influential Sax player 0 Addiction to drugs and alcohol disrupted his career 9 A Love Supreme is his song that celebrates him overcoming his addictions o Believed in a universal musical structure which transcended ethnic distinctions Musca universal395 0 He re established soprano sax as a modern jazz instrument 0 One of his main objectives was to elaborate the full implications of bop chord progressions He improvised from formulae His Pattern oriented rigid eighth note repetitions Clifford Brown 19301956 0 Trumpet 0 Long uid lines reminiscent of bebop 0 He worked with Sonny Rollins Sax and Max Roach Drums Sonny Rollins o Tenor Sax 0 Worked with Brown 0 Rollins39 long prolific career began at the age of 11 and he was playing with piano legend Thelonious Monk before reaching the age of 20 o Rollins is still touring and recording today having outlived most of his contemporaries such as John Coltrane Miles Davis Max Roach and Art Blakey all performers with whom he recorded Dave Brubeck 0 Piano and composer o Supermetric used in Blue Rondo A La Turk 0 International fame 9 On the cover of Time 0 He worked with Paul Desmond Sax and the master of odd meters Herbie Hancock 0 Piano 0 Jazz Fusion 0 Headhunters 73 wanted to hire not jazz musicians who could play funk but funk musicians who could play jazz It was a platinum selling album He was also in Miles band from 63 68 Miles Davis 0 Trumpet band leader and composer o 1949 Birth Of Cool it was as influential as Armstrong s Hot Five The band was a nonet It included a French horn and a tuba Influential on Four Decades of Jazz West Coast Gil Evans Hard BopModal Kind of 0 Blue Post Bop 63 68 Jazz Fusion Bitches Brew 0 During Hard Bop he used a sextet rather then a quintet He used Cannonball Adderly on tenor sax Stella by starlight Kind of Blue recorded in 1959 and it is the most important and pivotal album in the modern jazz era It introduced the form of Modal Jazz Affected the Harmonic Rhythm the speed of the change in harmony but the harmonies of a single chord or scale remain in effect for several measures The song So What was based on one mode Dorian It is in AABA and Miles only leaves the mode twice during his solo Featured an all star band 0 19591963 Miles Davis Trumpet Paul Chambers Bass Bill Evans Piano Jimmy Cobb Drums John Coltrane Alto Sax Cannonball Adderley Tenor Sax 0 19631968 9 This band included a famous rhythm section It created a newjazz idiom Every album used new concepts Used tunes which did not have bridges turnarounds or sections They used these forms to encourage free flowing sounds and improvisations It caused an aiy feeling Wayne Shorter Saxophone Herbie Hancock Piano Tony Williams Drums Ron Carter Bass Thelonious Monk 0 Pianist o Unorthodox composer his work seriously challenged improvisers 0 Played as if he could bend notes used melodic cell development Straight No Chaser 0 He was called High Priest of Bop Charlie Christian uitar 0 First example of amplified electric guitar 0 Breakfast Feud Charlie Christian with Goodman sextet Blues form This is a compilation of several solos Each solo is introduced by a 4 bar phrase Antonio Carlos Jobim o Pianistguitarist composer and singer 0 Main composer of Brazilian music Billy Strayhorn o Pianist composer and arranger o Ellington s Alter Ego Co wrote most of his music in this period Tae theA Train and Lush Life 0 Liked to compose is dark keys Benny Goodman o Clarinet The King of Swing as a soloist he defined jazz clarinet as no other He popularized swing and became a pop icon Born Chicago 1909 8 11 of 11 children his parents were Jewish immigrants from Eastern Europe Benny grew up in a ghetto At the age of 14 he meets amp plays with Bix He joined Ben Pollack s band at 16 He had extensive classical training Goodman Quartet was the first racially mixed band His nationwide tour met with a negative reaction until Palomar Ballroom in La because of the radio 000 O Duke Ellington 1899 1974 0 Pianist composer and bandleader Jungle Sounds External works Master of the three minute form Formed the Washingtonians and moved to NYC Performed at the Cotton Club and had Buber Miley Jungle Sounds 0 O O O Count Basie 0 Piano Style went from stride to very sparse Stranded in Kansas City 1927 played in silent movie theatres Took over and reorganized Bennie Moten s band in 1935 o In the Kansas City Swing Band 00 Gil Evans 0 Pianist arranger composer and bandleader o Arranged Miles Davis Bilth of the Cool Pat Metheny 0 Guitar 0 New age 705 and 805 Chick Corea 0 Piano drums and keyboard Jazz Fusion 0 o Influenced by Bill Evans and Spain 0 Bop voicing sound muddy on the electric piano John Zorn o Saxmulti instruments Wynton Marsalis o Trumpet 0 He is preservationist award winning 9 grammys and pultizer price Ornette Coleman 0 Sax 0 Invited the term harmolodic Chano P020 0 Drums 0 Played with Dizzy afro Cuban 2 Be able to say something important about each of these items The Big 6 Armstrong Ellington Parker Davis Coltrane and Evans Congo Square An open space in Louis Armstrong Park where the slaves use to dance Vocalese a style or genre ofjazz singing wherein lyrics are written for melodies that were originally part of an all instrumental composition or improvisation Jon Hendricks Freede Freeloader is an example Weather Report Jaco Pastorious Very significant in jazz history Used collective improvisation Little distinction between soloist and accompanist Chet BakerMulligan pianoless quartet no harmonic instrument was presented counterpoint was the main focus of the songs Bernes Tunes and Walkn Shoes 0 Counterpoint 9 the relationship between 2 or more voices that are independent in contour and rhythm and interdependent in harmony o Trumpet Sax WCJ Common format instrumentation of hard bop group Standard group was the quintet piano bass drums trumpet and tenor sax Common format instrumentation of swing period group Big Band 9 5 saxophones 3 4 trumpets 3 4 trombones piano bass guitar and drums Nicholas Slonimsky Thesaurus of musical scales influenced many jazz musicians and composers including John Coltrane Smooth Jazz Just as easy to hear as it is to ignore de nition Instrumentapop music Fuzak combination of fusion and muzak Chromatics color Notes that are quotforeignquot to a given key and the free utilization of altered notes Notes that lend color to the sound of a chord or scale Influences of French impressionism Bill Evans Forms 0 AABBACCDD Ragtime o AABA Pretty Eyes 64 measure not 32 Form of many standard tunes 32 bars long 4 sections of 8 bars each Includes a BRIDGE 0 Blues Such Sweet Thunder Written by Strayhorn and Ellington Star Crossed Lovers Written by Strayhorn and Ellington Jazz vocalists vibrato added at the end of a note to achieve warmth Vocalists were originally copied by the instrumentalists used in Swing by Bechet Differences between Brazilian and Afro Cuban styles of Latin Music 0 Brazilian Bossa Nova Samba Dance Rhythms Bass notes are almost always on the beat Very light and airy Others capitalized on success of the bossa nova Main composer Antonio Carlos Jobim Made famous by jazz tenor player Stan Getz o AfroCuban More intense More rhythmic Bass notes are seldom on the beat Salsa mambo merengue Combination on duple and triple rhythms Augmentation Lengthening or widening of rhythms melodies intervals or chords Lester Young influenced who Influenced by F Traumbauer Influenced the West Coast Jazz Sax players Fusion a combination borrowing of the popular rock idiom of the 196039s with the jazz idiom almost always straight 8 11 music electronic Funk Comes from Hard bop reaction to the anemic cool jazz records that exploited the superficial elements of West Coast Jazz Supermetric Dave Brubeck Blue Rondo A La Turk Small meter over the big meter Cotton Club Ellington and the Washingtonians played here in NYC with Buber Miley Jungle Sounds Bebop characteristics Less emphasis was placed on arrangements in bop Average tempo was faster in bop Clarinet was rare in bop Rhythm guitar was rare Display of instrumental virtuosity was higher Bop improvisation was more complex Melodies were more complex in bop Harmonies were more complex in bop Much more chromatic Comping was more prevalent than stride style and simple on the beat chording Surprise was more highly valued in bop Bop was a more agitated style than swing 0 00000000 Louis Armstrong an Uncle Tom not at all Equal Contribution style Bill Evans Trio No piano soloist bass drums and piano were all equaL Headhunters Hencock 9 he wanted to hire not jazz musicians who could play funk but funk musicians who could playjazz It was a platinum selling album He was also in Miles band from 63 68 Miles Davis band members first and second quintets 0 First 9 Davis Chambers Evans Cobb Coltrane Adderley 0 Second 9 Shorter Hancock Williams Carter A song with lyrics that don t rhyme Haiku Moaning and singing while playing Keith Jamett Harmolodic coined by Ornette Coleman meaning using physical and mental logic to m ake an expression of sound to bring about music sensation of unison by a single person or group Finale MIDI enables musical instruments such as keyboard controllers computers and other electronic equipment to communicate control and synchronize with each other Sine Qua Non Latin term meaning without which there is nothing something absolutely indispensable or essential It applies to the jazz idiom Anatomy of a Murder rm score by Ellington Nonet instrumentation 9 instruments Miles Davis used it when Gil Evans helped with Birth of Cool French horn and tuba were added Sheets of sound Coltrane used this technique improvisation style A Love Supreme Coltrane wrote this because of his drug addiction being saved it celebrates his victory and religious experience associated with overcoming his drug addiction Difficulties of the jazz waltz Problem with jazz waltz is 3A time which was hard to get to swing at first Big Band instrumentation 5 saxophones 3 4 trumpets 3 4 trombones piano bass guitar and drums
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