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Physical Geography study guide

by: Desiree Notetaker

Physical Geography study guide Geography 110

Desiree Notetaker
Cal State Fullerton
GPA 3.77

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About this Document

Study guide for midterm. Brief definitions.
Physical Geography
Study Guide
physical geography, Atmosphere, Vegetation, winds, EARTH, Forests
50 ?




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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Desiree Notetaker on Tuesday March 22, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Geography 110 at California State University - Fullerton taught by in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views.

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Date Created: 03/22/16
Physical Geography midterm study guide  Three main subfields of geography  1) Physical Geography  2) Human Geography  3) Geospatial/cartography  Four subsystems  1) Atmosphere: gaseous shell. (this class’ focus is on the troposphere)  2) Lithosphere: solid Earth, ground, rock and minerals.  3) Hydrosphere: water in all forms  4) Biosphere: all life on Earth  Atmosphere thickness – thicker at the Equator; thinner at the poles  Four local and regional factors that influence vegetation  1) Slope  2) Attitude  3) Proximity to a water source  4) Intensity of winds  Height of ground stations that measure temperature ­ 5 feet.  Temporal lag: Difference in time between two events, between insolation and peak temperature  occurs. Direct solar energy is received from inputs –energy is stored in terrestrial surface and  omits radiation, between as output  Cyclogenesis: formation of mid latitude cyclones. Associated with polar jet stream in the upper  atmosphere.  Convergence: accumulation of air in a region that has a greater inflow than outflow of air. Often giving rise to vertical air currents.  Inter­tropical convergence zone: band of low pressure, calm winds, clouds in tropical latitudes  where air converges from southern and northern Hemisphere. It lags.  Igneous rock: rocks that form when magma rises from the mantle and cools.  Extrusive: form when magma cools on the surface Intrusive: form when magma cools within the Earth’s crust  Rocks vs. Minerals: Rock is an amorphous mass of consolidated mineral matter. Minerals are  naturally occurring substances with distinctive chemical configurations.  Relative humidity: the ration between specific and maximum humidity in air.  (Specific / Max) x 100 The more the air expands, the greater the capacity to hold water  Dew Point: temperature at which condensation occurs in a definable body of air.  Types of Clouds:  1) Cirrus – ice crystals for thin and wispy clouds high up  2) Cumulus – puffy clouds resulting from convection  3) Stratus – layered and thick and dark clouds  Orographic uplift: occurs when air mass is forced from a low elevation to a higher elevation as  it moves over rising terrain.  4 Stages of Thunderstorms  1) Cumulus stage  2) Mature Stage  3) Dissipating Stage 4) Anvil Head  Ocean Crust: Basaltic part of Earth’s crust. Makes up Ocean basins. About 5 miles thick.  Continental crust: Granitic part of Earth’s crust. About 25 miles thick.  Characteristics of the inner core: solid and primarily made up of iron and nickel.  Outer core: extensive. Dynamic liquid iron. Less pressure. Generates 90% of Earth’s magnetic  field.  Types of Sedimentary rock   Conglomerate   Sandstone   Limestone  Forest biomes: vegetation dominated by trees. Occur from tropical regions to the high mid  latitudes and can be categorized as the tropical forest biomes, midlatitude forest biomes and  boreal forest biome.  ADRET slope: faces the sun. Drier and fewer trees  UBACK slope: faces away from the sun. Less energy. More snow and soil moisture.  Vertical zonation: change in environmental characteristics that occurs with respect to altitude.  4 Types of Proxy Data 1) Pollen records 2) Tree Ring patterns  3) Ice corn anaylsis  Autotrophs: organisms that synthesize their own food using heat or light as source of energy Heterotrophs: organisms that consume complex organic substances for food  Dendrochronology: dating of past events and variations of the environment and climate by  studying the annual growth rates of trees.  Occluded front: area where a cold front begins to overtake a warm front thus lifting warm air  aloft. 


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