INTRO TO THEATRE
INTRO TO THEATRE THTR 1020
Popular in Course
Popular in Theatre
This 17 page Study Guide was uploaded by Burnice Kemmer on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to THTR 1020 at Louisiana State University taught by L. Clemons in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 113 views. For similar materials see /class/222575/thtr-1020-louisiana-state-university in Theatre at Louisiana State University.
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Date Created: 10/13/15
Chapter 3 Theatre of O 0 Theatre 0 Theatre and Cultural Diversity the people Gives a voice to those who are seldom heard in the mainstream media The goal is possible because of the very characteristics that distinguish theater from television and film entertainment Called quotpopular theater by media researcher Iacob Srampickai Relatively low tech 0 Can be done anywhere any time and at a low cost Theater can represent the concerns of the people not the gov the powers that can be or the multinational media corporations Critical Mirror Art and Entertainment Re ect Culture Culture Values standards and patterns of behavior of a particular group of people Expressed in a people s customs language rituals history religion social and political institutions and in its art and entertainment Not the same as quotpopquot culture I Also known as quotpopular culture The fads and fashions that dominate mainstream media music and art for a period of time Enculturation 0 Definition The process by which we learn about our culture 0 People are not born with cultural knowledge I Learn by watching and imitating the behaviors of others and listening to their stories Dominant Culture 0 Art and Entertainment re ect the voice of dominant culture 0 Society has been controlled by the dominant culture I Those in power members of the upper class government religious institutions and in particular men 0 Thousands ofyear the Dominant Culture has controlled I Playwriting directing design Acting n O I Racism Sexism Discrimination Economic power Social and religious customs The Women and Minorities 0 Women and minority racial religious and ethnic groups have usually been forced to sit on the sidelines 0 During Western and Eastern Theater History I Improper for religious social or cultural reasons for women to write plays a n n n Women were also not allowed to set foot on stage I Men and boys played women roles on stage According to the Writers Guild ofAmerica male writers outnumber female writers in Hollywood about five to one in feature film and by for to one in television Theatre Outside the Dominant Culture 0 Multiculturalism o The endeavor to overcome all forms of discrimination including racism sexism and homophobia so that people can coexist peacefully and attempt to achieve a pluralistic society 0 Purpose of the theatre of the people is to promote cultural awareness by giving a voice to all members of society and by increasing multiculturalism I One of the fundamental con icts of human existence is the difference between how we perceive ourselves and how others pereive us whethere it be I Individual I Group I Or national level 0 Stereotypes o Shortcuts in thinking that attribute a generalized identity to people who are not like us I Mexican Bandits Bigoted Southern Sheriffs I Korean grocers I Drunken Indians I Dumb blondes o Tend to diminish when communication among groups races and cultures increases Theatre of The People 0 Theatre ofidentity 0 Theatre of Protest o CrossCultural theatre 0 These types are not always separate one play can include the characteristics of more than one type of theatre of the people Theatre ofIdentity o Promotes a particular peoples cultural identity and invites the members of that culture and other cultures to experience that culture s joys problems history traditions and point ofview o Gives a voice to the people and encourages audience members to re ect on analyze or reinvent their own selfperceptions o Gives a voice to groups that dominant culture ignores or silences 0 Not closed to outsiders 0 Can present sugarcoated images ofa culture but it can also feature that cultures defeats and regrets 0 One of the strongest forms in the US is that of black Americans 0 Willis Richardson was the first black playwright to have a play on Broadway that was not a musical I The Chip Woman s Fortune 0 Harlem Renaissance I A time when black artists actors poets musicians and writers converged in Harlem to tell the stories of their lives their history and their people contrary to white stereotypes of blacks Theatre of Protest o Objects to the dominant culture s control and demands that a minority culture s voice and political agenda be heard 0 Vents hostility toward the ruling class race or culture 0 Protest plays go back to the ancient Greeks o Lysistrata I First antiwar play CrossCultural Theatre 0 Mixes different cultures in an attempt to find understanding or commonality among them 0 Borrows contrasting ideas from diverse cultures and joins them into a single work 0 Staging techniques 0 Cultural rituals myths and styles Theatre as a Way of Seeing Through Another s Eyes 0 Ethnocentrism o The phenomenon that most people tend to think that their take on it as seen through their culture is the correct view Chapter 4 Experiencing and Analyzing Plays The People Who Watch 0 Group Dynamics Simply the functioning of humans when they come together into groups Gangs families church congregations or theatre audiences People act differently when in groups Paper the house To give away a lot of free tickets to the families and friends of cast members in order to make it appear as though the performance is well attended 0 Suspending Disbelief Willing suspension of disbelief Admitting that what is happening is not real and we don t need to rush up and save the actor who is being attacked or call the police to stop the actor playing the criminal We put aside our concerns about everyday reality and agree to accept the plays particular reality 0 Distancing Yourself Aesthetic distance The audience s ability to remove themselves from a work of art just far enough so that they contemplate it or even judge it Some writers and directors go further and challenge or even alienate an audience Levels of Participation 0 Group dynamics suspension of disbelief and aesthetic distance also affect the levels of audience participation Active participation Sitting quietly in the dark New behavior for theatre audiences Started in the lat 1850s but did not become popular until Edison invented the light bulb Fourth wall An imaginary wall between the actors and the audience 0 Presentational and representational are two types of theatre that correspond to those levels ofparticipation o Presentational theatre Makes no attempt to offer a realistic illusion on stage and the actors openly acknowledge the audience and sometimes even invite the members to participate o Representational Theater Actors never acknowledge the audience and go about their business as if there were not audience present Play Analysis 0 Reviews Sometimes called notices in theatre lingo are evaluations ofa production and are often published in newspapers or magazines 0 Dramatic criticism Sometimes called literary criticism or simply criticism is not meant to draw people to a particular production or warn them away from it nor is it based solely on opinion Instead it offers the reader a discriminating often scholarly interpretation and analysis of a play an artists body ofwork or a period of theatre history Aristotle s Poetics o A time tested definition ofa plays elements Plot arrangement of incidents Character personalities of the story Thoughtwhat the play means the ideas its trying to communicate and themes or message Dictiondialogue we used to create the thought character and plot Spectacleperformance s set costumes and effects Song portion of ancient tragedies were sung The Right to speak Freedom of Speech and the Arts 0 Censorship The altering restricting or suppressing of information images or words circulated within a society 0 Licensing Act of 1737 A law passed in England and placed the censoring of plays under the authority of the Lord Chamberlain one of the officials of the royal court 0 Bowdlerize To remove any possibly vulgar obscene or otherwise objectionable material before publication First Amendment Rights and Restrictions o Defamation Freedom of speech does not cover the publication or statement of alleged facts that are false and harm the reputation of another 0 Breach of the peace Underscore the face that free speech is not a viable defense when such speech is used to perpetrate a fraud 0 Sedation and Indictment to Crime Does not cover unlawful conduct against the government or speech that advocates the violent overthrow of the government Law of the land 0 Separation of Church and State The government cannot endorse or appear to endorse any religion 0 Obscenity Whether the avg person applying contemporary community standards would find that the work taken as a whole appeals to the prurient interest Whether the works depicts or describes in a patently offensive way sexual conduct specifically defined by the applicable state law Whether the work taken as a whole lacks serious literary artistic political or scientific value Chapter 5 A Day In The Life Of Theatre ensemble repertory a group of plays performed by a theatre company during the course of a seaon 9AM ghost light single bare light bulb mounted on a portable pole box office sells tickets or Ticketmaster or internet and phone 10AM costume shop crews wash costumes from last night s performance has rows of sowing machines fabric laundry literary manager reading and evaluating new scripts for neXt season producer of producing director financially backs the theatre or orchestrates funding through grant money and ticket sales artistic director in charge of the overall creative vision or goal of the ensemble often chooses which plays to produce who will direct and who will design them 11AM stage manager runs the show during the performance and helps the director throughout the rehearsal process by taking notes recording blocking scheduling rehearsals and assisting during auditions construction crew building the set at is a standard wooden frame used technical director supervises the construction crew which include painters carp enters electricians and everyone know as the quotTech Crew Noon costume shop making the costumes draper Is studying the costume designer s drawings rehearsal costumes used during rehearsals temporarily to get the actors ready prop master busy working on the props for the neXt production prop is lingo for properties also have rehearsal props that are only used during rehearsals 1PM musical director supervise all aspects ofa musical and conducts the orchestra during performances choreographer dance numbers movement coach shows actors how people move fight director stage real makebelieve fights vocal coach helps the actors with speech clarity volume and preservation of their voices for the long run of a show 2PM sound designer works with various effects of sound set designer uses Computer Aided Design CAD to design a set dramaturg literary advisor and expert in theatre history helps to interpret 3 PM production meeting all aspects ofproduction is discussed stage manager technical director and director all there mission statement declares the theatre s purpose and key objectives 4PM 5PM 6PM 7PM 8PM 9PM 10PM publicity department work to promote the next play concept meeting artistic gathering held before the play is cast or the sets and costumes are designed stage door behind the theatre ad as a little lobby where there is a notice board call the time the actors arrive at the theatre curtain time the play starts prop table each prop is laid out and labeled sound board operator running various sound cues and making sure all speakers mixers amplifiers etc are working house place where the audience sits prop check ensure everything is where its supposed to be house manager in charge of the ushers stage manager announces when the curtain will be greenroom place where actors wait before their entrances assisting stage manager make sure that everything runs smoothly during the scene running crew stagehands shift scenery and set up the play for neXt scene dressers help actors make quick costume changes riggers ymen who mount and operate all curtains sets and anything else legs curtains used on the sides that frame the top of the stage are called teasers scrims open mesh gauze curtains cyclorama large stretched curtain above a Ushaped rod performing the final act clearing out Chapter 6 Playwright and Script 2 writing unions WGA Writers Guild ofAmerica movies and TV closed shop union can have strikes shut down production they sell the rights to a studio or producing company once sold they have no control over how its used DGA Dramatists Guild of America playwrights openshop union cant go on strike do not give up copyright to their work play writers get a royalty a certain fee based on size of house theatre budget etc that create a scale and decide how much dramatists playwright is paid by renting playwrights to theatres screenwriter may just get a at fee or a syndication house writing people write for the same show continuously art ofplaywrights primary tool is words use words to give 1 dialogue spoken teXteXplicit dialogue not say what they mean have to interpret implicit what you say is not what you mean 2 stage directions indicate physical movements blocking it can be written into the teXt or it can be set off what s going to happen on stage Greek plays didn t have any they were added by stage manager of original production 3 parentheticals short descriptions ex angry tell you what the playwright wants from the actors play isn t complete until it is produced paradoxical blue prints skeletons ground work how much ofa right does the director have to mess around w playwright con ict as catalyst desire obstacle reason compromise is not a option art oflanguage subteXt listening imagery rhythm tempo and sound plotting the story plot is the causal and logical structure that connects events plot structure the playwright s selection of events to create a logical sequence genre is a category of an artistic work that has a particular form style or subject matter beginning eXposition back story lets the audience in on what happened to the characters before the play began what happens between the scenes and offstage protagonist central character who pushes forward the action of the play antagonist opposer ofaction stands in the way of the protagonist s goals event unusual incident a special occasion crisis disturbance inciting incident that upsets the balance and gets the action rolling by creating an opportunity for con ict between protagonists and antagonist point of attack the situation caused by the disturbance to the point where the protagonist must make a major decision that will result in con ict major dramatic question MDQ hook that keeps people wanting to know more middle con icts crises and complications the dark moment when the protagonist fails for internal or external reasons the goal seems unattainable ending enlightenment when the protagonist comes to understand how to defeat the antagonist climax point of greatest dramatic tension in the play the moment the antagonist is defeated denouement final outcome of the play short final scene Chapter 7 The Art of Acting training to be an actor body greater physical control Voice breathing and speaking international phonetic alphabet IPA a system for transcribing the sounds of speech mind Stanislavsky system or method acting psychological approach to acting Acting Techniques outsidein change the way you look on the outside and then it will change how you feel on the inside insideout change your emotions and you can cause your body to react mind and body connection is a twoway street Chapter 8 The Art of Directing Chapter 9 The Art of Design Theatre spaces foundcreated space parks churches town squares basements gyms etc can take place about anywhere where an audience can gather not an actual theatre pr05cenium archpictureframe originated in Italy a little more formal because the audience is separated from the actors some times there is an orchestra put between the audience and stage gives an entrance and storage ex Royal Family modern ones can have a lipapron which is part of the stage that extends into the audience s side of the picture frame arena theatresintheround surrounded on all sides by audience simple sets most are intimate oor is the main scenic element elaborate costumes to makeup for it sometimes resemble a boxing arena or sports stadium thrust stage has a lipapron so far into the auditorium that the audience must sit on 3 sides of the stage reduces the distance between the actors and audience more intimate style older than proscenium arch theatre ancient Greek ex A Kind ofAlaska can create a mini space within space lighting is the best way to create different puts focus onoff someone bIaCk box theatre exible moveable seating experimental audience sits close to the actors small and intimate no permanent seating arrangement no 2 black box theatres are alike Elements of Design 1 line 2 dimension 3 balance 4 movement 5 harmony 6 color 7 texture Set Designers oor plans architectural drawings antiquarianism ground plan computer aided design CAD use computers to make blue prints Light Designers make sure you can see the play light plot cyclorama strip lights light board controlled through Costume Designers use colormovement change by style and depend on show renderings on paper fabric swatches building pulling Sound Designers electronic technology keyboards etc Sometimes 2 additional prop set or hand masterdesigner makeupwig designer straight makeup looks like normal makeup character makeup aged ethnicity etc most do their own makeup with some advice Chapter 11 NonWestern Theatre began in ritual in uence nature sympathetic magic Ritual reality preformed by priests Is based on religion myth or tradition audience participates asks for something EX Circumcision weddings Ritual Theatre non reality early form of theatre used theatrical techniques such as song dance and characterization rooted in religion preformed by actors has a story with a con ict con ict is key to all drama audience is spectator plays characters empathy Yoruba Theatre Nigeria Abydos theatre Egypt Ancient form of theater Western grew out of the theatre of Thespis in Greece sometimes called Aristotelian Non Western all other forms of drama from ancient ritual theatre ofAfrica to the traditional theatre of Asia doesn t attempt to recreate objective reality closely tied to ritual uses color dance song and movements to exaggerate stylize and symbolically represent life African Theatre Myths Rituals Rites Celebrations African PreColonial Theatre grew out of ritual audience sits quietly and watches performers often used masks some storytelling Invaders Colonial Forms interrupted by Arab and European invasions brought foreign religions and customs Total Theatre Postcolonial Forms total theatre African ritual theatre and western style drama Has encouraged African nationalism glorified Africa s past and advanced African customs rituals and culture Indian Theatre quotA Delight for Gods and a Solace for the Af icted Natyasastra Indian equivalent ofAristotle s poetics ancient Indian theatre An encyclopedic book of dramatic theory and practice written sometime between 200 BCE and 200 CE Has 37 chapters and covers every aspect of classical Indian drama Sanskrit Drama named for the ancient Indian language in which its plays are preformed always end happily and never deal with death or violence Shakuntala most famous Sanskrit play a love story written by Kalidasa standardized types and the acting was anything but realistic Story Plays Kathakali Indian Folk Kathakali contemporary form based on Hindu poems highly stylized dramatized versions of the Hindu epic poems pamayana and Mahabharata Patron Indian god Siva The British Invasion European style theatre was introduced to India during the British occupation in the 1700s started to imitate western models China Chinese Theatre Children of the Fear Garden Theatre is a form of music drama Taoism and Buddhism and Confucianism Peking opera Synthesis of music dance acting and acrobaticsplay oriented stylized originally preformed outdoors painted face roles supernatural beings warriors 2 types based on history mythology folklore and tales of romance Iapan noh drama noh means talent or skill drama developed during the 1300s from the dance prayers of Buddhist priests who danced sang and prayed at religious shrines noh meditative calm reserved deals with gods heroes women insanity legends each play has 3 part structure Kabuki combo of 3 words Ka song Budance Kiskill elaborate sets special effects women played by men Okuni created Kabuki Bunraku puppet theatre puppets of size history plays about major political events of the past domestic plays about loves and lives ofmerchants and townspeople and dancedramas about the world of spirits and animals apanese Shakespeare Chikamatsi Mie pose what actors pose Ki wooden clappers Arab Islamic Theatre The Spirit of the Shadows shadow theatre created by casting shadows on a screen audience watches silhouettes and narrator tells a story what to do with women eastern traditions in uence west epic theatre balance dance non western theatre largely remained unchanged Chapter 12 Greek Theatre tragedy tragos goat song theories best story teller given a goat theatre has origins in minesis imitation quotwe don t know 9 Greek theatre eXisted well over 500 years and all we have are 39 plays some face paintings and ruins important theoretical document Aristotle s Poeticswhere he tried to classify drama rules for tragedy he was a philosopher that liked to classify things in poetics poets would memorize poems and teach them to men evolves into theatre we have today call and response tied heavily to religion thanking gods Greek theatre originated in paying tribute to the Gods dithyrambs call and response poems would have contests turned into big festivals worship gods trade and travel civic pride Dionysus god ofwineamp fertility main god who theatre was for major festival City Dionysia held in the spring coincided with the new wine cask ocean was clam from the winter storms can travel again all of the plays we have come from 5th century BCE quotgolden age 39 plays we have aren t necessarily the best just the only ones we have greek theatres many times Romanized post invasion skene quotscenequot actors9 orchestra chorus tells you what to think9theatron audience audience segregated front was high ranking officials middle was citizens back was slaves and women festival last 7 days Day 1 opening choregos playwright Day 2 dithyramb Day 35 trilogy satyr play Day 6 comedy Day 7 winner closing filled comedies w jokes sexjokes phallusfake penis sexual humor thespis thespian actor hypokrites hypocrites actor structure prologue in media res middle of the action parodos chorus entrance episodes alternate choralods alternate exodus chorus departing tragedy tragedy hero not completely bad or good or good person with one harmartia harmartia aw personality mistake issue error in judgment fatal aw brings downfall peripetia reversal opposite ofwhat you want happens anagorisis recognition identity revealed realize what happened 3 tragic playwrights Aeschylus 525 456 BCE father introduced 2 101 actor wrote only surviving trilogy Orestia Sophocles 496 406 BCE Oedipus Rex is what Aristotle considered the most perfect play introduced 3ml actor wrote 3 plays about Oedipus but it is not a trilogy Euripides 480 406 BCE not popular in his day would cause political trouble not as popular as Sophocles but now his plays are preformed more trilogy is 3 plays united by a common storyline or theme Aristophanes started quotold comedy had chorus satirical would poke fun at Gods 448380 BCE lived to see end ofPeloponnesian war Lyistrata play about war antiwar after war Greece no longer power under sartans only work is new comedy called the grouch by Menander 342292 BCE all of his plays dealt with love and intrigue all we have for 600 years Satyr play only surviving Cyclops by Eurpides Romans not original but good at adapting things not big on the theatre coliseum animal fights gladiators Neumachia mock sea battle would ood coliseum 3 major playwrights Plautus 254 184 BCE slap stick Terence 189 159 BCE 1St plagiarist stole plays from Menader Seneca 4BCE 65 CE wrote tragedies roman twist on Greek tragedies don t know if ever preformed closet drama Roman Mimes male and female didn t speak preformed exaggerated improvised stories w seX stealing killing christomimes dedicated to satyring and persecuting Christians mimes popular w Nero and Callgulah performed in them as men and women Chapter 14 Renaissance midevil liturgical renaissance humanist popular comedia dell arte used scenarios little synopsis ofaction on stage no lines generic actions actors would improvise stock characters inammorati young lovers harlequin servant pantalone old man brugella cowardly solider lazzi bits of comic business vitruvis de architetura 1st century BCE scena frons single point perspective everything on the drawing joins on a single point aristotle three unities 1 time 24 hours 2 place one location 3 action one plot decorum Spain golden age of Spanish drama pedro calderon de la barca feliz lope de vega y carpio auto sacramentales religious plays cloak and sward plays women were on stage corrales crude platform stages university wits Thomas kyd and Christopher Marlowe boy companies public outdoors everyone all classes and private theatres indoors upper class black friars church owned the land not the city puritans opposed theatre though people should be working didn t like boys playing girls Shakespeare wrote 378 plays married Anne Hathaway Marlowe wrote dr Faustus spy for queen Elizabeth Ben Ionson comic playwright 1st poetlorette got away with murder charge wrote masques singing classical style Oliver Cromwell closing of theatre French created theatre in tennis courts jeu de pomme hotel de Bourgogne Pierre Corneille wrote Le Cid followed the rules but too much happened in the 24 hour time girl married man who killed her father french didn t like this ean Racine Phaedra Moliere satirized people tartuffe religious hypocrite wrote comedy ballets Chapter 16 Modern Theatre 1800s 1900s 1 rise of nationalism western style drama in India learn about various forms of drama from china Chinese scripts we westernized them changes our quotwesternquot centered tradition Shimpa school of acting Korea stylized in uenced stages used Kabuke stylized in uenced stages used Africa being colonized mine diamondscoalrubber cultural miXing came into play no respect for it though just interesting taking out of some cultures and putting in museums luve etc 2 rise of crosscultural exchanges 3modern realist technology scientific method hypothesis objective research provedisprove hypothesis invention ofphotography more realistic than paintings very important and big deal seminal work by Charles Darwin 0n the Origin 0f5pecies human was product not of an act of creation but instead evolution social Darwinism Sigman Froid human psychological makeup was divided into 1 Id unconscious human desires 2 Ego average person lives not a slave to their desires 3 Superego conscious way to control desires invented therapy for psychology idea that we had secret underlying things not always say what we mean Carl Marcs theory con ict theory pretty much invented communism communist manifesto everything is a struggle and a process idea that something is wrong w capitalism Thomas Edison invents the light bulb Advent of realism idea of the problem play realism in scenery and set w light bulb you can better see the set need better sets everything had to be real and actual The worlds hunger to uncover the basic forces of human nature and to show people as they really are Louis Daguerre 17871851 French theater designer known for his lifelike sets problem plays Based on the idea that before a problem can be solve society must first understand that the problem eXists Box set A true often one of the newly invented box sets Fourth wall Removed that the audience has the feeling oflooking in on the characters private lives Henrick Isben Father of Realism George Bernard Shaw Wrote what might be called quothigh comedies cerebral socially relevant plays that had intellectual scope Freie Buhne theatre libre independent theatre Anton Chekhov Master of understatement at least in his full length plays realism naturalism a slice oflife Definition quotphotographic realism Rise of AvantGarde describes any artiest or work of art that is experimental innovative or unconventional gorley Hollywood effect theatre reinvents more theatre avantgarde sintesi Dadaism and surrealism Founded in opposition to realism For Dadaists life has no purpose and they confused and antagonized their audiences by refusing to adhere to a coherent set ofprinciples thereby mirroring the madness of the world Surrealists tried to reveal the higher reality of the unconscious mind with fantastic imagery and contradictory images Symbolism Argued that the realists objective observation of the world using the give senses was not the best way to show the inner truth EXpressionism Started in Germany around 1910 as a reaction to a new kind ofpainting EXpressionism plays often use deliberate distortion artaud theatre of cruelty booktheatre and its double important theoretical figure Bertolt Brecht epic absurdism fatalist hilarious and eXistentialist Samuel Beckett fatalism life is crap McCarthyism red scare communist will take over Arthur Miller wrote the Crucible Lillian Hellman Children s Hour lie told by a young girl ruins teacher s lives Death ofa Salesman Tennessee Williams glass minagery mother is overbearing sister is a cripple leaves home African American dramas raisin in the sun son takes money gets stolen takes payoff wants to move into a neighborhood with all whites off Broadway performance art ash mob modern day happenings regional theatre movement outside New York contemporary playwrights sam shepard American absurdism pointlessviolence in American life in Right Stuff movie Dawid Mayment realism Britty language Al Pacino kabuki theater song dance skills what kabuki means
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