New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here


by: Miss Ofelia Bode


Miss Ofelia Bode
GPA 3.52

W. Kelso

Almost Ready


These notes were just uploaded, and will be ready to view shortly.

Purchase these notes here, or revisit this page.

Either way, we'll remind you when they're ready :)

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

W. Kelso
Study Guide
50 ?




Popular in Course

Popular in Renewable Natural Resources

This 16 page Study Guide was uploaded by Miss Ofelia Bode on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to RNR 1001 at Louisiana State University taught by W. Kelso in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see /class/222666/rnr-1001-louisiana-state-university in Renewable Natural Resources at Louisiana State University.

Similar to RNR 1001 at LSU

Popular in Renewable Natural Resources




Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 10/13/15
Study Guide Chapter 23 quot 39 quot 39 and quot 39 39 quotquot Core Case A New Economic Environmental Vision Economic growth and development centers on human needs food shelter physical and economic security and good health with a bigger economy being a better economy The debate over whether there are limits to economic growth has changed to a debate over the kinds of economic growth we should encourage Neoclassical economists do not view natural resources as indispensable because substitutes can be found and that continued unlimited economic growth is necessary for profit and jobs Ecological economists emphasize that there are no substitutes for many vital natural resources such as air water soil and biodiversity They believe conventional economic growth is unsustainable as it degrades natural capital and a new economic design of environmentally benefit development is needed Environmental economists take a middle ground view seeing some forms of economic growth as unsustainable but believing it is best to reform current economic systems of resource use and not redesign them The environment and the economy are intimately linked and a shift to an environmentally sustainable economy would create new jobs and new investment opportunities that sustain all life on the planet How Are Economic Systems Related to the Biosphere An economic system is a social institution where goods and services are produced distributed and consumed to satisfy people s needs and wants These systems are supported by three types of resources 1 natural capital resources and services produced by the earth s natural processes 2 human capital people s physical and mental talentslabor innovation culture and organization and 3 manufactured capital the items made from natural resources by humans machinery equipment and factories In a marketbased economic system buyers and sellers compete in markets to make economic decisions on good and services to be produced distributed and consumed The supply demand and price govern the competitive interacts When supply and demand are equal the market price will be at equilibrium and the supplier s price will match what the consumer is willing to pay for the item Freemarket economists believe in private ownership of all resources and that operating without government interference will solve environmental problems They argue 1 the true value of resources will be determined by market interaction and 2 resources that are privately owned have great value to their owners To operate free market economics requires that buyers and sellers not coerce or mislead one another but in capitalist markets competitors try to increase profits by driving one another out of business Some companies even withhold information about health risks and environmental dangers for a market advantage While market systems usually work well in production and distribution of private goods they can not be relied on to provide public services such as national security and environmental protection Resources that are owned by no one and used by all examples air and open oceans will be degraded in a freemarket system and need government intervention Most advanced industrialized countries have highthroughput economies which try to increase economic growth with a greater flow of matter and energy resources to goods and services This growth leads to the accumulation of pollution and wastes in the environment Neoclassical economists under the assumption that economic growth is unlimited see our natural capital as part of the human economic system Ecological and environmental economists view economic models as part of the biosphere and see natural resources as irreplaceable They base their models on three principles 1 resources are limited and should not be wasted 2 we should encourage only environmentally beneficial forms of economic development and 3 harmful environmental and health effects of production should be included in the price of good and services Using the strategies of ecolabeling taxing polluters stricter laws tradable permits and reducing poverty would transition countries to more sustainable ecoeconomies How Can We Put Values on Natural Capital Pollution Control and Resource Use Environmental and ecological economists have developed tools for estimating the value of natural capital Estimating the monetary value of natural ecological services and the income they provide is one approach An example Earth s forests are valued at 47 trillion a year for their biological services far exceeding their simple market value The estimated biological or ecological value is not considered in today s market price of goods This is one reason that many of these resources are used at an unsustainable rate Neoclassical economists see no economic value for a product or service until it is sold in a marketplace For these economists ecological services have no economic value a misleading exclusion in today s limited resource ase The overall nonuse value of natural resources and services can be estimated by a existence value the monetary value placed on a resource because it exists even if you never see it example an old growth forest or an endangered species b aesthetic value the monetary value of a resource for its beauty and c bequest or option value the amount people are willing to pay to protect a resource forfuture generations A resource s future value can be estimated by the discount rate an estimate of the resource s future value compared to its present value It is based on the idea that having something today is worth more than in the future The US Office of Management and Budget and the World Bank use a 10 annual discount rate to evaluate a resource s value Using this method a stand of redwoods worth 1 million today would be worth only 10000 in 50 years So it would make sense for the owner to cut the trees as quickly as possible The immense economic value of the ecological services this stand of trees provides is not considered in this economic analysis A valuation method of this type will always be onesided incomplete and against ecological services Proponents use such a high discount rates because of inflation changes in consumer preferences and the ability to earn more money from resource sales in capital investments Critics believe a 0 or negative discount rate should be used to protect irreplaceable resources and a 13 discount rate for 39 39 and 39 39 natural The optimum level of pollution control and resource use is an important concept in economic models A coal mine is a good example In a new mine the cost of removing the coal is low enough that owners can recover their investments by selling their product But after the accessible coal is mined the cost of removal goes up with each additional unit of coal taken this is the marginal cost When the supply curve meets the demand curve ie the cost of extraction is equal to what consumers are willing to pay it is not longer profitable to remove coal As another example many people think total cleanup of pollution is the best solution but this may not be true by applying the optimum level concept The cost of pollution control goes up for each additional unit of pollutant removed from the environment The increasing amount of energy required to remover lower concentrations of pollution accounts for this increase The demand for cleanup by users is initially great when the pollution is high but as the pollution is removed people s concern decreases and their demand for cleanup approaches zero The cost of removing additional units of a pollutant are thus higherthan people are willing to pay and there is an economic point of equilibrium that is the optimum level for pollution cleanup The optimum level curves will be different for various pollutants ie higherfor sediment lower for dioxin A second tool used to make economic decisions about pollution control and resource management is costbenefit analysis This analysis is done by comparing the costs versus the benefits of an action such as preserving a forest or implementing a pollution control regulation Direct costs involving land labor materials and pollutioncontrol technologies and the indirect costs of clean air and water good health and the value of natural capital are estimated lf factors are valued fairly and accurately costbenefit analysis is a useful tool but ecological economists are often skeptical due to the large margin of error with no uniform standards for valuing biological services and natural resources How Can We Use Economic tools to Deal with Environmental Problems The biggest problem with traditional economics from a conservation standpoint is that market price direct price that you pay for something does not include the indirect costs or hidden costs to produce that item lndirect costs include the harm to the environment and to human health to produce or use a product The exclusion these harmful environmental costs hides the overall cost of the harm to the environment hinders the development of more environmentally beneficial goods and services and promotes pollution resource waste and environmental degradation Most economists use gross domestic product GDP or per capita GDP as a standardized way to measure and compare the economic output of nations The GDP designates a value for goods and services produced within a nation but does not distinguish environmentally beneficial and environmentally harmful ones Ecological economists have developed the genuine progress indicator GPI which estimates the value of beneficial transactions that meet basic needs and adds it to GDP and estimates harmful environmental and social costs and subtracts these from GDP In comparing the GDP and GPl in the US from 1950 to 2004 the GDP has risen sharply and the GPl has remained flat showing our rate of growth is unsustainable An environmentally honest market system would include harmful environmental and health costs of goods and services in market prices to reflect the full cost of producing these items Fullcost pricing would allow consumers to make more informed choices Some producers fear fullcost pricing because 1 harmful and wasteful producers would likely go out of business 2 it is difficult to estimate the environmental costs and 3 it requires consumer education to connect price of goods and services with harmful production costs Phasing in such a system would require government and citizen action since companies would not volunteer to reduce short term profits Product ecolabels and certification programs would encourage companies to develop green products and services and help consumers identify them Timber coffee and certain fish all carry sustainable ecolabel in today s marketplace Fullcost pricing will require the phasing out of subsidies to environmentally harmful producers In the US reducing these subsides is complex because they go to companies that are extracting mineral and oil and cutting timber on public land all with strong political interests Other developing countries have started to reduce these subsidies and see it will take decades to fully implement these changes Another way to discourage pollution and resource waste is to use green taxes ecotaxes levied on a perunit basis Taxes today discourage jobs income and innovation but a tax shift to lowertaxes on labor income and wealth and raising taxes on pollution and resource waste would encourage sustainable activities Green taxes would have to be phased in to give companies time to plan for future changes Also the poor and middle class would need safeguards of reduced income taxes because of the regressive nature of new taxes on food and fuel Government regulations the enacting and enforcing laws set pollution standards control the release of toxic chemicals and protect resources from unsustainable use Most US laws are enforced with a command and control approach Critics say this approach concentrates on cleanup and not prevention increases costs and discourages innovation Many ecological economists favor incentivebased regulations to encourage innovation in pollution reduction and development of green products Companies are recognizing their shareholders and consumers preference for a good environmental record and green products The cap and trade approach is incentivebased Le a company is given a certain number of tradable pollution permits and may use them sell them to other companies or save them for the future These have been used in the US to reduce sulfur dioxide emissions It has been proposed that become a more sustainable society we need to change from a materialflow economy to a serviceflow economy which would reduce resource use and waste Instead of buying most goods outright customers would ecolease or rent services that such goods provide An example is Xerox since 1992 it has leased its copy machines as part of a document service When a contract expires Xerox takes the machine back for reuse or remanufacture Its goal is to send no material to landfills or incinerators Carrier is investigating the idea of not selling air conditioning and heating units but selling an agreed on indoor temperature to consumers How can Reducing Poverty Help Us Deal with Environmental Problems Poverty is the inability to meet basic 39 needs About half the world s people struggle to live on a daily income of less than Neoclassical economists believe in the trickle down effect where a growing economy will help the poor by creating more jobs and providing more tax revenues which can be used to help the under privileged Since 1960 most global economy growth measured as income has only flooded up to the rich and the gap between the rich and poor has grown wider In 2006 the world s richest 3 people had a combined wealth Greater than the world s 48 poorest countries Reducing poverty can help reduce population growth resource use and environmental degradation How Can We Make the Transition to More Environmentally Sustainable Economies As the world s population grows more people will continue to use and waste energy and resources in highthroughput economies and resource consumption will exceed the environment s capacity A temporary solution is to convert to matter recycling and reuse economies which mimic nature by recycling and reusing matter outputs instead of dumping them into the environment This approach will buy some time but it will not allow ever more people to use ever more resources The required high quality energy input makes this an unsustainable approach Recently global economic production has increased at the expense of local jobs and economies As oil prices increase the price of shipping food bottled water and manufactured goods will become so high that consumers cannot afford them This could lead to a shift back to more localized production and use of renewable energy sources such as wind solar hydropower and geothermal energy An advantage of this approach I like to think of it as the antiWalMart approach would be that local economics would have more stable jobs and profits circulating within a community although prices might be a little higher In making the shift to ecoeconomics some industries and businesses will disappear and new ones will appear the normal process in a dynamic capitalist economy Many companies can see the profits and new jobs associated with environmental sustainability Figure 2315 lists green careers expected to flourish during this century Governments and industries will have to increase spending on research and development in the environmental energyefficiency and renewableenergy areas Educational institutions will have key roles in presenting basic environmental educations and developing business schools that see people the environment and profit as parts of a sustainable economy Study Guide Chapter 11 Sustaining Aquatic Biodiversity Core Case Study A Biological Roller Coaster Ride in Lake Victoria Lake Victoria is a large shallow lake in East Africa in ecological trouble In 1980 it contained 500 species of endemic found no where else cichlids but today only 200 species survive The factors causing this loss of biodiversity include 1 introduction of Nile perch a large predator and 2 large algae blooms from agricultural and urban runoff Poverty has increased in the local population due to mechanized fishing for Nile perch which has put smallscale fishermen out of business and has caused local forests to be depleted of firewood which is used to smoke the perch Now the Nile perch is declining as its food supply diminishes Anthropogenic changes that occur without a clear understanding ofthe dynamics of large aquatic ecosystems threaten another component of the world s the biodiversity needed to sustain earth s ecosystems What are the major threats to aquatic biodiversity Only 5 of the earth s ocean has been explored and we know little about its biodiversity Scientist have observed that 1 coral reefs estuaries and the deepocean floor have the greatest marine diversity 2 biodiversity is higher near the coasts and 3 because of greater habitat and food variety the ocean floor has more biodiversity than the ocean surface Habitat loss and degradation are the greatest threats to marine and freshwater ecosystems Ocean fishes spawn in coral reefs mangrove forests coastal wetlands and rivers Unfortunately these are the areas with the greatest human activity and coastal habitats are disappearing 210 times quicker than tropical forests Dredging operations and fishing boats that use trawls are degrading the ocean bottom In the United Nations an agreement to stop bottom trawling in the South Pacific has been reached but enforcement will be difficult In freshwater aquatic zones dams and excessive water withdrawal from lakes and rivers disrupts flow and habitats Today 51 of freshwater fish species are quot 39 with The deliberate or accidental introduction of harmful invasive species displaces many native species and disrupts ecosystem services The Nature Conservancy has reported that 84 of the world s coastal waters are being colonized by invasive species and bioinvaders are blamed for 23 of the fish extinctions in the US from 19002000 Two major sources of these invaders are ship ballast water and consumers such as aquarium hobbyists that dump tanks into nearby streams and lakes a particularly bad problem in Florida We may be able to use biological controls to fight some invasive species seems but these programs could just introduce another pest By 2020 80 of the world population will live in gigantic cities along marine coastlines and this population growth will increase the pollution levels and aquatic habitat destruction In 2008 scientists found only 4 of the ocean was not affected by pollution Eutrophication resulting from inputs of nitrogen and phosphorus causes fish kills algal blooms and degradation of ecological services Toxic pollutants poison aquatic life and discarded plastic items entangle and kill millions of fish birds and mammals yearly Climate change global warming has caused the oceans to rise 48 inches in the last 100 years and some models estimate that by 2100 it will have risen by 52 feet We will lose coral reefs and low lying islands and much of Louisiana s coastline will be flooded including parts of New Orleans Historically overfishing tended to occur along coastal areas but today given the fishing capacity of industrialized fishing fleets all ocean areas can be exploited and target fish species can be 80 depleted in 1015 years In many but not all areas human demand for seafood is outgrowing the sustainable yield of the oceans Commercial extinction occurs when a species is no longer profitable to harvest Historically this was a temporary depletion of fish and by closing the fishery stocks were often able to recover In 1992 Canada s cod fishery was closed putting 20000 fishermen and processors out of work and severely damaging the economy The cod population has not recovered which created a domino effectquot Fishermen first turned to sharks but when these large predators became depleted ray and skate populations exploded which has caused a significant decline in bay scallops Mechanization of fishing fleets has changed the dynamics of fishermen and fishing has had some unintended consequences Principle of Ecosystem relationships The most endangered of the large fishes is the bluefin tuna It is the most desirable fish for sushi and sashimi and with a typical weight of 340 kilograms 750 pounds can sell for as much as 880 per kilogram 400 per pound Fishing boats usually target one commercial species but the nets and lines catch many nontarget species called bycatch Onethird of the world s annual fish catch is thrown overboard dead or dying and many seabirds and marine mammals such as seals and dolphins become part of the bycatch when entangled in fishing nets More than any other species group marine and freshwater fishes are threatened with extinction by human activities it has been estimated that 34 of marine fishes and 71 of freshwater fishes face extinction within the next fifty years Case Study lndustrial Fish Harvesting Methods lndustrial fishing fleets use GPS sonar huge nets fishing lines spotter planes and refrigerated factory ships to process and freeze catches These ships meet the demand for seafood but are vacuuming up the seas biodiversity Methods the fleets use include 1 Trawling for species on or near the ocean floor uses funnelshaped nets weighted down with chains and metal plates These nets can destroy bottom habitats somewhat like clear cutting the ocean floor 2 Purseseining for surface dwelling species spotter planes locate a school of fish and the fishing vessel encloses it in the purse seine Historically these nets caught and killed large numbers of dolphins swimming with the fish schools However international furor over dolphin mortality has changed gears and fishing methods substantially reducing mortality rates 3 Longlining use baited hooks attached along a weighted bottom species or floating surface species line Lines up to 130 kilometers 80 miles are hung with thousands of baited hooks and deployed Unfortunately longlines are not very selective and threatened fishes billfishes like marlin sea turtles dolphins and sea birds are often killed 4 Driftnet fishing fish are caught in huge nets that hang 15800 meters 50 to 2400 feet below the surface and may be up to 64 kilometers 40 miles long This method leads to overfishing and large quantities of bycatch The UN has suggested a ban on the use of drift nets longer than 25 kilometers 16 miles but compliance is voluntary How Can We Protect and Sustain Marine Biodiversity Protecting marine biodiversity is difficult because 1 it s difficult to monitor impacts of anthropogenic behavior 2 damage to the ocean is not visible to most people 3 people believe the ocean can absorb all our waste and produce all the seafood we need and 4 most of the world s ocean area lies outside the jurisdiction of any one country A country s offshore fishing zone extends to 370 kilometers 200 miles from its shores and these exclusive economic zones are the areas where each country may or may not have quota agreements with foreign governments allowing them to fish Protection of marine fisheries includes 1 National and international laws and treaties 2 Economic incentives such as ecotourism 3 Establishment of marine protected areas MPAs where some or all human activities are banned to help marine biodiversity There are 4000 MPAs worldwide and 200 in US waters Unfortunately many MPAs offer only partial protection because they allow certain extraction activities California has a highly developed system with banned and strictly limited fishing in its extensive network of coastal MPAs 4 An ecosystem approach with global fullyprotected marine reserves Remember that saving habitat helps all species not just a selected few The approach is to develop large reserves on the high seas near highly productive upwellings and smaller reserves along coastal zones to sustain commercial fishing areas The design would be the same as terrestrial reserve a core area with no human activity and nondestructive boating and shipping and sustained fishing in outer areas Allowing reserves to be temporary and movable would protect migrating species and give governments more control of fishing fleet activity The world s second largest reserve an area the size of Montana is NW of Hawaii and supports 7000 marine species 5 Community based integrated coastal management Getting communities involved in management can reduce overfishing and pollution giving marine habitats time to adapt to global warming Coral reefs may be able to adapt to warming temperature but the added stress of acidification of ocean water which breaks down the calcium carbonate skeletons is too great Coastal communities must monitor and regulate all human activities to ensure their longterm economic benefits from the ocean How Should We Manage and Sustain Marine Fisheries 1 Make the best possible estimates of fish population size and effects of fishing Traditionally a maximum sustained yield MSY model was used to project the maximum number of fish that could be harvested without causing a population drop This model has failed to protect many marine organisms because it is hard to estimate population size growth rate and harvest effects for one species without considering effects on other marine species The optimum sustained yield OSY model attempts to take into account interactions among species and newer approaches add competition predatorprey interactions and large marine system habitat concerns to the models 2 Strictly regulate fish harvest Some fishermen such as Norway s Lofoten cod fishery have had selfregulation for a hundred years which has helped ensure a future fishing economy The modern international fish fleets make community enforcement difficult and government action is often required Governments set quotas gear limits and seasons for species fish species 3 Reduce government subsidies to fishermen In 2006 a third of the revenue earned by commercial fishing 34 billion was government subsidies to keep their business operating Fishermen used 20 billion to buy ships fuel and equipment expanding the fishing industry and their ability to overfish stocks that were already having problems 4 Use the marketplace to control overfishing Individual transfer rights lTRs are used by governments to control access to certain fisheries The government issues a vessel owner a percentage of the total allowable catch for a given year The owner may catch the fish or sell the ITR to another fisherman as private property The US uses lTRs to regulate Alaska s halibut fishery and the number of fishermen has declined allowing for a longer season safer working conditions and more profit 5 Proper labeling and education of consumers to make sustainable choices Labels should include how and where the fish was caught and a certification of being harvested sustainably WalMart the world s largest food retailer plans to sell only certified sustainable wildcaught fresh and frozen fish in 35 years How Should We Protect and Sustain Wetlands The US has lost more than half its wetlands since 1900 People have drained filled in and covered over swamps and marshes to grow cops expand cities and build roads Wetlands have been destroyed to extract oil gas minerals and to eliminate breeding grounds for disease carrying insects Wetlands serve as natural filters wetlands around Lake Victoria Africa have historically filtered human and animal waste keeping the lake water clean enough for human consumption Today extensive drainage programs have resulted in polluted lake water causing fish kills and contaminating drinking water supplies In the future many of the world s coastal wetlands will be underwater due to rising sea level Loss of these wetlands will lead to losses of large commercial and recreational fisheries and millions of migratory ducks and birds Efforts to restore degraded wetlands and protect existing ones are needed Local zoning laws can stop the urban development of wetland areas and Federal law requires a permit to fill in a wetland over 12 hectares 3 acres The US federal policy goal is zero net loss of wetlands Mitigation banking allows for the destruction of wetlands if the same type wetland is created or restored in another location Creating functioning wetlands is difficult and the US wetland banking system requires 23 hectares of created wetland for each one destroyed Private investment bankers often buy wetland areas to restore or upgrade earning wetland bank credits they can sell to developers Ecologists argue that replacement wetlands should be created and evaluated before natural wetlands are destroyed Case Study Can We Restore the Florida Everglades The Florida Everglades was originally a 100 kilometer wide 60 mile wide knee deep sheet of water that flowed south from Lake Okeechobee to Florida Bay called the River of Grassquot Starting in 1948 a massive water control project was begun to drain the Everglades and provide Florida s growing population with water flood protection and agricultural land The wandering Kissimmee River was transformed into a straight 84 kilometer 56 mile canal draining the northern Everglades resulting in a 90 loss of the birds and mammals from Everglades National Park Large volumes of freshwater were allowed to flow into Florida Bay and with high nutrient agricultural runoff which resulted in large algae blooms that threatened coral reefs diving and fishing The huge plumbing project is destroying a major source of tourism income and cutting off the supply of water it was intended to create In 1990 Florida and the federal government agreed to the world s largest ecological restoration project the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan CERP lts goals 1 restore the Kissimmee River 2 remove 400 kilometers 240 miles of canals and levees 3 buy 240 sq kilometers 93 sq miles of farmland and flood it 4 create 18 reservoirs and underground water storage areas and 5 build canals and a pumping system to return 80 of waterflowing out to sea to the Everglades Agriculture interests sugarcane farmers have fought certain reductions in court and federal funding has fallen short of the 105 billion needed Again prevention is the cheapest method and unintended consequences always occur when intervening in nature How Can We Protect and Sustain Freshwater Lakes Rivers and Fisheries Forty percent of the world s rivers have been dammed or engineered and combined with the loss of wetlands has resulted in a situation where aquatic species are now crowded into half their original habitat areas Pollution invasive species climate change and overfishing worsen the threat to freshwater ecosystems The Columbia River has 119 dams and 19 are major generators of hydroelectric power The river supplies water to major urban areas and for irrigating crop land and was once home to anadromous wild salmon stocks The dam system does not allow fish access to spawning areas and has eliminated 94 of the Pacific salmon population on the river with 9 salmon groups called evolutionarily significant units listed as threatened or endangered Since 1980 the US government has spent 3 billion to save the salmon with little effect Land and water are always 39 and quot a protects all freshwater systems Laws economic incentives and restoration efforts all play a role but we must realize the effect each of us has on aquatic ecosystems and reduce these impacts Congress passed the National Wild and Scenic Rivers Act to protect the remaining 2 of rivers that are inaccessible except by trails and are still free of dams Sustainable management of freshwater fisheries commercial and sport fishes includes 1 no overfishing 2 reduction or elimination of invasive species 3 regulations on the length of fishing seasons 4 regulations on the size and number of fishes caught and 5 management of habitat E O Wilson has proposed these priorities for sustaining biodiversity and ecosystem services 1 Complete the mapping of terrestrial and aquatic biodiversity 2 Keep remaining oldgrowth forests intact 3 Protect and restore lakes and river systems the most threatened of our ecosystems 4 Identify biodiversity hotspots for special restoration attention 5 Start ecological restoration in damaged areas 6 Make conservation financially rewarding for people so they will protect and sustain resources the harmful effects of human activities can be reversed and ecosystems can be restored lndividual citizens have the power of the vote and their wallets to enact change and elected officials must be more aware of citizen groups and must not be afraid to use tax money for ecological projects Money is allpowerful in market economies and people must realize the power they have to change business and industry by not purchasing products or services that destroy or degrade biodiversity Study Guide Chapter 25 Environmental Worldviews Ethics and Sustainability There are several different environmental worldviews that significantly affect how or if we can conserve the natural resources of the planet These worldviews depend on people s environmental ethics what they believe to be right and wrong with regard to how our actions affect the world we live in As you can see in Figure 252 we can group environmental worldviews into 3 broad categories The planetary management worldview is probably a dominant worldview among industrial companies in developed countries ie humans should use nature to meet our needs we can fix all problems and economies much continue to grow The stewardship worldview is another humancentered viewpoint that emphasizes good management of the world s resources environmentallyfriendly economic development and protecting the planet s life support systems for humans and other living organisms The environmental wisdom worldview is similar except that it is not really humancentered but sees humans as part of nature not a separate manager of nature It emphasizes learning how nature works and using these principles as we develop economies based on sustainable use of limited resources either limited in amount coal or limited in quality if not managed properly water Human responses to natural resource problems are diverse most people believe it is wrong to cause the premature extinction of a species some because it is a geneticallyunique organism shaped by evolution that deserves to exist intrinsic value and some because it is or might be of economic value now or in the future instrumental value Some people would also assign an ecological value to an organism recognizing its role in ecosystem function what the book calls an earthcentered environmental worldview and how most organisms contribute to the life support systems on our planet Note the eight premises that comprise the deep ecology worldview developed by Arne Ness in 1972 All life has value independent of its usefulness to humans All life is interdependent and contributes to the success of human and nonhuman life Humans have no right to negatively affect these natural connections except for vital needs Human interference with ecosystem function is excessive and is increasing A decrease in human population size would decrease our interference with lifesupport functions We therefore need basic changes in technology and economics We must refocus on the quality of life and environmental health rather than accumulating wealth 8 People accepting the previous 7 premises have a moral obligation to work for change mewwe Note also Figure 254 where do you fit on the ethical ladder and what do you see as the role of humans on the planet as well as the goal of human societal development Education is an important piece of this problem and as I said in class I think some of this can be traced to the historical trend of urbanization that is still going on today as people have moved away from nature they have stopped understanding or caring how nature works We need to understand the planet s natural capital the world s biota and their ecological function We then need to understand how we are threatening this capital in small ways fragmentation of a 1000acre forest as well as huge global warming ways which can only degrade the ability of the planet to support us or at least provide the quality of life most people want and provide habitats for every other living organism on the planet A critical piece of this understanding is the concept of tipping points remember the threshold effect we talked about in class examples include increasing global C02 concentrations some climatologists already believe we have exceeded a tipping point and even if we decrease emissions of greenhouse gasses the planet will continue to warm for centuries because of positive feedbacks or decreasing the abundance of an organism to its critical population size a tipping point to extinction The books points out that we need to promote environmental literacy focusing on 1 A respect for all life 2 An understanding of how nature works 3 An understanding of connections among all things in the biosphere Principle of Ecosystem Relationships 4 An understanding of how economic development relates to nature and how we can have sustainable economic growth Learn how to use environmental information to make wise and informed decisions Understand our environmental worldview and let it evolve throughout our lives Learn how to evaluate good and bad environmental consequences of our actions and how to avoid the latter with better choices 8 Develop a desire to make the planet betterfor all living organisms and make changes that will allow that to happen V0301 Interesting questions on p 666 how would you answer them Would your answers be different than they were before you took this class 1 Where do the thins I consume come from 2 What do I know about the place where I live 3 How am I connected to the earth and other living things 4 What is my purpose and responsibility as a human being I think that maybe how people currently respond or will respond to the conservation issues we have covered in class will be strongly influenced by the sentiments contained in the section on pp 666 and 667 entitled We Can Learn from the Earth I think Stephen J Gould said it best We will not fight to save what we do not lovequot If we continue on the path of divorcing humans from nature seeking technological fixes to all problems and pursuing material wealth at all costs to continue economic growth we will lose much of the natural world that many people but certainly not all people cherish Living more sustainably means respecting nature and perhaps redefining what each person wants out of life Some guidelines are listed in Figure 257 how do you think we are doing Can we get away from needing everything we can afford to by as a measure of happiness This is a basic tenant of most religions see p 668 but the modern world seems hopelessly focused on material wealth as a measure of success Good question on p 668 How Much is Enough Ever considered this It goes back to what we talked about early in class we need to decide where we want to go before we can figure out how to get there The basis of this class is to get students to consider the natural world the planet s life support systems the value of biodiversity and the interconnectedness of the world s ecosystems as they decide where they want to be and what is important The greatest impacts we could have on becoming more sustainable would be to Improve agriculture conserve soil reduce inorganic fertilizer use reduce herbicide and pesticide use and move to agroforestry systems and biological control of pests Improve transportation develop mass transit systems worldwide improve the efficiency of cars and move to nonfossil fuel vehicles Improve home energy efficiency insulate install efficient windows and lighting fixtures Reduce water use improve efficiency recycle water for yard use install ondemand water heaters fix leaks shower with a friend I just stuck that in there to see if you were still readin Reduce resource consumption and waste from food to clothing to energy to cars but things that last are more efficient or can be consumed completely A A00 N 01 All of these things can help reduce our ecological footprints As the book saysquotln the end it comes down to what you and I do to make the earth a better place to live for current and future generationsquot We have opportunities to cause change whether it is by voting for a more sustainable agenda or buying more sustainablyproduced items We must avoid 1 Gloomanddoom pessimism I know this class seems overly pessimistic but I hope that you realize it is not hopeless in many cases we have the ability to change we need the will to do it 2 Blind technological optimism science and technology can not fix everything we could help by reducing the severity of some of the really intractable problems that we face in the coming century water shortages pollution desertification habitat fragmentation etc by making basic changes in how we live 3 Paralysis by analysis we can never know enough but we can t wait to embark on strategies now to reduce the severity of many problems waiting for the final verdict on what we should do will often lead us past a tipping point before we take action 4 Faith in simplicity and easy answers when it comes to the environment and the life support systems inherent in the planet s ecosystems nothing is simple and nothing is unrelated to something else If there were easy fixes to the problems we have discussed we would have done them already The Earth Charter developed by a UC Council with input of more than 100000 people is a document that provides a vision of where as responsible intelligent inhabitants of the planet we should be going The preamble quote on p 670 provides a summary of this view and the four guiding principles really speak to the heart of conservation that Aldo Leopold talked about Respect the planet and its biodiversity care for life work for free just and sustainable societies and secure the planet s resources for this and future generations Do you agree The world s religions can help immensely with this by including a respect for nature and the need for developing sustainable societies in their teachings The sustainability revolution needs to address several areas in the coming decades listed on p 671 and 672 if you think about your descendents and future societies on this planet can we afford not to pursue this path Study Guide Chapter 13 Water Resources The Core Case Study concerning water supplies in the Middle East is just one example of the water problems that will be plaguing many parts of the world in the next century Note that only 158 of 263 water basins that are shared among 2 or more countries actually have watersharing agreements Arid regions are expected to grow as global warming shifts rainfall patterns over the next 150 years and it is imperative that countries negotiate fair water sharing agreements slow population growth demand reduce water waste raise prices to improve irrigation efficiency and increase grain imports to reduce irrigation demands Remember growing crops in the desert is feasible but not sustainable in the face of water shortages will we see water wars Water is such a precious commodity yet we waste and pollute so much of it Most of this is because water has forthe most part been plentiful and cheap throughout the last few millennia at least in developed countries and hence we charge very little for its use If we want people to take water conservation seriously we need to raise prices so that saving water using less water becoming more efficient water users becomes a priority particularly in arid regions As you see water is a global health issue an economic issue a women s and children s issue a global security issue and an environmental issue and water conditions are deteriorating in many many parts of the world Only 0024 of the world s water currently exists as useable freshwater although it is constantly changed purified and recycled in the hydrologic cycle which we have talked about in class It is a sustainable system unless we pollute degrade overdraw or otherwise affect the various processes that provide us with water Water is an excellent example of what we talked early on in class about relative resource scarcity The world has plenty of freshwater at least for now but in many cases it is not located where it is needed Aquifers are an abused water resource we often remove water from wells at greater rates than the aquifers can sustainably provide through natural recharge rainfall or lateral recharge nearby rivers and streams We can think of this as water mining as the rate of use is much higherthan the rate of recharge Surface water resulting from rainfall or snowmelt is the most important source of water that we use and rememberthat surface and groundwater are connected within the hydrologic cycle we can not degrade groundwater or surface water without affecting the cycle Interesting that 23 of the annual surface runoff is lost to humans from flooding leaving only 13 as reliable surface water that we can use We now withdraw 34 of the world s reliable runoff which could reach 70 by 2025 70 of water withdrawals worldwide are used for irrigation much of it unsustainable in arid regions Note the amounts of water needed for industry on the bottom of p 317 and the areas where there will be severe competition for water in the western US Figure 135 the lawsuits are coming what will the courts think is a fair distribution of water Look at figure 136 the global outlook on water is particularly disturbing by 2025 the UN estimates that 3 billion people will lack access to safe water we take this for granted in Louisiana but in other parts of the world water will become or already has the most valuable resource on the planet Severe droughts are predicted to increase as the world warms up drying soils reducing stream flows decreasing tree growth and biomass lowering net primary production reducing crop yields and increasing the rate of 39 quot39 quot We may be moving towards drought conditions that will cover 45 of the planet s land surface by 2059 where will people in these areas go for water Can you see the interconnectedness of problems that we will be having in the near future Water shortages between farmers and cities will almost always favor the cities and although importing grain can reduce the need for water where do the farmers go Unfortunately grain crops are increasingly being grown for biofuels resulting in world grain shortages which means developing countries will need to grow more grain but that takes more water which will be in short supply and all the time the world is warming they hydrologic cycle is changing etc etc Sound gloomy Sorry but it is Is privatization of water resources the answer I would say given the examples with Bechtel in Bolivia and Ecuadorthat it is not likely to be a solution in developing countries The book says that companies would make money based on the amount of water used and would hence encourage water use I think that governments could with tax breaks encourage water companies to reward efficiency and conservation but who is to say that they wouldn t simply increase prices As usual the poor are disproportionately affected by privatization as water bills would almost surely increase Mining groundwater is a huge problem in some parts of the US and the world note the advantages and disadvantages of groundwater use in Figure 13 7 Again not the interconnectedness of this problem in India groundwater levels have been falling hence farmers and cities build deeper wells and buy bigger pumps which require more electricity requiring more coalfired power plants increasing the release of greenhouse gasses and primary pollutants is this maddening or what Note the groundwater overdrafts in the US in Figure 13 9 The effects of overdrafting groundwater are more than just water shortages land subsidence can occur as sand and rock collapse without the surrounding water pressure salinization can also occur as freshwater removed from coastal aquifers is replaced with salt water this can only get worse as sea levels rise Should we build more dams As an aquatic ecologist I would say no as dam construction radically alters river systems their ecological function and their native biodiversitybut they are relatively clean ways to generate electricity they reduce flooding and they store water for controlled release to enhance municipal and agricultural water supplies On the down side dam construction inundates large areas of terrestrial habitat displacing humans and other terrestrial organisms destroy habitats for riverine biota including fish invertebrates turtles snakes etc and eventually fill in making them useless fortheir intended purpose unless they are dredged As you can see by the Case Study on p 327 the Colorado River is a good example of a river system that has all but been destroyed by dams this huge river doesn t even reach the Gulf of California anymore and the water is so polluted from continual withdrawal and drainage from agricultural lands as to be useless This is a consequence of unsustainable urban development huge cities in the desert like Las Vegas and the energy and water demands needed by so many people living in an ecosystem that was not designed to support high population densities The Three Gorges Dam in China is another example of a huge water development project with massive consequences It will obviously help with flooding and energy generation but the reservoir will flood 1350 cities displace 54 million people destroy an ecologically and archeologically important region and release huge amounts of methane into the atmosphere China s SouthNorth Water Transfer Project p 331 is another massive project being undertaken spurred by China s high population growth at a cost of 60 BILLION dollars It seems like re shaping the natural hydrologic cycle to fit human demands is destined for failure ecologically and economically and it all boils down to too manv people living in the wrong places The California Water Project is an incredible engineering feat that supplies water from northern to southern California Once again we see that water is so cheap that irrigation systems in the southern part of the state are inefficient wasting huge amounts of water from the Sacramento River in the north to the detriment of this riverestuary system They can not turn to groundwater which is already being overdrawn and unless someone comes up with a cheap desalinization technology some parts of southern California will be uninhabitable this century This is an interesting scenario given the current Arnold Schwarzenegger commercials inviting you to come to Californiaquot The extent of the Aural Sea Figure 13 18 is an incredible if not sad example of water resource use misuse Look at how much the lake shrunk between 1976 and 2006 due to water diversions for irrigation seven times the salinity a 72foot drop in water level a loss of 89 of the lake by volume wetlands loss biodiversity crashes dustrelated glacial melting in the Himalayas loss of local climate amelioration groundwater contamination again an unsustainable ecological disaster by any measure even with the mitigation efforts currently underway dams and improved irrigation efficiency What about desalinization We can use distillation evaporate the water leave the salt and reverse osmosis filter the water through a salttrapping membrane under pressure to create freshwater but it is very expensive and energy intensive particularly generating the heat needed for distillation In addition keeping the machinery clean requires large quantities of toxic chemicals bleach and there is no ecologically sage way to dispose of the byproduct high salinity brine Desalinization technology is improving but it is still not a feasible solution to freshwater shortages in most parts of the world What can we do to become more sustainable in our water use Reducing waste Figures 1321 and 1322 underpricing is a problem as there is no financial incentive to be efficient In addition governments need to offer incentives to use water more efficiently particularly for irrigation like the tax rebates for lowemission high mileage cars We need to eliminate gravityflow flood irrigation and move to piped diversions with centerpivot or dripirrigation systems Figure 1320 more expensive yes but way more efficient and with irrigation using 70 of the 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 a efficiency would leaving tremendous amounts of water for other uses Use less water use secondarytreated sewage as a fertilizer source and put it back on land as long as toxic industrial chemicals can be eliminated and use composting toilets to reduce water needs A N 3 Use water more sustainably Figure 1323 do not mine aquifers maintain water quality protect the various components of the hydrologic cycle forests wetlands rivers coastal marine areas share water equitably among regions control population growth and not in the book where population growth occurs ie we need less people living in the desert whether in the US or Africa I like the last section on flooding We have colonized the floodplain of most large rivers because of the benefits they provide but in doing so we modify the rivers so that they no longer provide those benefits and we make sure that if flooding does occur it will be a billiondollar disaster Removing vegetation draining and building on wetlands and building levees to contain river flow which sooner or later will be overtopped have all contributed to flooding problems we can use floodplains but we shouldn t live there And note that the effect flooding is often removed from the cause deforestation overgrazing and vegetation loss etc eg flooding in Bangladesh which has become a routine disaster caused by problems in the Himalayas far away I believe reducing flood risks as well as providing more habitat improving biodiversity increasing groundwater recharge and improving water quality can be achieved if we learn from nature revegetate create or enhance wetlands let rivers work they way they used to as much as we can We can also use the precautionary approach and think carefully about were we choose to livequot Sounds simple but it is not especially for the poor throughout the world but how often are natural disastersquot of our own making


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

50 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Allison Fischer University of Alabama

"I signed up to be an Elite Notetaker with 2 of my sorority sisters this semester. We just posted our notes weekly and were each making over $600 per month. I LOVE StudySoup!"

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.