FUND OF COMMUNICATN
FUND OF COMMUNICATN CMST 1061
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Ms. Jerry Mante
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Ms. Jerry Mante
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Frankie Schamberger Sr.
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verified elite notetaker
Popular in Communication Studies
This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ms. Jerry Mante on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to CMST 1061 at Louisiana State University taught by J. Butcher in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see /class/222694/cmst-1061-louisiana-state-university in Communication Studies at Louisiana State University.
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Date Created: 10/13/15
CMST 1061 Test 1 Study Guide What is Communication 0 Communication the imparting conveying or exchanging of information via spoken words sounds writing or visual symbols 0 Features of Communication 0 Communication is a process 0 Communication consists of creating and responding to messages 0 Communication involves adapting to people and the environment 0 Visible Aspects of Communication 0 People 0 Symbols 0 Technology 0 Invisible Aspects of Communication 0 Meaning resides in individuals assign meaning 0 Subjectivity meaning varies person to person 0 Learning being taught how to interpret communication 0 Communication Modes 0 Visual Messages sight Auditory Messages sound Tactile Messages touch Olfactory Messages smell Gustatory Messages taste The I C 39 quot Process 0 Interactive each person taking part in the communication process listens and responds to others 1 Message 0 The ideas people wish to share 0 May be expressed verbally spoken words written nonverbally gestures facial expressions posture clothing or visually photos artwork video 2 Source 0 The creator of the message 0 Sometimes referred to as the sender agent 3 Encoding o The act of choosing and organizing elements of the message for transmission to the receivers 0 Includes word choice choice of visuals nonverbal even typewritten KOOOO symbols 4 Channel 0 The medium that carries the message once it has been encoding by the source 0 Persontoperson telephone call email letter memo web page 5 Receiver o All persons who pick up the message whether they are the intended targets or not Sidestream listening where some receivers get the message inadvertently a memo left on a copy machine an email sent to the wrong person overhearing a message 0 Sometimes referred to as the audience 6 Decoding o The process that receivers go through to make sense of the messagei what does it mean 0 Can be in uenced by many factors including listening abilities cultural background attitude towards the source or channel 7 Feedback 0 Any response the receiver makes to the message 0 Can be verbal or nonverbal reply to an email returning a phone call written memo nodding smiling applause boos laughter O 8 Noise 0 Anything that interferes with communication distractions gt External coming through the sense channels people taking too loudly visual distractions overpowering cologne too hot or cold gt Psychological emotional distractions stress worry nervousness gt Physiological fatigue illness hunger gt Organizational disorganized message can t follow gt Semantic language or cultural barrier 9 Context 0 The situation or setting in which communication occurs 0 Can in uence the quality quantity and effectiveness of communication gt Physical Context the actual physical place office classroom restaurant Psychological Context looks at moods and attitudes of people Chronological Context time date of the interaction after work first thing in the morning during lunch birthday Cultural Context ethnic national or organizational backgrounds of the people communicating Native Americans Asians New Englanders Southerners managers staff gt Social Context histories and relationships among communicators statusidepends on who you re talking to age differences or similarities friendships rivals romantic partners family members employeeemployer 10 Shared Meaning 0 The mutual understanding that results when the sender and all intended receivers interpret the message in the same way 0 It is the desired outcome however varying degrees or shared meaning are possibleithere are many obstacles to achieving shared meaning ll l We are going to leave early in the morning isender meant 6 AM receiver thought sender meant 10 AM Three Areas of C 39 quot Studies 0 Communication Theory interested in communication within relationships or how individuals communicate with each other 0 Types of Relationships gt Relationships of circumstance formed because our lives overlap with others in some way classmates coworkers teacherstudent salesclerkcustomer gt Relationships of choice formed because we seek out and intentionally develop the relationship friends romantic partners 0 Elements of the Message gt Content Dimensional what you are trying to communicate to the other person gt Relational Dimensional how you feel about the other person with whom you are communicating 0 Dimensions of Relationships gt Trust is the degree to which we feel safe in disclosing personal information to the other person We might feel safe disclosing personal information to our best friend romantic partner or doctor but not so safe revealing that information to a casual acquaintance or a stranger Intimacy refers to the degree to which we can be ourselves in front of the other person and still feel like we will be accepted by the other personino matter what gt Power refers to the ability we have to get the other person to do what we want them to do If you are a parent you may hold the power in the parentchild relationship but your boss may hold the power over you at work 0 5 General Categories of Communication Theory these categories are not mutually exclusiveisome overlap can and does occur gt Interpersonal communication examines the communication activity between two individuals gt Intrapersonal communication is self talk your thoughts how we talk to ourselves on a day to day basis gt Small group communication is interested in how individuals communicate in groups of 315 people such as committees work teams study groups support groups and families Organizational communication is primarily interested in how employees communicate within a work setting concentrating on such aspects as morale productivity and leadership gt Health communication examines communication within the healthcare system between doctors and patients nursing staff and health issues regarding elderly individuals 0 Performance the social cultural and aesthetic artistic dimensions of the communication process l l O O O O 0 Generally accepted de nition of performance the art of communicating a message to an audience via aesthetic or artistic texts Richard Bauman de nes performance an aesthetically marked and heightened mode of communication framed in a special way and put on display for an audience We are always performing even though we may not consciously recognize that behavior as performance we perform the role of employee asking the boss for a raise There are three key elements of performance gt Performer the human being gt Text the written oral nonverbal or visual message gt Context the time and place of the communication act as well as the audience composition There are different categories or genres of performance gt Everyday Life Performance examines how we engage in role taking and roleplaying it examines how we alter our physical behaviors and verbal actions to take on or play certain roles I For example to play the role of waitress and individual would alter appearance by wearing a uniform behaviors taking orders bringing food and drink to customers and language or manner of speaking using phrases such as would you like to hear our specials of the evening gt Cultural Performance looks at performances within a community weddings football games Mardi Gras parades all cultural performances have certain characteristics in common I Scheduled set up in advance I Temporally bounded have a definite beginning and ending I Spatially bounded occur within a particular space such as a church stadium or festival ground I Programmed contain a structured program of activity I Publically coordinated people come together to collectively participate I Heightened aesthetically elaborate I Re exive re ect our social values gt Ethnographic Performance an individual observes andor interviews a particular group of people prisoners hurricane survivors the individual then scripts those observations or interviews and performs them for an audience gt Personal Narrative how we tell stories about ourselves background family interests allows us to form a common bond with the audience sharing experience I Reveal personal valves I Audience bond I Stories are true I Stories took place in the past I You become a character in your story I Characterize all people in your story gt Avantgarde performance postmodern performance or performance art uses performance as an instrument of social change it is a rebellious type of performance that seeks to challenge the established social cultural or political order through shock provocation or disturbance 0 Kenneth Burke s Pentad gt Act What happens gt Agent Who is involved performing gt Agency How is this being performed gt Scene the When and Where gt Purpose the Why Rhetoric intentional sourcecreated message with a specific goals toward an audienceiaction or outcome that the rhetoric person is looking for o Explores how messages are created and used to in uence and persuade people gt Rhetorical act a live event such as a speech gt Rhetorical artifact a printed ad newspaper article or photograph o 3 Primary Elements of Rhetoric gt Human Beings messages are created by people gt Symbols used as medium for the message those symbols could be language type symbols nonverbal images used to create particular meaning gt Persuade in uence the audience in someway I Initiating action buy a particular product I Maintaining action continue to donate money to a particular cause I Formulating a belief global warming is occurring I Alter perceptions change the way the audience thinks or feels about somethingiantiwar slogans I Virtual experience sensory image and sensory language to make the audience identify with what the rhetoric is talking about I Aid in understanding to help explain or clarify somethingiexplain why the government was so slow in responding after Hurricane Katrina 0 Aristotle s workiTwo Types of Truths gt Scientific Truths those that can be scientifically proven gt Social Truths those that are created by groups ofpeople in society and are dependent upon cultural values 0 Aristotle s workiTwo Types of Proof Evidence gt Inartistic physical evidence that is brought into the courtroom gt Artistic nonphysical evidence but usually speaker I Ethos credibility of the speaker sender or source of the message I Logos reasoning that is presented I Pathos emotional appeals presented 0 Rhetorical Criticism gt Description describe what it looks like what it is who developed it what is seen heard said overall purpose intended audience tone that is used structure of the message strategies that is used gt Interpretation what does this message mean gt Evaluation was it effective Did it accomplish its message If message failed why did if fail If it worked why did it work Agents in Communication Theogv 0 Agent who is performing communicating persuading O OO O O O O O O 0 Self Concept composed of everything you think and feel about yourself gt Attitudes your likes and dislikes positive and negative reactions Values enduring concepts of what is rightwrong moralimmoral Beliefs what you think is true and false Real Self the person that we feel we really are Ideal Self the person we would like to or should be Public Self our expected self how we know we behave in front of others gt Private Self the side we keep hidden from others SelfEsteem evaluates you describes your feelings of selfworth Personal Construct I am can relate to anything religion dislikes likes roles race nationality job hobbies interests Social Comparison Theory we compare ourselves to other people in order to see how we measure up Classical Theory of the Self gt Physical Self body mental state health looks descriptive type about body Material Self the possessions you have that creates who you are as an individual Social Self how we interact with others roles jobs groups 39 A with 39 39 39r r quot traits Spiritual Self the thoughts and feelings that you have religious beliefs moral standards Looking Glass Self how we see ourselves looking through the eyes of other people reinforced by people over timeire ected appraisals SelfAcceptance being satisfied with who you are both the negative and positive Social Identity when we conform to the standards of society one of the group Personal Identity we make our own rules regardless of what society says our own person SelfMonitoring how we analysis and adjust our behavior depending on the situation gt gt gt gt gt gt gt gt gt High SelfMonitors behave in the correct way according to the situation gt Low SelfMonitors behave in a way that does not take into account the situation being you no matter what 0 SelfAwareness our ability to recognize our own moods motivations emotions and how they affect other people 0 SelfRegulation our ability to regulate or control our moods motivations and emotions R01 S o Roles behavior guidelines set of expected behaviors that are associated with particular situations 0 We play multiple roles gt Role Repertoire the number of roles that one successfully plays more roles more exible communication gt Role Con ict when two roles con ict with each other 0 Affect our identity and sense of self gt Role Rigidity when one becomes so closely identified with a role that they don t know how to act outside of that role 0 Roles are learned through instruction and experience 0 Roles are general work out the details for ourselves 0 Position social label tells people who we are compared to others 0 Occupational Position based on jobs we hold doctor teacher 0 Family Position based on placement in the family mother aunt son 0 Social Position based on many factors such as age sex prestige social group m 0 Three Types of Ethos 0 Initial Ethos prior reputation gt Sponsorship effect source that is representing you makes you more or less creditable o Derived Ethos content and delivery that creates an etho for a person gt Aristotle s Ethos I Knowledge know the issue I Virtue trustworthy I Goodwill audience wellbeing gt Identification identify with the audience gt Distinction more skillful than average person gt Presentation delivery temperament humor organization gt Homophily share demographics backgrounds or attitudes with the audience 0 Terminal Ethos ethos at the competition of a presentation 0 Damaging Ethos o Lying o Plagiarizing 0 Actions or behaviors that contradict your words Persona the character you play for a certain ac not the actual speaker but the image they want to portray Interest intended goals explicit hidden agenda hidden Constraints thing that get in the way of the speaker reaching their goals 0 Internal audience in not interested 0 External physical constraints 0 Rule communicative rule imposed that constrains them from accomplishing their goals
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