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by: Gaetano Price


Gaetano Price
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Christopher Gearhart

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Christopher Gearhart
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Gaetano Price on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to CMST 2060 at Louisiana State University taught by Christopher Gearhart in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see /class/222696/cmst-2060-louisiana-state-university in Communication Studies at Louisiana State University.

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Date Created: 10/13/15
CMST 2060 Midterm 19 3957 Chapter 1 amp Chapter 2 Genres of public speaking o Rhetorical speech genre represents a coherent and recognized arrangement of elements in a composition or discourse that is appropriate to certain occasions and which creates audience expectations that constrain a speech s content style and delivery 0 Speech genres represent the function relationship between a speech and an audience 0 Describe how an audience interprets the effects and intentions of a speech Introductory Speech an act of person disclosure given for the purposes of establishing a productive and positive future relationship with an audience 0 Begin with values and interests of the audience 0 Values are more important than any other characteristic because they represent the deepest commitments of an audience that are also the broadest in scope 0 Next choose the personal theme 0 Some quality skill or experience that you think defines important aspect of your identity Informative Speech kind of teaching 0 An act of instruction that provides an audience with beliefs that support and are continuous with their already existing interests 0 Interests things which people enjoy doing want to know desire or attain Is persuasive to the extent that it advocates a noncontroversial but very particular way of understanding something in order to achieve an outcome already desired by an audience Organization 0 Subject matter what is your speech going to be about I Objects any concrete thing person place animal or physical object I Processes some sequence of change that happens across time has a beginning middle and en Events a happening something that occurs or has occurred at a particular place and time Concepts a symbolic abstraction that is used to explain something in the world of experience 0 Structuring Points How will your main points be ordered I Chronological involve a process in time I Geographical deals with differences across space I Causeeffect speeches concerned with informing an audience about factual knowledge needed to address some problem Procon the counterpart of the causeeffect order in that it deals with the analysis of solutions instead of problems Topical means a series of related qualities or characteristics of your subject materr 0 Types of Speeches What method will you deliver your information I Demonstration is akin to the science class where a process is explained by showing how it works in practice I Explanation the explain means to translate something complicated or obscure into language and ideas that can be understood by an audience I Descriptions used when the issue is not lack of comprehension but lack of awareness 0 Used for speeches about objects and events that are not difficult to understand but simply require time and attention to detail I Narrative can be used to make facts and events meaningful to an audience by framing them within a larger story 0 Guidelines I Don t overestimate Audience Knowledge I Relate subject to audience I Avoid technical language I Avoid abstractions I Personalize ideas Persuasive Speech an act of transformation in which a speaker challenges the existing beliefs attitudes and values of an audience in an effort to change their thoughts feelings or behavior 0 Subject matter their task is to evaluate objects events processes or concepts in the explicit rather and the implicit context for practical judgement 0 Questions of fact proving something is or is not the case 0 Questions of value with the existence or non existence of something but rather the evaluation of its worth 0 Questions of policy 0 Ordering speeches o Problemsolution 0 Comparative advantage 0 Monroe s Motivated sequence Commemorative Speech an act of evaluation in which speakers make moral judgments about and attribute values to particular people objects or events in a way that alters our longterm attitudes toward those things 0 Focuses on values which makes them controversial and powerful Major difference than the others is that it addresses matters of historical time We commemorate something when we want to remember it and preserve it Greatest challenge the entire framing of a historical situation Many of the great comm speeches given by artists and philosophers Speaking Anxiety 0 Feeling nervous scared or worried is completely normal 0 What creates the anxiety 0 You are being judged and you know that 0 Whether the audience wants to be informed entertained or inspired they are judging your performance 0 Basic strategies for dealing with speaking anxiety 0 Nervousness is natural being nervous is a biological manifestation of the fight or ight mechanism it shows that your body is preparing you to get ready for a challenging situation 0 Evegone experiences it it is universal even the world s greatest speakers have anxiety the difference is that they have more tools to deal with their anxiety 0 You appear more relaxed than you feel anxiety rarely manifests itself in overt signs of stress that can be seen by an audience common expressions include shaking hands and ushed faces 0 Have something important to say a boring speech to yourself is going to mess up your presentation of the information o Visualize Success If you focus on the small things you will get so caught up in minutiae that you lose sight of the big picture 0 Release tension Loosen up before you speak This is on a physical note clenching muscles or exerting energy in some way loosens you up an often gets rid of nervousness that has been built up in our muscles 0 The audience is usually on your side other than in politics people don t attend speeches to see one fail 0 Practice knowing the words of a speech is not sufficient for a good performance You need to feel at one with your speech so it feels natural Reading it out loud is not the same as reading it in your head 0 Experience makes you more con dent the more you speak in public the easier it will become Delivery Form 0 Manuscript writing out every word of a speech and delivering it as written Most of the time a manuscript is read off of a teleprompter If using a podium the speaker should have it partially memorized 0 Pros allows for a careful sculpting of stylistic languagecommemorative or complex argument persuasive are the most proper for formal occasions o Cons provides a crutch that speakers rely too much on Memory delivering the memory is to write a manuscript first and then to rehearse it until one knows it by heart 0 Speeches from memory pose on quest risk if one forgets the smallest part of a speech there is the dangers that one s mind might go blank like an actor in a play and there is no point to where they can find their place 0 Work best when they have only a few simple points and are short wedding toast or an argument in a public meeting 0 Excellent story telling exercises Impromptu to speak without preparation on a subject given to you at the moment 0 Pros the most natural and spontaneous and thus often the most interesting to hear 0 Cons it provides absolutely no safety net 0 Classic case of impromptu parliamentary debate when a subject is announced and debaters have just a few minutes to come up with opposing arguments Extemporaneous a mixture of all three forms memory manuscript and impromptu 0 Essential feature is the notecard which includes 0 Key points 0 Quotes 0 Transitions drawn from a larger outline but leaves the speaker to ll in the gaps during the actual delivery of the speech Pros provides for structure but allows for adaptation so the speaker can connect with the audience Cons tends towards a staggered and formulaic delivery when people use notes for their acceptance speeches at awards shows Are ideal for people making official presentations Key to extemporaneous have a completely organized outline that is free of clutter Elements of Delivery 0 Eye contact most important component of delivery 0 Articulation to be clear words should be spoken so as to make them stand out to our ears Pronunciation know how to pronounce words Pitch the musical tone of your language how it goes up and down through its different notes Volume requires more than one s usual level of volume It is virtually impossible to deliver a speech by shouting because one runs out of breath after a few words The importance of volume is so that your audience will hear you Dialect in many cases your audience will have the same dialect as you but when they are different it may obstruct the ability to identify with an audience and convey one s message clearly Rate the rate requires makes them worried they are boring to the audience going slow is good so the audience can process what you are saying Pauses a function of rate gives both the audience and speaker a chance to rest can be used for dramatic effect to build tension like before the punch line of a joke Appearance this matters make sure you present yourself in such a way that adapts to the circumstances of the occasion 0 Clothes simply choose clothes which reinforce the persona you wish to present to your audience 0 Posture stand up straight and avoid leaning on podium shifting feet or crossing legs Gestures speaker should avoid nervous repetitive gestures but can also make a big difference Facial Expressions should mirror the tone of the speech helps to make the audience feel that a speaker truly feels the speech Thesis answers the question What is this speech about 0 Specific purpose an expression of interest in a particular goal that the speaker find interesting and may have value to an audience The kind of speech the person is giving The audience to which this speech is delivered The occasion for the speech 0 The overall effect on this audience the speech is supposed to have States the speci c argument that grows out of and supports the speci c purpose Whereas a specific purpose is written for the speaker in order to develop a concrete idea during writing a process a thesis is the product of that process A thesis should be 0 Specific 0 Focus on a single topic 0 Be audience centered 0 Make a clear claim 0 Present reasons details explains gives reasons to the claim Introductions 0 Function lets an audience know what the speech is about and tries to convince them that it is worth hearing 0 Capture the audience s attention State topic of the speech and purpose Relate the topic to your audience Set a tone Preview the main points 0 Provides a transition to the body of the speech 0 Strategies helps to get the attention and interest of your audience 0 Use a quote relevant to your topic introduce the author of your quote before quoting him or her Startling fact stating a fact can either 1 Reveal some problem in graphic form 2 Demonstrate the relevance of your topic Begin with a question Refer to a current event Tell a story Perform a demonstration Refer to literary material Use humor Create suspense 000 O O O 0 000000 0 0 Conclusions 0 Function to leave a lasting impression o Summarizes your main points 0 Helps audience to remember the speech 0 Leave it with a call to action 0 Clearly end your speech worst way to end a speech is to not let your audience know when you are ending giving a sense of closing makes a big difference in the quality of the lasting impression 0 End on a positive note audiences want to know that there is some hope in making the world a better place Strategies 0 Startle your audience a conclusion that makes some startling claim or demonstration can wake the audience up and make them pay closer attention 0 Challenge the audience usually involved a combination of critique and imagination 0 Come full circle refer back to the intro and pick up where it left off ex if it asked a question answer it o Visualize positive future dramatize the great future that will come about through the committed actions of the audience you want to help the audience visualize the future that is in order for them to develop an emotional attachment 0 Visualize negative future this would come about from inaction or choosing a different action Ask a question Use humorous anecdote Quotation 0 Tell a story 000 Organization of speeches Sources Websites internet websites that are not themselves associated with a reputable organizationare not acceptable as interpretive or background resources 0 They are simply personal tools to get your started 0 The only time they are acceptable are when they themselves provide the primary material such as if one does a research paper on the use of advertising on network news websites Newspaper magazine or other journalistic sources helpful to provide quotes and the basic facts about your case studies and also provide insight concerning how facts were framed by the journalistic standards of the day 0 Find examples to use in intros and conclusions Books written about your subject by respected authors will contain a lot of material you will not use in a speec 0 Give you a wealth of details that give a speech character Academic journal articles usually present a very specific argument about an aspect of case studies usually from a scientific or theoretical perspective 0 Provide good modelts for how to critically analyze objects for the purposes of drawing meaningful conclusions Government documents are very useful when looking for data or analysis on general social conditions that can be measured by some objective standard 0 The value of gov documents comes in statistics Notecards o Notecards function as an outline but should be shorter than an actual outline with information primarily acting as reminders rather than manuscript 0 Only things written out on notecards should be I Quotes I Transitions I The thesis I Introductory I Conclusion 0 Should not be packed with information but should be written clearly Rhetorical Background Audience Speaker situational background characteristics Broad ideas of practical judgment message purpose occasion constraints Rhetorical foreground represents the specific and salient aspects of a common situation as it impacts or interests some audience at a particular moment in time Rhetorical background represent the larger environment which gives the historical and social context for any particular rhetorical event Contingency an unforeseen event that could turn a situation this way or that way for better or for worse 0 On the day of a family picnic the first thing people do is check the weather Technical situation which exists when we confront problems with a proven discourse and method to guide us 0 A person diagnosed with cancer faces a contingency their health might go this way or that way but most people treat cancer by following the advice of established medical authorities and pursue some combination of chemo or radiation treatment Rhetorical situation 0 Occurs when public contingencies generate concern and uncertainty within a public audience to the extent that a rhetorical persuasion is called for to encourage collective action Rhetorical exigency must be a public issue that generates concern and uncertainty and which can be resolved in part through rhetorical persuasion 0 Means that the outcome of a problematic situation must have consequences that impact other people besides the speaker o Uncontested exigency an audience achieves consensus as to the nature of the problem but is uncertain as to the solution 0 Contested exigency rhetorical public speech addresses a problem about whose very reality remains in doubt for an audience Practical judgment the act of de ning a particular person object or event in terms of a general category for the purposes of making a practical decision 0 Tells me what kinds of things are in my environment and what to do in response to them Audience O O Situated the audience that physically exists together in a particular place and time to hear a message Target audience that group of people both able to be persuaded and capable of acting in such a way to help resolve the exigence Constraints obstacles that stand between us and the attainment of our interests 0 O O O O O O Rhetorical those obstacles that must be overcome in order to facilitate both the persuasive and practical effects desired by the speaker Internal beliefs attitudes and values of an audience that must be changed if persuasion is to occur External are the people objects processes and events that physically obstruct any productive action even if persuasion of an audience Object as any tangible and enduring thing that tends to resist change while having constancy in uence on an environment Event a tangible but ephemeral things that occurs at a specific point and time and has a distinct beginning and en Event occurs at a specific point and time and has a distinct beginning and end Process represents a sequence of events that must be followed in order to bring something to conclusion Occasion speci c setting shared by a speaker and audience whose circumstances constrain the form and appropriateness of what is said Purpose represents the reason for and circumstances under which an occasion occu I S Message spoken language delivered for the purposes of persuading an audience to think act and feel in ways different than they already do Style speaks the language of emotion simply the way in which something is said done and expressed or performed present when all of a speech s parts form together into a concrete whole in such a way that is fitting with the occasion and which carries and audience from expectation to fulfillment during the course of delivery 0 It is helpful to think of substance less as a core that embodies the essence of a speech and more as a summary that extracts the main points 0 Substance is like the crib notes for a novel that conveys the general movements of the plot without pretending to take the place of the novel itself 0 Style represents the emotional feel that one gets after reading the whole book Meanings is to stand in a functional and or referential relationship to other things The string of letters ltbea does not mean anything but the string of letter table does Connotative emotional judgement of attraction or repulsion that is associated with the denoted object event process concept action or person Denotative is the literal reference of a word that is most universally associated with its contextual use Associative the spectrum of secondary denotative and connotative meanings that an audience associates with the primary object of reference Practical meaning actual effect brought about by one s choice of language o It is what a word does rather than what a word refers to Concrete Words Words that refer to specific and readilyidenti able qualities or actions in order to give an audience a more vivid experience of some thing or event Examples demonstrates the meaning of an idea through a specific case 0 Actual descriptions of real things that exist or have existed that happen or have happened Fictional descriptions of events that are only the imagined to have happened in the past present and future Metaphor defines one thing by directly comparing it to something seemingly unrelated in order to imply that they share some essential underlying quality 0 Compare two terms with different meaning the man is a lion 0 The comparison is not taken literally but instead symbolically Simile highlight a specific quality of a thing by explicitly comparing it to a like quality in something unrelate o Metaphors often leave it up to the audience to make the connection between the two things being compared while similes do the job for them 0 The sun is like a ashlight that shines on the earth Wordplay o Rhythm rhetoric is to compose words that when spoken and heard follow some kind of musical pattern that tends to build toward a conclusion 0 We gaze over the mountaintops over the verdant hills of green Alliteration the use of words that begin with the same consonant sound 0 We delved in the dark dungeon Repetition repeated use of a key phrase to begin a series of sentences whose ending vary 0 Our people strive for freedom Our people strive for justice Our people strive for nationhood Parallelism repeated pairing of different usually opposing ideas in rhythmic couplet within the same sentence 0 My blood or my tears o The greatest of fears or weakest of hopes o The life of glory or the death ofshame Antithesis when two similarly phrased ideas are consecutively expressed in order to favor one over the other 0 This is not a time of virtue it is a time for virtuous praise Oculesics 0 Eye contact 0 Side to side L to R 0 Eye movement Vocalics o Articulation o Pronunciation o Pitch 0 Volume 0 Rate 0 Dys uencies o Kinesics 0 Body posture 0 Body movement 0 Gestures o Facial affect


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