INTR TO FINE ARTS
INTR TO FINE ARTS ART 1001
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Beryl Hand on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ART 1001 at Louisiana State University taught by Susan Zucker in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see /class/222714/art-1001-louisiana-state-university in Art at Louisiana State University.
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Date Created: 10/13/15
0 Architecture 0 0 Both a necessity and expressive statement Is the art and science of designing and constructing buildings for purposes of I Practical I Aesthetic I Symbolic 3 key issues I Function I Form I Structure Evolution of architectural techniques determined by I Materials available I Changing needs I Values of society Most structures are made of I Wood I Stone I Earth I Brick 0 Types of architecture 0 0 Dry masonry I Simplest building technique I Pile stones atop one another I Used to make 0 Markers o Piles o cairns I in dry masonry no mortar is used I the weight of the stones themselves hold the structure up I stones are dressed if they are cut or shaped before being used Post and beam post and lintel I Prior to the 20 h century 2 dominant structural types were 0 Post and beam 0 Arch structures I Used in most of the worlds architecture I Vertical posts or columns support horizontal beams and carry the weight of the entire structure to the ground I Colonnade and Court of Amenhotep 0 Temple of AminMutKhonsu 0 Located in Luxor Thebes Egypt 0 Bundled reeds provided the model for the post and beam 0 Stone 0 Row of columns spanned or connected adjacent pavilions I Parthenon 448432 BCE o Architect lctinus and Callicrates 0 Located on the acropolis of Athens Greece 0 Built as a gift to Athena goddess of wisdom arts industries warfare and the Athenian navy o Exhibits the clarity harmony and vigor that are the basis of Greek tradition o Proportions based on harmonious ratios 0 None of the major lines are perfectly straight optical illusion to appear straighter 0 Round O Dome Stonehenge 2000 BCE 0 Located in Wiltshire England 0 Post and lintel 0 Among the best known ArchVault Came with the invention of a semicircular round arch When extended in depth round arches create tunnel like structures called a barrel vault Intersection of two barrel vaults creates a groin vault A vault is a curving ceiling or roof structure traditionally made of bricks or blocks of stone tightly fitted to form a unified shell Asia and the Mediterranean area built aches and vaults of brick for underground drains and tomb chambers Romans first used the arch extensively for aboveground structures 0 Learned the technique from the Etruscans who occupied ltaly between 750 and 200 BCE A round stone arch can span a longer distance and support a heavier load than a stone beam 0 The arch transfers the load more efficiently o The final stone set atop is the keystone Series of arches supported by columns forms an arcade Pont Du Grad 0 Located in Nimes France 0 Made of Limestone 0 one of the finest remaining samples of the functional beauty of roman engineering 0 combined height of 3 levels of arches to 161 feet 0 dry masonry blocks weighing up to 2 tons each make up the large arches of the lower tiers 0 water was once carried in a conduit at the top 0 first level was used as a bridge for traffic 0 still standing after 2 thousand years An arch rotated 180 degrees on its vertical axis creates a dome May be hemispherical semihemispherical or pointed Dome refers o a hemispherical vault built up to form a circular or polygonal base Pushes downward and outward all around the circumference The simplest support is a cylinder with walls thick enough to resist the downward and outward thrust Hagia Sophia 0 Located in Istanbul Turkey 0 Designed for the byzantine cathedral as the central sanctuary of Eastern orthodox Christian church 0 Built in the 6 h century 0 after the Islamic conquest of 1453 it was used as a mosque o rests on curving triangular sections called pendentives over a square base 0 the dome has a row of windows encircling the base Pantheon 118125 CE 0 Major roman temple dedicated to all the gods 0 Created a dome interior space of immense scale 0 Building is a cylinder capped with a hemispherical dome with a single entrance 0 Has circular walls made of brick and concrete masonry o Patterned on the interior surface squares called quotcoffersquot which both lighten and strengthen the structure 0 Ceiling originally covered with gold O O I I O I I I Pointed Arch and Vault The pointed gothic arch was the next greatest advance in the western world Big effect on the construction of cathedrals Made it possible to build wider naves The arch is steeper and therefore sends its weight more directly downward which causes substantial sideways thrust This was countered by the construction of elaborate supports called buttresses at right angle to the outer walls The the most developed gothic cathedrals the outward force is carried to large buttresses by the halfarches called flying buttresses Notre O O O Dame De Chartres Located in Chartres France Structure is Pointed Ribbed Vault The building grew and changed for more than 300 years after its initial construction The basic plan is symmetrical and logically the architecture has a rich enigmatic complexity One of the first cathedrals based on a full gothic system It was partially destroyed in a fire and the built in high gothic style Helped set the standard for gothic architecture in Europe Truss and Balloon Frame Construction Uses thinner wooden boards Uses trusses similar to gothic cathedral roof Old St Peter s Basilica Located in Rome Christians adapted the roman basilica for use in public worship One of the earliest Christian churches has a long central aisle now called the have which ends in an apse the altar was place in the apse built with inward focus on the building gave to hint to what it looked like inside Cast Iron Trusses Cast iron became technically useful during the industrial revolution Led to new types of structures in which heavy load bearing walls were no longer needed has much greater strength and can span longer distances than stone engineering of structures with iron was a prelude to the development of steel and steel reinforced concrete toward the end of the 19 h and the 20 h centuries Crystal 0 O O Palace 1850 Located in London Architect Joseph Paxton made of cast iron and glass demonstrated what cast iron could do built for the great exhibition of the works of industry in all nations first international exhibition held in London designed to show off the latest mechanical inventions was built in 6 months and enclosed in 21 acres of parkland first time new industrial methods and materials were presented in architecture Joseph Paxton freed himself of pas styles and masonry construction and created a whole new vocabulary for architecture new application of the concept form follows function Eiffel Tower 1889 Located in Paris France Architect Gustav Eiffel 984 feet designed by a civil and aeronautical engineer O 0 Steel an Modern 0 Epitomizes the inventive spirit of the new cast iron structures on the mid to late 19 h centuries 0 At the time of its construction the tower was highly controversial because of its disruption of the low Paris skyline 0 When it was built it was the tallest freestanding structure d reinforced concrete Was the next breakthrough in construction methods for large scale structures Cam between 1890 and 1910 with the development of highstrength steel Used by itself or as the reinforcement to reinforced concrete Le Corbusier was a French architect painter and city planner who demonstrated the basic concepts of steelcolumn and reinforced concrete construction 0 Developed the idea of supporting floors and roof on interior load bearing columns instead of load bearing walls 0 Made it possible to place interior walls Wainwright building 1890 0 Located in St Louis Missouri 0 Architect Louis Sullivan 0 International style 0 One of the first sky scrapers in st Louis 0 Made possible by the invention of the elevator and steel for the structural skeleton 0 Exterior design reflects the internal steel frame and emphasizes the height of the structure by underplaying horizontal elements in favor of tall vertical shafts o Divided the facade into three distinct zones reminiscent of the base shaft ans capital of Greek columns Louis Sullivan 0 Regarded as the first great modern architect he rejected references to past building 0 Sought to meet needs of his time by using new methods and materials 0 Had a major influence on the skyscraper 0 His idea that form ever follows function helped future architects break their trelience on past designs Bauhaus o Architect Walter Gropius 0 Used principles of international style on the new building for Bauhaus when it moved to Dessau Germany 0 Had curtain walls on the exterior made of glass that bared no weight nternationa Style Seagram building 0 Located in New York 0 Architect Ludwig miles van der Rohe and Philip Johnson 0 Steel frame construction 0 International Style 0 Followed Sullivan s idea to alleviate crowding by using tall narrow buildings Miles van der Rohe 0 Less is more 0 A leading proponent of international style which had an enormous influence on architecture 0 Sometimes replaced unique placedefining regional styles 0 By mid century more architecture had become synonymous with international style Lever House 1952 0 Located in New York City 0 Architect Skidmore Owings and Merril o Heralded the future of office buildings for the next 25 years 0 Steel and glass box 0 International Style 0 Recent Innovation New theories regarding structural physics and computer analysis of strengths and weaknesses led to further development of fresh architectural forms Shell Structure Kennedy Airport 1962 o Architect Eero Saarinen o Twa terminal was for many years the epitome of excitement of flight o Terminals soaring wings symbolized the glamour and speed of air travel Guggenheim Museum 1997 0 Located in Bilboa Spain 0 Architect Frank 0 Ghery 0 International style 0 Called a metallic flower it is a dramatic limestone and titaniumclad cluster of soaring volume climaxing in a gigantic glass enclosed atrium o Interplays organic forms and spaces and is a major element in a urban renewal plan aimed at cleaning up and revitalizing the deteriorated port area Jeppesen Terminal Building 0 Located in Denver CO 0 Architect Fentress Bradburn 0 Most dramatic use of suspension technology in a major public building 0 Roof is composed of a giant 15 acre tent made of woven fiberglass 0 Designing with nature Major influences in American domestic architecture came from Japan through Frank Lloyd Wright Used open planning in houses eliminating walls between rooms with enlarged windows and discovered that one of the best ways to open a closed room is to place windows in corners He created open spaces that opened to the outdoors Cantilever a beam or slab projecting a substantial distance beyond its supporting post or wall supported only at one end Falling Water Kaufmann residence 0 Located in bear run Pennsylvania 0 Architect Frank Lloyd Wright 0 Designing with nature Cantilever 0 Horizontal masses cantilevered from supporting piers echo the rock ledges on the site and seem almost to float above the waterfall 0 Vertical accents were influenced by the surrounded tall straight trees Robie House 0 Architect Frank Lloyd Wright 0 A striking cantilevered roof reaches out and unifies a fluid design of asymmetrically interconnected spaces 0 Green Building Many modern buildings are inefficient they require a lot of cooling heating and ventilation Ventilation is minimized as well as pollution Many architects in recent years are thinking of ways to reduce the impact of building on the environment and make interiors healthful The Eastgate Complex Architect Mick Pearce First building in the world based on the heating and cooling principles of africas temperatureefficient termite mounds Cooled entirely by natural means Uses less than 10 of the energy of a normal building its size 0 Sacred Mountains I The Great Pyramids Giza 0 located in Giza Egypt 0 made of stone blocks 0 among the most impressive and memorable works of the Egyptian civilization 0 legions of workers cut huge blocks and moved them to the site and stacked them without mortar o interiors are mostly solid with narrow passageways I Ziggurat of UrNammu 0 Located in Iraq 0 Mesopotamian 0 Sacred mountain 0 The Sumerians worshiped a hierarchy of scale of nature gods in temples set on huge platforms called Ziggurats which stood at the center of each citystate o The biblical tower of Babel and was probably a ziggurat 0 They symbolized the concept of the sacred mountain that links heaven and earth 0 Neo Classicism I New classicism I Revival of classical Greek and roman forms in art music and literature I During the 18 h and 19 h centuries in Europe and America I Part of a reaction against the excess of baroque and rococo art I Monticello o Architect Thomas Jefferson 0 Located in Charlottesville VA 0 Neo classical 0 American architecture achieved international stature for the first time o The original design for his home Monticello was derived from Palladio s renaissance reinterpretation of roman country style houses 0 The entire design is very reminiscent of the pantheon by way of contemporary French neoclassical architecture 0 Postmodern architecture I Post modern architects embraced an eclectic mix of historical influences decorative tendencies and the popular styles of architecture and applied arts for the general public to relate I ATampT building 1978 o Architect Johnson and Burgee o Postmodern 0 Located in New York City 0 Brought back warmth and delight with a decorative upper story that brings together elements from several historical sites I Public Service Building 0 Architect Michael Graves o Postmodern o Reflects a personal blend of traditional classicism and inventive irony 0 Building s both formal and playful 0 Modern or international style 0 Steel cage 0 Glass skyscrapers 0 Simple cool and elegant o Built extensively n the 1950s and 1960s 0 Postmodern style 0 Reaction against sameness of international style 0 Fewer and smaller windows to save on heatng and cooling costs Decorative details iroma variety oi styles Ecletic Floor plan of a basilica o 1 qur AWR Namaqu Lea Noam mum re soon o Greek Or ers o Greeks developed 3 architectural orders Duricrcamefirst simple geometric and sturdy l ntcrtaller an mored n micthan Doric Corinthian a complex and organic 0 Each order comprises a set of architectural elements and proportions o Highlighted Architects 0 Zaha H 39 One ofthe most creativecontroversial architects now at work Many oi her buildings were to radical to be built Born in Baghdad and wove carpets surrounding areas that are sometimes oppressive Abu Dhabi the lrish prime mi ster s residence and a ski jump in Austria Awarded the pritzkerprize in 2004 0 Frank Lloyd Wri ht M ost in uential 20 quot century American architect B n in Msconsin son of a Baptist minister Worked as an apprentice in the newly farmed architectural firm Adler and Sullivan Helped Louis Sullivan drah the wainwright building o Sculpture I Shuttlecocks 1994 0 Artist Oldenburg and van bruggen 0 One of four oversized shuttlecocks badminton 0 Process distortion of scaleplayful aluminum fiberglassreinforced plastic amp paint 0 Located in Kansas city MO 0 Appears that it fell during a game among giants who used the museum as a net 0 Uses distortion of scale to poke fun at the museum 0 Freestanding and relief sculpture I Free standing sculpture meant to be seen from all sides is called in the round 0 As you move around it our experience of the sculpture is the sum of it surfaces and profiles I Relief sculpture that is not free standing but projects froma background surface is in relief 0 Low Bas relief the projection from the surface is slight minimal shadows 0 Apollo 415 BCE I Silver coin I Ancient Greece I Low bas relief 0 High Releif more than half of the natural circumference of 0 Corporate wars wall of influence I Artist Robert Longo I High relief I Painful conflict 0 Methods and materials I Modeling a manipulative and often additive process working pliable material such as clay or wax into threedimensional forms 0 California Artist 1982 0 Artist Robert Arnenson Used an armature while building this clay work Considered all art selfportraiture Made as a response to an attack on his work I New Yorker sad that because of California s spiritual and cultural impoverishment that his work could have no serious depth or meaning I Casting replacement process that involves pouring liquid material such as molten metal clay wax or plaster into a mold 0 Makes it possible to execute a work in an easily handled medium such as clay and reproduce the results in a more permanent material such as bronze 0 Self Portrait 1990 0 Artist Charles Ray 0 Casting process 0 Cast polyvinyl resin can be made to resemble human flesh o Taller and he is and has a mannequin stand on the bottom I Carving carving away unwanted material to form a sculpture is a subtractive process 0 Formed by using a block or a mass of wood stone or other material with sharpened tools 0 Most challenging of the three basic sculptural methods because it is a oneway technique that provides little or no opportunity to correct errors 0 Awakening Slave 1530 0 Artist Michelangelo 0 Marble o Carving subtractive OOO 0 High renaissance o This is one of four statues that Michelangelo abandoned in the middle of sculpting 0 Shows they steps he took to refine the edges midway through 0 Mother and Child 1971 0 Artist Elizabeth catlett 0 Material is walnut 0 Process is carving subtractive o In wood carvings walnut and cypress are preferred because of their strength and ease of working 0 Gesture suggests anguish perhaps over the struggles all mother know each child will face 0 Bodhisattva Guanyin 11 h 12 h century 0 Chinese Material is wood with paint joinedblock construction Joinedblock construction helps the wood from splitting or cracking Different parts of a sculpture are carved separately and fitted together Then the whole piece is hollowed out I Constructing and assembling o Became popular in the early 20 h century 0 The Montserrat 1936 0 Artist Julio Gonzalez 0 Process is assembling sheet iron 0 Representationalfigure o Pioneered the use of welding torch for cutting and welding metal sculpture O O 0000 Gonzalez assisted Picasso with the construction of metal sculpture Named for catalonias holy mountain and is a symbol of Spanish will and resistance to nazi aggression o Nahele 1986 0 Artist Deborah Buterfield 0 Process is assemblage scrap metal 0 Butterfield has created figures from horses from found materials such as sticks and scrap metal 0 She spends much of her time on ranches o The horse has a lifelike presence 0 She wants her horses to feel like horses not just look like them I Kinetic Sculpture 0 Alexander Calder was among the first to explore the possibilities of kinetic sculpture or sculpture that moves 0 Untitiled 0 Artist Alexander Calder 0 Process is kinetic sculpture 0 Made of painted aluminum and tempered steel 0 A sultors usual emphasis on mass is replaced by calders emphasis on shape space and movement 0 This mibile is the centerpiece of the contemporary wing of the national gallery ofart in Washington dc I Installations 0 Type of art medium in which the artist arranges objects or artworks in a room 0 Thinking of the entire space as the medium to be manipulated 0 Egypt I Having deserts on both sides of the nile it diminished outside influences and enabled Egypt to develop distinct styles of architecture painting and sculpture 0 Greece Egyptian religious belief focuses intently on life after death Preservation of the body and care for the dead was essential Egyptian sculpture is characterized by compact solidly structured figures that embody qualities of strength and geometric clarity King Myrcerinus and Queen Khamerernebty 0 Material is schist 0 Process is carving subtractive o Pays attention to human anatomy yet stayed within the traditionally presciribed geometric scheme strength clarity lasting stability union of naturalism and abstraction Greeks distinguished themselves from other people of Europe and Asia by their attitude toward being human Regarded mankind as the highest creation of nature closest to perfection Greek deities had human weaknesses and Greek mortals had godlike strength With this came e importance of the individual human potential and achievement Greek Civilizations passed through 3 broad stages 0 Archaic period late 7 h and early 5 h centuries the Greeks assimilated influences from Egypt and the near east 0 Kouros Statue of a youth I Material is marble I Process is carving I Has a rigid frontal position that is an adaptation from Egyptian culture I Is free standing and honors an individual who was not a supernatural ruler Classical Period emphasizes rational simplicity order and restrained emotion rigid poses of Egyptian and early Greek figures give was to greater interest in anatomy and more relaxed poses o Spear Bearer I Artist Polykleitos I Process is carving I Made of marble I Is supposed to be an example of perfect proportions of the human form I Depicts and athlete who once held a spear on his left shoulder I Is in the prime of life blemish free vision of the ideal contrapposto o Parthenon o Hellenistic means greeklike translation from classical to Hellenistic coincided witht the decline of Athens as a citystate after it fought a war with Sparta Saw the rise of rome a formidable new force in the Mediterranean 0 The Laocoon Group I Material is marble I Process is carving I Roman copy of Hellenistic work I Laocoon is shown in hierarchic proportion to his sons I The rationalism clarity and restraint of classical sculpture gave way to writhing movement tortured facial expressions and strained muscles Rome 0 Became a major power in the western world 0 Roman culture has affected our lives in many areas law government calendar religions languages 0 Roman were practical materialistic people which is reflected in their art 0 Admired greek art and made few changes to the general style 0 Early Christian and byzantine art O O o Romans first regarded Christianity as a strange cult and suppressed it through law 0 Forced followers of Christ to hide their art and worship in burial chambers called catacombs I Head of Constantine 0 Made of marble o The superhuman head is an image of imperial majesty yet the large eyes and stiff features express an inner spiritual life Other Sculptures The thinker 1910 0 Artists Auguste Rodin 0 Material is bronze 0 Process is modeled clay and cast iron bronze 0 Life size Guitar 1912 0 Artist Pablo Picasso 0 Process is assembled constructed 0 Construction of sheet metal and wire 0 New kind of construction of planes in actual space came about when Picasso assembled his sheet metal guitar and thereby extended the cubist revolution to sculpture 0 Before this most sculpture was carved or molded 0 Since then much of contemporary sculpture has been constructed Bird in Space 1928 0 Artist Constantine Brancusi 0 Process is carving subtractive 0 Made of bronze o Brought about a revival of carving o Achieved expression by carefully reducing forms to their essence o Transformed inert mass into elegant uplifting form LH00Q 1919 0 Artist Marcel Duchamp o Pokes fun at the mona lisa with his corrections 0 The title is a vulgar pun meaning she has a hot tail Cubi XVII 1963 0 Artist David Smith 0 Material is stainless steel 0 Process is assembled Monogram 1955 0 Artist Robert Rauschenberg 0 Process is assemblage 0 Combined elements of world in order to make an unexpected previously unthinkable new thing 0 Stuffed a long hair angora goat in the middle of a collage painting with a tire around it Untitled 1967 0 Artist Donald Judd 0 Material is stainless steel and plexiglass o Minimalism o Judd worked with industrial materials which had not previously been used for art Site works and earthworks Running Fence 0 Artist Christo and jeanclaude 0 Site work 0 Made of nylon fabric and steel poles 0 Located in California Spiral Jetty 0 Artist Robert Smithson o Earthworks 0 Located in Utah 0 Goes in and out of view with changes in the water Lightning Field 1977 0 Artist Walter de Maria 0 Located in new Mexico 0 400 stainless steel poles Vietnam Memorial 0 Artist Maya Lin 0 Located in washinton DC Two cheeseburgers with everything 1962 0 Artist Claes Oldenburg
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