Physics MCAT Study Guide
Physics MCAT Study Guide MCAT
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This 65 page Study Guide was uploaded by MCAT Boys on Wednesday December 3, 2014. The Study Guide belongs to MCAT at University of Southern California taught by MCAT in Winter2014. Since its upload, it has received 197 views. For similar materials see MCAT in Professional Education Services at University of Southern California.
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Date Created: 12/03/14
0 d E Continuity of uids o a Volume ow rate constant 0 b Mass ow rate constant Ideal uids 0 00000 PPPP Density 0 a p O b pH20 O C 10m H20 Pressure 0 a P 0 b P 0 C AP 0 d Gauge pressure 0 e Absolute pressure Specific Gravity 0 a SG 0 b SG Buoyant Force a FB a FB c The volume of the uid displaced d Apparent weight e Apparent weight loss f Apparent weight equation 0 g Bernoulli39s Principle 0 a K h o b Multiply by volume 0 c Divide by specific weight Fluid in Motion OOOOOO 0 a Random Translational Motion think o b Uniform Translational Motion shared by all molecules in a given not and does Poiseuille s Law 0 a Q o b Used for Solids Linear Expansion Solids 0 a L Volume Expansion Solids 0 a V 0 b 3 Area Expansion Solids 0 a X Stress o a Stress Strain o a Strain Modulus of Elasticity 0 a MoE b Young39s Modulus c Sheer Modulus d Bulk Modulus OOO Waves and Periodic Motion Waves 0 a Transfer of and o b 3 types Z the last of which requires a 0 c Transverse ex 0 d Longitudinal j ex Constructive Interference o a Destructive Interference o a Surface gravity Waves Shallow Water 0 a Surface wave velocity is determined by 1 not meaning it is Z of Z 0 b V Surface gravity Waves Deep Water 0 a Surface wave velocity is determined by 0 b V Frequency 0 a V 0 b T represents Z 0 c f 1 measured in independent of o d A length from one or to the next or o e V independent of and Wave Intensity o a Intensity 0 b Increases with and for O 0 Pendulums 0 Pitch 0 Beats 0 O O 0 Decibels O O O O O I 4 I 5 b All periods of SHM to ex c All periods of SHM to ex a Period is independent b Period is independent c T a a When two are at some time at others b Describes c Period T d Beats a dB b Decibels represent c Factor d Or intensity e That is if goes up by a factor of then goes down by a factor of and thus decreases by Doppler Effect 0 O O a f 0 I Distance J I Distance 1 b Independent c Use this equation when factoring in Doppler Effect simplified O O a c Note c velocity of wave is probably but not necessarily I 1 Light equal to the speed oflight 3 X108 ms I 2 Sound equal to the speed of sound 340 ms d Note 1 then the Z and the Z for the e Effect on light I Moving closer I Moving away Doppler Effect Light 0 f Note the moving towards at a certain will create a of then the exact opposite a I 1 I 2 10 Constant Electric Fields It39s a set thing between two points like a heating blanket o 1 Special Case If a charge is shot up from an electric field and accelerates back down I a V I b Downward acceleration o 2 F Force On a Charge I a F I b Units 0 3 V Electric Potential I a V I b Units 0 4 U Electrical Potential Energy I a U I b U I c Units I d Change in PE electrostatic force conservative work final initial Disturbance in an Electromagnetic Field 0 a Electric Fields Point Charge and Magnetism 0 a A stationary point charge create a magnetic field 0 b A stationary point charge a conservative electric field Electric vs Magnetic 0 a Electric fields do not exist the but originate and terminate on its 0 b Magnetic fields terminate and thus and exist in the material Magnetic Field 0 a Changing a magnetic field creates a o b Constant magnetic field Magnetic Fields Creating Electric Fields by Changing o a of magnetic field 0 b rather than of magnetic field 0 c of a in a magnetic field 0 d of the coil Magnetic Field Direction 0 a Runs from north south to south north Magnetic Field Right Hand Rule for Magnetic Force 0 a Right Hand Rule Put right side of in the direction of bend fingers towards and keep thumb straight up for 10 12 3 Unlike magnetic field in open space where it can be a of angles 0 d Direction of Force 1 The direction of our because force is directly to both and I 2 A charge moving in the same direction will have force but else face the opposite direction of our thumb I 3 A charged particle moving to lines experiences no thus no and the is constant I 4 No is ever done only Magnetic Field Magnetic Flux Force On a Charge Terms 0 1 F directly to and thus it does no and only acts as force 0 2 6 between the and the magnetic not magnetic 0 3 q o 4 v not 0 5 B magnetic j 0 6 L Magnetic Field Magnetic Flux Force On a Charge 0 a F 0 b F 0 C F Magnetic Field Zero Net Force Movement 0 a A particle can move through an with zero net force b Force due to Electric Field 0 and a 0 c Force due to Magnetic Field 0 d Zero Net Force Movement Magnetic Field Circular Motion 0 O O O a Centripetal force b Set equal to magnetic field force c Radius of circular orbit d Implications of radius 1 Increases proportionally with 1 and 2 proportionally with 1 of the of the 2 Increases j and 2 Magnetic Field Circular Motion Period 0 aT Magnetic Field Ampere s Law 0 a Relates the j by the path along a path to the 0 b Calculated 17 14 Magnetic Field Torque Exerted on a General Loop of Area A and N Turns 0 a 1 0 b Units Magnetic Field Magnetic Moment 0 a Magnetic moment 0 b Units proportional to the amount of a given loop can exert Magnetic Field Magnetic Field of a Solenoid 0 a B 0 b n 0 c B ofon cross sectional area 0 d Unit Magnetic Field Lenz s Law 0 a The will flow in a of wire to the changes in inside the see Lecture 7 problem 167 always ows in a direction that 0 b That is an the change that caused it o c The magnetic ux equivalent of Le Chatelier s Principle Magnetic Field Laplace s Law 0 a ob Electronic Circuits Types of Stuff 0 1 Circuit I a 0 2Conductor I a o 3Resistor I a o 4 Battery I a o 5 Capacitor I a 0 6 Symbols I a Circuit 0 a 0 b o c Drift Velocity 0 a When current goes through a wire all drift in the avelocity of 0 bInaconductor with movement is similar to 14 16 Resistance 0hm s Law 0 a V o b Voltage V Resistors in Series 0 a o b Diagram 0 c Components and any two components 0 d The resistor in j with the lowest will have the lowest o e Usually resistors in will generate power than resistors in Resistors in Parallel o a o b Diagram 0 c Single components by a j and take connecting them to the 0 d Adding to will 0 e Resistors in parallel will all experience the same 0 f The resistor with the resistance will have the greatest ie ows in the path of j and thus the greatest o g Usually resistors in will generate power than resistors in Resistors Parallel vs Series 0 1 Voltage Drop I a Series I b Parallel 0 2 Current I a Series I b Parallel Capacitor o a Used to 0 b It stores it in the form of 0 c Current only ows through the capacitor when it is or Capacitance 0 a The ability to store per ie something with can store a lot of at low 0 b C o c C V Q Capacitors in Series 0 a Capacitors in Parallel o a Capacitor Electrical Energy Stored o a WPE o b WPE o c WPE 16 18 I b Because AC1 0 Created Electric Field I a s I b Because 2 I c Remember V I d Set equal to each other for a 0 Created Current I a I 0 Magnetic Force I a F j 0 Mechanical Power I 3 Pmechanical Z 0 Electrical Power I 3 Pelectrical j j j I b Identical to Induced EMF EMF Produced by a Rotating Coil Alternating Current 0 a s Induced EMF Definition of Inductance L 0 a L Z 0 b Derived from 0 C Unit Induced EMF Inductance of a Solenoid 0 a L Z Z 0 b Remember I 1 L I 2 1 I 3 n 0 c Double turns inductance 0 d Inductance proportional to A1 Induced EMF Characteristic Time for an RL Circuit 0 a 1 Induced EMF Current for an RL Circuit 0 a I Energy Stored in a Magnetic Field 0 EMF Required to Increase the Current in an Inductor I a s 0 Average Power I 3 Pavg j j 0 Energy Stored in an Inductor I a U I b Unit 1 I c Note similarity to energy stored in a capacitor U 0 Magnetic Energy Per Volume I a us Magnetic energyvolume Transformers Voltage Relation 18 20 o d The beam of light is no longer in its original direction it is now in the direction of the Electromagnetic Waves Transmitted Intensity for a Unpolarized Beam 0 a I 1 Light and Geometrical Optics Light 0 a 0 b o c 0 d Photon o a Represents Energy of one Photon 0 a E 0 b E 0 c The energy of light is dependent 0 d In the case of a photon if the Z is increased by a factor of the Z is increased by a factor of because of Intensity of a Simple Harmonic Wave 0 a o b In the case of a simple harmonic wave if the increases by a factor of Z the j of light increases by a factor of j 0 c If two waves are wavelength 1 out of phase causes 0 d If two waves are perfectly in phase j because the doubles see bullet A o e Problem 932 what Color 0 a The color of an object Dual Nature of Light 0 a Acts as both a and Wave Nature Characteristics 0 a 0 b o c 0 d o e Particle Nature Characteristics 0 a Photon s Both Particle and Wave 0 a 1 Isotropic Light 0 a Light emanating Planepolarized Light 70 22 I 1 Positive Z for the lens for the mirror I 2 Negative Z for the lens for the mirror 0 d The image distanceZ I 1 Positive Z for the lens e for the mirror I 2 Negative Z for the lens for the mirror Lateral Magnification o a The ratio of theZ to theZ ratio of theZ of theZ from the mirrorlens to the Z of the Z from the mirrorlens o o c Proportional o d Upright image m o e Inverted image m Lateral Magnification of Two Lens 0 a Power of a Lens 0 a Pi 0 b Pa 0 C o d Measured in Z Z 0 e Increase in Z decrease in Power of a Two Lens System 0 a Lens Maker Equation 0 a O 1 I11 o c ns 0 Cl 1391 o e r2 Angular Magnification o a O Focal Point 0 a Where light o b Affected by the of BOTH the and the surrounding the Focal Length o a Distance betweenZand the Z 0 b Plane mirrorZ Focal Length of a Spherical Mirror 0 a o b For a spherical mirror the focal length is Z 0 c Plane mirror rules still apply I 1 virtual images only behind I 2 Real images only in front Lens 77 Concave mirror O3 Ray Diagram Diverging Lens li39erging Ions O3 Ray Diagram Converging Lens Alpha particle o a Beta particle o a Positron o a Neutrino o a Z Gamma ray o a no no Decay Rate o a Alpha decay o a 9 o b EX Beta decay o a 9 Radioactive Decay just Z 24 74 Mass of One Electron 0 a Avogadro s Number 0 a Farad o a Magnetic Field of the Surface of the Earth 0 a Gravitation acceleration o a Tesla o a Velocity of Sound 0 a Index of Refraction for Air 0 a Index of Refraction for Water 0 a Index of Refraction for Glass 0 a Visible Light Spectrum 0 a Wavelength of Violet Light 0 a 0 b 0 c Wavelength of Red Light 0 a 0 b 0 c Cos and Sin 0 o a 0 b Cos and Sin 30 o a 0 b Cos and Sin 45 o a 0 b Cos and Sin 60 o a 0 b Cos and Sin 90 o a 0 b Cos and Sin 180 26 76 Resistance 0 a 0 b Work 0 a 0 b Heat 0 a 0 b Luminosity o a Magnetism o a 0 b Weber 0 a 0 b Henry 0 a 0 b Pressure 0 a o b ElectronVolt o a Giga o a Mega o a Kilo o a Centi o a Milli o a Micro o a Nano 0 a Angstrom o a Pico o a Femto o a 28 78 30 30 Vector 0 a Physical quantity with magnitude and direction Speed 0 a Distance time Velocity 0 a Displacementtime Translational Motion ALL MUST HAVE CONSTANT ACCELERATION o a x x0 Vot 5at2 o b Vf V0 at o c V2 V02 2aAx o d Vavg V0 V2 Velocity Acceleration 0 a Vavg Ad At 0 b Aavg AVAt Projectile Motion 0 a Vertical velocity Vy vsin6 b Horizontal velocity Vx Vcos6 c peak height vosin sqrt2gh d Range vtcos6 e As 6 increases from 0 to 90 the range increases to a maximum at 45 and then decreases Uniform circular motion 0 a FcmacmV2r 0 b Centripetal force points towards the center of the circle circumscribed by the motion of the object 0 C Ac V2 r Cross Product 0 a Vproduct V1V2sin6 o b The new vector will point perpendicularly to both of the original two vectors and the magnitude of the new vector is the product of the magnitude of the original vectors times the sine of the angle between them Vector Components 0 a Vx Vcos6 o b Vy vsin6 o c V sqrtVx2 Vyz o d tan6 VyVx Forces and Torgue Newton39s Laws of Motion 0 a First the law of inertia an object in a state of rest or in a state of motion will tend to remain in that state unless it is acted upon by a net force 0 O O O Work W o a W Fdcos6 b W fdcosf ugmd mgh 5mv2 qv nonPV work C W AK AU AEno heat d W AK AUno heat no friction 3 O AK AUconservative forces only no heat f AE q w o g Units I Energy conservation 0 a Ef Ep Ek o b E mcz mass defect o c PE mgh o d KE 5mv2 Thermodynamics 0 a Q MCAt 0 b Q mL Gibbs Free Energy 0 aAGAH TAS o b AG 39RTlnKeq Standard state conditions Conservative force 0 a If the work done by the force on an object moving from one point to another depends only on the initial and final positions and is independent of the particular path taken 0 b The net work done by the force on an object moving around any closed path is zero Conservative Forces 0 a Gravitational force 0 b Elastic spring 0 c Electric force Nonconservative Forces a Frictional forces b Air resistance c Tension d Normal force e Propulsion of a motor OOOOO OOOOO Momentum Momentum p o a p mv b p ft c Stopping force oc Momentum mv d Motion change oc Inertia m 0 O O o e Rotational inertia oc mass I 1 V velocity 0 b Mass ow rate constant I pAv I 1 V Velocity Ideal uids o a No viscosity a uid s temporal resistance to surfaces not perpendicular to it39s surface 0 b Incompressible o c No turbulence it experiences laminar or steady ow That is all uid owing through any fixed point will have the same velocity 0 d Irrotational no object oating in the uid will rotate about it39s axis as it ows but will continue to point in one direction regardless of ow 0 e Flow rate is constant 0 f Doesn39t necessarily go from high 9 low pressure Density 0 a p massvolume o b pH2O 1gcm3 1O3kgm3 o c 10m H20 1 atm Pressure 0 a P ForceArea o b P pgAy y is not arbitrary but rather the distance below the surface of a uid o c AP QR Q Av R resistance to ow o d Gauge pressure is arbitrary check this one o e Absolute pressure add P atm to pressure Specific Gravity 0 a SG psubstancepH2O o b SG fraction of object that is submerged Buoyant Force a FB Vpg mg b FB weight not volume of displaced uid c The volume of the uid displaced the volume of the object d Apparent weight Actual weight buoyant force e Apparent weight loss buoyant force f Apparent weight equation pobjectvobjectg Actual weight PH2OVH20gbuoyantforce g Strategy I 1 The apparent weight loss is due to the buoyant force I 2 The buoyant force is equal to the weight of the uid displaced I 3 The volume of the uid displaced is equal to the volume of the object I 4 actual weightbuoyant force aka apparent weight loss x SG of uid SG of object Bernoulli39s Principle Fluid in motion 0 O O O O O O Destructive Interference o a When two transverse waves occupy the same space and the sum of their displacements results in a smaller displacement Surface gravity Waves Shallow Water 0 a In shallow water velocity is determined by the medium and not the characteristics of the wave ie independent of wavelength 0 b V sqrtgh Surface gravity Waves Deep Water 0 a In deep water surface wave velocity is determined by the properties of the wave 0 b V sqrtg 21 Frequency 0 a V kf o b T 1f time for 1 wave 0 c f number of wavesunit time measured in Hertz Hz independent of amplitude o d A length from one crest or trough to the next crest or trough o e V independent of intensity and amplitude because frequency is Wave Intensity I o a Intensity transfer of energy 0 b Increases proportionally with square of amplitude and square of frequency for all waves 0 c I P 4cr2 o d Units Wm2 but is measured in dB because it is more closely related with the range of human sound perception Velocity of Sound Waves in Gas 0 a The velocity of sound waves in gas increases proportionally with temperature 0 b Increases inversely proportionally with density 0 c Mean square root of gas molecules is a limiting factors in the speed of sound waves in a gas Velocity is Dictated by the Medium 0 1 Medium s resistance to change in shape or elasticity velocity increases proportionally with Bulk Modulus 0 2 Medium s resistance to change in motion or inertia velocity inversely proportional to density 3 V sqrt Tu T tension u mass per unit length 4 Length of string directly proportional to velocity and wavelength 5 Length of string inversely proportional to frequency Ex Although water is more dense than air slows down waves it has a much higher Bulk Modulus not compressed as easily and thus propagates waves faster than air Velocity is NOT dictated by 0 a A or Af in a nondispersive medium V remains unchanged OOOO 11 I 2 Sound equal to the speed of sound 340 ms 0 d c must be much greater than the velocity of the observer and source for the above equations to work 0 e Effect on light I Moving closer appears blue I Moving away appears red 0 f The source moving towards the observer at velocity V will create a greater increased frequency in the observed sound than the observer moving towards the source at velocity V see question 750 Doppler Effect Light 0 a f f1 1 uC I 1 u relative speed I 2 f observed frequency 0 b NA 11 uc Doppler Effect Light vs Sound 0 a Sound requires a medium 0 b Light does not require a medium 0 c Sound observer moving towards a source experiences an increase in sound observer experiences no change in sound if source moves toward him 0 d Light Independent of the source and observer Electrostatics and Magnetism Electric Field E 0 a Electrostatic force per unit charge 0 b Units NC or Vm Electric Field Lines 0 a Lines of force point in the direction of the field originating at positives and terminating on negatives 0 b Closely spaced strong field 0 c Lines can never intersect 0 d Equipotential surfaces represent the same voltage Electric Field Electric Dipoles o a Created by two opposite charges with equal magnitudes o b Points in the opposite direction of the electric field 0 c Electric Dipole Moment p qd 0 d Net force inside a capacitor 0 Electric Fields Due to a Point Charge It39s gradually dissipating like the heat from a camp fire in a field 0 1 E q at a Distance r I a E kqr2 I b Units NC or Vm I c The created electric field is conservative unlike moving magnetic field derived electric fields 11 13 o d Cross sectional area of the coil Magnetic Field Direction 0 a Runs from magnetic north geographic south to magnetic south geographic north Magnetic Field Right Hand Rule for Magnetic Force 0 a Right Hand Rule Put right side of palm in the direction of current bend fingers towards magnetic field and keep thumb straight up for force 0 b c Top view looking o c Direction of Magnetic Field I 1 The direction our fingers are wrapped I 2 Is a wide range of angles I 3 Unlike magnetic field around a wire which has to be perpendicular o d Direction of Force I 1 The direction of our thumb because force is directly perpendicular to both current and magnetic field I 2 A negative charge moving in the same direction will have force but nothing else face the opposite direction of our thumb I 3 A charged particle moving parallel to magnetic field lines experiences no force thus no acceleration and the velocity is constant I 4 No work is ever done only centripetal force Magnetic Field Right Hand Rule for Magnetic Field 0 a Right Hand Rule Grab wire with thumb in direction of current and fingers wrapped around the wire 1392 15 o b Force due to Electric Field F qE o c Force due to Magnetic Field F qvB o d Zero Net Force Movement v E B Magnetic Field Circular Motion o a Centripetal force Fc mv2 r o b Set equal to magnetic field force mv2r q VB 0 c Radius of circular orbit r mv q B o d Implications of radius I 1 Increases directly proportionally with 1 velocity and 2 mass I 2 Increases inversely proportionally with 1 charge of the particle and 2 strength of the magnetic field Magnetic Field Circular Motion Period 0 aT2nrqB Magnetic Field Ampere s Law o a Relates the magnetic field along a closed path to the electric current enclosed by the path o b Calculated ZBHAL uolenclosed I 1 B11 Parallel magnetic field I 2 AL straight line segments of path I 3 uo permeability of free space Magnetic Fields Long Wires o a Magnetic field strength decreases inversely with the distance from the wire for long wires b If current doubles the magnetic field doubles c If the distance from the wire doubles the magnetic field halves d B ttol23131 o e Units Tesla T Magnetic Fields Short Wires o b Short wires magnetic field strength decreases inversely with the square of the distance from the wire Magnetic Field Force On a CurrentCarrying Wire 0 a F iLBsin6 Magnetic Field Force On a CurrentCarrying Wire Derived o a Drift speed of electrons I 1 Velectron LAt I 2 At Lv o b Amount of charge that flows through the wire in this time I 1 q IAt ILv o c Thus I 1 F qvBsin6 ILvvB sin6 I 2 Cancel v Magnetic Field Forces Between CurrentCarrying Wires 0 a F l2LB l2LMol123131 O b F M011122J39l3dL OOO 139 17 I a Cyclical pathway for moving charge o 2 Conductor I a Allow electrons to move freely o 3 Resistor I a Try to hold electrons in place 0 4 Battery I a Adds energy to a circuit by increasing the voltage from one point to another o 5 Capacitor I a Used to temporarily store energy in a circuit 0 6 Symbols Circuit 0 a Cyclical pathway for moving charge o b Conducts current 0 c Because it moves charge it creates a magnetic field Drift Velocity o a When current goes through a wire all free electrons drift in the opposite direction with a velocity of 1039 cm s o b In a conductor electron movement is similar to gas molecules in air Battery o a Adds energy to a circuit by increasing the voltage from one point to another o b Real batteries have internal resistance probably not on the MCAT o c To account for internal resistance draw a battery and put a resistor of equal resistance behind or in front of it o d Internal resistance is proportional to current Kirchhoff s First Law o a The amount of charge owing into a node an intersection of wires must be the same amount that is owing out o b Xi 0 at a node Kirchhoff s Second Law 0 a Second the voltage around any path in a circuit must sum to zero o b The voltage between two points in a circuit is independent of the path chosen to measure it o c EAV 0 in a circuit Current Direct Current DC Circuits o a Electrons moving in one direction Current RMS voltage and current AC circuits 17 19 o d The resistor in series with the lowest resistance will have the smallest power o e Usually resistors in series will generate less power than resistors in parallel Resistors in Parallel o a 1Req 1R1 1R2 1R3 S b c Single components are separated by a node and take alternate paths connecting them to the same node o d Adding more resistors in parallel decreases resistance because of V iR and V is not changing i will increase and so will power o e Resistors in parallel will all experience the same voltage drop problem 817 o f The resistor with the lowest resistance will have the greatest current ie current ows in the path of least resistance and thus the greatest power o g Usually resistors in parallel will generate more power than resistors in series Resistors Parallel vs Series o 1 Voltage Drop I a Series proportional I b Parallel equal o 2 Current I a Series equal I b Parallel proportional Capacitor o a Used to temporarily store energy in a circuit o b It stores it in the form of separated charge o c Current only ows through the capacitor when it is charging or discharging Capacitance o a The ability to store charge per unit Voltage ie something with high capacity can store a lot of charge at low Voltage 0 b C QV o c C capacitance V voltage Q charge Capacitors in Series 0 a 1Ceq 1C1 1C2 1C3 t Capacitors in Parallel O aCeqC1C2C3 Capacitor Electrical Energy Stored o a WPE 5QV o b WPE 5CV2 O O 10 I J lF g 5 V Solution for Solution for voltage 1 ET Induced EMF Magnetic Flux o a CI BAcos6 5 252 39gt Ftuivalenl circuit o b 1 Max B perpendicular to surface 0 c 1 zero B parallel to surface 0 d Unit 1 Wb Induced EMF Faraday s Law of Induction O 3 5 39NAIbAt 39NIfinal 39 Dinitial tfinal 39 tinitial 21 I Equivalent circuit I39 V 1 V I 39l In 39 l Simplified ci rcu it o b Negative sign induced emf opposed magnetic ux o c That is the induced electric field due to a moving magnetic field is due to ux o d Induced electric field is directly proportional to the rate of change of ux o e Problem 880 a bar moves at constant velocity thus the area of the loop increases at a constant rate and thus ux increases at a constant rate thus current is constant with time Induced EMF Faraday s Law of Induction Magnitude of Induced EMF 0 3 5 39NIfinal Dinitial tfinal 39 tinitial Induced EMF Motional EMF Rod Moving Along a Circuit Through a Magnetic Field o Created EMF a s NAltIgtAt BvlAtAt Bvl I b Because ACID BAA BvlAt 0 Created Electric Field I asBv 71 23 O a IsIpVpVsNpNs Transformers Summary 0 a If a transformer increases voltage by X it decreases current by X Electromagnetic Waves Electromagnetic Waves Electric Field Strength Constant 80 o a so 0 b 89 X103912 C2Nm2 Electromagnetic Waves Magnetic Field Strength Constant M0 0 a Mo 41 X 1O397 TmA Electromagnetic Waves Electric Field Energy Density 0 a LIE 058oE2 Electromagnetic Waves Magnetic Field Energy Density 0 a LIB O5B2Mo Electromagnetic Waves Electromagnetic Wave Energy Density 0 a u us u O5soE2 O5B2no Electromagnetic Waves Electromagnetic Wave Average Energy Density 0 a LlEav 058oE2RMs O b UBav BZRMS2 Mo 0 C Uav UEav UBav o d Because sinusoidally behaving waves have an average of zero you have to use RMS velocities Electromagnetic Waves RMS Stuff 0 a Ems Emaxsqrt2 or Emax sqrt2Erms o b Brms Bmaxsqrt2 or Bmax sqrt2Brms Electromagnetic Waves Intensity o a I B2 cZuo O5csoE2 O b lavg CSOEZRMS o c Iavg CBZRMSM0 0 c Iavg Poweravg Area Electromagnetic Waves Momentum 0 a p U c o b U total energy absorbed average electromagnetic wave energy area speed of light time elapsed uav A cAt Electromagnetic Waves Radiation Pressure 0 a Pressureavg IaVg c Electromagnetic Waves Transmitted Intensity for a Polarized Beam Law of Malus o a I Iocos26 o b 6 O intensity unchanged 0 c 6 90 intensity is zero 7392 25 Isotropic Light 0 a Light emanating from a point source in all directions Planepolarized Light 0 a Only one particular electromagnetic field 0 b PPL light has one half the intensity of isotropic light Refraction O a Sin61Sin62 V1V2 N2N1 K1K2 Refraction Wavelength o a Light with longer wavelengths slower frequencies move faster and bend less dramatically with a greater angle at the new media interface 0 b Light with shorter wavelengths faster frequencies move slower and bend more dramatically with a smaller angle at the new media interface 0 c Problem 934 Index of Refraction o a n cv o b The higher the index of refraction is for a new the one the wave is entering medium after refraction the wavelength becomes shorter and because the frequency remains the same the speed of light decreases and vice versa 0 c Light bends towards the normal in a denser media Snell39s Law 0 a N1Sin61 N2Sin62 o b Angle of Incidence 61 is with respect to the perpendicular of the surface between the two media and is equal to the angle of re ection o c Angle of Refraction 62 is with respect to the perpendicular of the surface between the two media 0 d Light will travel from point A to B the fasted in terms of time way possible Total Internal Re ection O a Slnec N2N1 O 1 9c sin391N2N1 0 c Critical Angle 6c is the angle of incidence beyond which total internal re ection occurs 0 d N1 The index of refraction for the medium in which the incident ray is traveling o e Total internal re ection normally occurs when the initial medium has an index of refraction much greater than the second medium Diffraction o a When light enters a small hole the size of the wavelength or smaller it bends outwards 0 b Diffracting waves that undergo constructive interference result in bright bands 739 27 a P 1 f inversely related to focal length b P 2 r inversely related to radius c P 6rN proportional to index of refraction d Measured in diopters m391 o e Increase in power decrease in focal length Power of Two Lens 0 a Peff P1 P2 Lens Maker Equation a 1f nLns 11r1 1r2 b nL index of refraction of lens c ns index of refraction of surroundings d r1 radius of curvature of the surface of the lens facing the object e r2 radius of curvature of the surface of the lens facing opposite the object Angular Magnification O a Mo Bienp o b NP Near point closest and object can be while in focus Focal Point o a Where light focuses o b Affected by the refraction of index of BOTH the lens or mirror and the medium surrounding the lens or mirror Focal Length o a Distance between lens or mirror and the focal point 0 b Plane mirror infinite focal point 0 c Plane mirror rules still apply I 1 virtual images only behind I 2 Real images only in front Focal Length of a Spherical Mirror o a F O5r o b For a spherical mirror the focal length is half of the radius of curvature OOOO O O O O 0 Lens 0 a Concave Z diverging o b Convex C converging Mirror 0 a Concave Z converging o b Convex C diverging PRays o a Will always go parallel strike the glass then go through the focal point ust apply accordingly FRays o a Will always go through the focal point strike the glass then go parallel ust apply accordingly CRays o a Hit it and come straight back 77 31 O b EX 1122Na 9 1022Na 160 Electron capture 0 a 1 proton 1 electron 9 1 neutron 1 gamma ray 0 b EX 8o201Hg 1e0 9 79201Au 00y Gamma ray annihilation Matter Antimatter annihilation o a 1 electron 1 positron 9 2 gamma rays 0 b It is the annihilation of matter to create pure energy in the form of light o c It does not change the identity of the atom from which it is given off 0 b EX 1e0 1e0 9 00y 00y Fusion 0 a 2 smaller nuclei 9 1 larger nuclei energy leads to a more stable product Fission o a 1 larger nuclei 9 2 larger nuclei energy leads to a more stable product Chart of stability 0 a Both want to go to Fe 56 liindinfy ljr1e139L39 olliiilllll 100 200 The most stable nucei have the strongest binding energy Both fission and tusion produce more stable nuclei This graph is an approximation Constants Speed of light 0 a 3 X 108 ms 0 b C kf o c c 1sqrtmoso Q d C EB Planck39s Constant o a H 6626068 X 103934 m2kgs s Gravitation Constant G o a G 667 X 1041 Nm2kgz Electric Field Strength Constant 80 o a 80 o b 89 X103912 C2Nm2 Permeability of Free Space Magnetic Field Strength 0 a Mo 3921 0 b Mo 4TEX 1O397TmA Coulomb39s Constant K o a 9x 109 Nm2C2 o b 1C amount of charge in 625 x 1018 protons or electrons Energy of one Photon 0 a E hf joules super small number 0 b E 1240 A in nanometers eV probably whole number could be decimal Charge on One Electron 0 a 16 x 1049 C Energy of One Electron 0 a Ev 16x 1049 Mass of One Electron 0 a 9 X 1031 kg Avogadro s Number 0 a 6022 x 1023 Farad o a 96500 Cmol Magnetic Field of the Surface of the Earth 0 a 5 X 105 T Tesla o a T 104 gauss Gravitation acceleration o a 10 ms2 Velocity of Sound 0 a V 340 m s Index of Refraction for Air 0 a n 1 Index of Refraction for Water 0 a n 13 Index of Refraction for Glass 0 a n 15 Visible Light Spectrum 0 a IR ROYGBIVUV Wavelength of Violet Light 0 a Lambda 400nm o b Higher frequency 0 c By E hf more energy Wavelength of Red Light 0 a Lambda 700nm o b Lower frequency 0 c By E hf less energy Cos and Sin 0 0 a Cos 10 0 b Sin O Milli 0 a m 103 Micro 0 a u 1O396 Nano 0 a n 1O399 Angstrom 0 a A 1039 Pico 0 a p 1O3912 Femto 0 a f 1O3915 35 39239
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