Final Readings 1050
Popular in Media In Free Society
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ellee Watson on Wednesday December 3, 2014. The Study Guide belongs to 1050 at George Washington University taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 136 views. For similar materials see Media In Free Society in Public Relations at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 12/03/14
the campaign s tugofwar often makes advantages and disadvantages shortlived and partisans tend to be predictable when they waver they frequently come back to the decision we would expect them to make Romney gained momentum an episode of rooting for the story writing news coverage asserting that something was happening when it wasn t no evidence that news coverage influences poll numbers but better poll numbers generate positive news coverage a 5 adadvantage per capita on one day increased Romney s vote share by approximately 4 points but it was shortlived and he rarely had that many ads Republicans who shifted away from Romney after the video s release came back to him after the first debate 6 explanations 1 political and economic fundamentals 2 gifts to key partisan constituencies 3 Romney s severe conservatism 4 5 likeability and empathy Race and religion 6 Obama s formidable campaign The predictability of the 2012 election hinged on the stability of the economy throughout the election year and it was pretty stable decided voters brought their political attitudes in line with their party identification and vote intentions as the campaign went on Such stability and predictability did not mean that the campaign was irrelevant When partisans wavered as some Republicans did after the release of the video campaign events helped reinforce their partison inclination People are more likely to ground their attitudes in broader political predispositions and values than strictly on selfinterest We could find no consistent relationship between the volume of coverage about contraception and abortion and a host of attitudes vote intentions overall views of the candidates approval of Obama s job performance just as elections are not actually full of gamechanging moments elections themselves may not be gamechangers often it runs opposite to the mandate interpretation voters adjust their opinions about issues to match those of the candidates they have decided to support for other reasons mandate implies that voters have fixed opinions about a range of political issues learn the candidates opinions on those issues and then vote for the candidate who shares their opinions Nyhan and Sides How Political Science Can Help Journalism and still let journalists be journalists Although reporters should understand the basic factors that influence political phenomena and avoid unsupported empirical claims they cannot be expected to frame their stories around academic scholarship on a daily basis they have to write faster than academics and can t wait on them Political science an improve political reporting within the conventions of narrative journalism in five specific respects providing structural context on episodic events providing fresh angles on the news countering spin about the effect of an event for a politician or a party better describing historical trends and points of comparison and clarifying what questions are not wellunderstood by scholars and why Gilliam Franklin and Iyengar Shanto Prime Suspects The Influence of Local Television News on the Viewing Public crime was the most prominently featured subject of local news local news coverage of crime follows a script 1 crime is violent armed robberies carjackings and gangrelated activities 2presence of a particular suspect the reporting of the crime does as well 1 the anchor describes the crime quickly 2the scene of the crime 3identity and apprehension of the perpetrator Viewers exposed to the racialized element of the script become more supportive of capital punishments mandatory sentencing and other deterrent measures script coherent sequence of events expected by the individual scripts allow the reader to make inferences about events issues or behaviors In fact the number of murder stories is equivalent to the total number of nonviolent crime stories during the period sampled the media s near exclusive focus on violent crime distorts the real world the greatest number of felony arrests are for property crimes when the media show nonviolent crimes the perpetrators are most often white even though minorities actually account for the largest share of nonviolent felonies distorts minorities as violent and whites as not free recall of the crime news story enables us to validate the experimental manipulation and assess viewers reconstruction of the news story oldfashioned racism unintelligent lazy new racism people understand now that they can t be openly racist if the violent crime element of the script is dominant we expect exposure to any crime story to influence crime and race attitudes equally for black and white subjects it is the racial element of the crime script that is the dominant cue Gitlin The Whole World is Watching it becomes extremely difficult for an opposition movement to define itself and its world view to build up an infrastructure of selfgenerated cultural institutions outside the dominant culture the mass media have become core systems for the distribution of ideology New Left 1960s nightly television news wire service reports and objectivity The routines of journalism normally and regularly combine to select certain versions of reality over others symbolhandlers routinely use frames to organize discourse the media divide movements into legitimate main acts and illegitimate side shows so that these distinctions appear natural matters of common sense Frames are principles of selection emphasis and presentation composed of little taciturn theories about what exists what happens and what matters The centralization of and commercialization of the mass media of communication make them instruments of cultural dominance when elites are themselves at odds in important ways core values are deeply disputed and journalism itself becomes contested For example the Vietnam and Iraq wars were initially justified by political elites arguments that they represented potentially existential national security threats and that victory was assured this hypothesis proposed that in an era of 24 hour broadcast news some vivid images might spur support for intervention eg images of a famine while others notably casualties eg a dead American airman being dragged through the streets of Mogadishu might make the public risk averse New media In particular the pressstate dynamic described earlier in which the foreign policy press is largely dependent on and reflective of political elites in a nation state system is being challenged Because old news norms die hard however foreign policy coverage often still clings to elite sourcedriven framing and agendas Bennett and Livingston 2003 Livingston and Bennett 2003 Baum Sex Lies and War the soft news media do convey substantive information concerning a select few highprofile political issues prominently among them foreign policy crises some political issues prominently among them foreign crises are easily framed as compelling human dramas foreign crises are more likely than most issues to transcend traditional partisan boundaries the prospect of largescale violence and the potential death of large numbers of Americans at the hands of a clearly identifiable villian Americans know and care less about foreign than domestic affairs incidental byproduct model of information consumption over half of the tabloid stories examined were framed in moralistic terms broadcast news broad range of issues soft new the travails of Scott O Grady five frames cheap framing of foreign crises 1 us vs them 2 powerlessness 3 economic 4 morality 5 injustice Political information might thus become a free bonus or incidental byproduct of paying attention to entertainmentoriented information only individuals who would not otherwise be exposed to politics are likely to be affected by encountering political coverage in the soft news media the associated costs of paying attention are virtually eliminated Sharkey War and the First Amendment precensorship preventing reporters from reaching the field NYTimes Co vs United States the first amendment values overrode national security arguments still uses some of these techniques precensorship is another form of prior restraint new news model of 1982 found out of the falklands war sanitizing visual images of war concealing information that would embarrass the US government 1 the tools themselves are ineffective 2 they produce as much harm to democratization as good slaktivism
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