New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here


by: Clementine Boehm


Clementine Boehm
GPA 3.83

B. Gros

Almost Ready


These notes were just uploaded, and will be ready to view shortly.

Purchase these notes here, or revisit this page.

Either way, we'll remind you when they're ready :)

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

B. Gros
Study Guide
50 ?




Popular in Course

Popular in Psychlogy

This 18 page Study Guide was uploaded by Clementine Boehm on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 3082 at Louisiana State University taught by B. Gros in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see /class/222945/psyc-3082-louisiana-state-university in Psychlogy at Louisiana State University.




Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 10/13/15
Psych 3082 Test 2 Review 1 PTSD Symptoms I Requires exposure to an event resulting in extreme fear helplessness or horror I Person continues to experience the event memories nightmares ashbacks I Avoidance of cues that serve as reminders of the traumatic event I Emotional numbing and interpersonal problems are common I Physiological hyperarousal I PTSD diagnosis cannot be made earlier than 1month post trauma I Markedly interferes with one s ability to function I Combat and sexual assault are most common traumas I About 78 of the general population meets criteria for PTSD I Subtypes 0 Acute duration of symptoms is 13 months 0 Chronic duration of symptoms is more than 3 months 0 Delayed onset onset of symptoms is 6 months or more posttrauma How is it similar to other anxiety disorders with regard to criteria I Both have a fear of events and feelings of helplessness I Both avoid cues that trigger traumatic events What plays a role in the development of it I PTSD is caused by the intensity of the trauma and one s reaction to it I Uncontrollability and unpredictability play a role I The lack of social support posttrauma plays a role I Direct conditioning and observational training play a role I PTSD is treated by CognitiveBehavior therapies CBT which are highly effective and generally involve exposure to avoided stimuli as well as cognitive reprocessing prolonged exposure cognitive processing therapy EMDR eye movement desensitization and reprocessing 2 0CD The presence of either obsessions or compulsions Most people with 0CD are female About 26 of people meet the criteria in their lifetime the onset is typically in early adolescence or childhood Its cause parallels other anxiety disorders Caused by early life experienced and learning that some thoughts are dangerousunacceptable Also caused by thoughtaction fusion the tendency to view the thoughts as similar to the action Obsessions compulsions I Obsessions intrusive and nonsensical thoughts images or urges that one tries to resist or eliminate I Compulsions thoughts or actions to suppress the thoughts and provide relief Criteria be able to put them to use in a case I Either obsessions or compulsions I At some point during course of the disorder the person has recognized that the obsessions or compulsions are excessive and unreasonable The obsessions or compulsions cause marked distress time consuming more than one hour per day or significantly interfere with the person s normal Psych 3082 Test 2 Review routine occupational or academic functioning or usual social activities or relationships with others I If another Axis I disorder is present the content of the obsessions or compulsions is not restricted to it o Risks for the development of I Age tends to develop in late adolescence or early adulthood However can begin as early as preschool age and as late as age 40 I Genetic factors research suggests that genes may play a role in the development ofOCD in some cases 0CD tends to run in families A person who has 0CD has a 25 change of having a relative who has it I Presence of other mental or neurological condition 0CD often occurs in people who have other anxiety disorders depression Turret syndrome ADHD substance abuse eating disorders and certain personality disorders I Stress 0CD symptoms often occur during stress from major life changes such as loss ofloved one divorce relationship difficulties problems in school or abuse I Pregnancy and postpartum 0CD symptoms may worsen during and immediately after pregnancy In this case uctuating hormones can trigger symptoms Postpartum 0CD is characterized by disturbing thoughts and compulsions regarding the baby s well being 0 Treatment approaches I Medication Clomipramine and other SSRIs seem to benefit up to 60 of patients Relapse is common with medication discontinuation Psychosurgery cingulotomy is used in extreme cases I Psychological treatment Cognitivebehavioral therapy is most effective with 0CD CBT involves exposure and response prevention Combining medication with CBT does not work as well as CBT alone 3 Somatization disorders 0 Somatization disorder problems characterized by unusual physical symptoms that occur in the absence ofa known physical illness and involve a degree of disassociation Some symptoms include impairment ofa somatic system soma body Preoccupation with a health andor body appearance and functioning is involved I Types Hypochondriasis Somatization disorder conversion disorder pain disorder body dysmorphic disorder 0 Hypochondriasis features etc I Physical complaints without a cause that must last for at least 6 months I Severe anxiety and fear focused on the possibility of having or developing a serious disease I Strong disease conviction and medical reassurance does not seem to help I Has an onset at any age and runs a chronic more than 3 months course I Caused by cognitive perceptual disorders which are when they interpret bodily sensations of minor illness as threatening and also can be caused by a family history ofillness I You treat it by challenging illnessrelated misinterpretations provide more substantial and sensitive reassurance and stress managementcoping strategies 0 Somatization disorder Psych 3082 Test 2 Review I Characterized by a history of multiple somatic complaints in the absence of organic impairments I A substantial impairment in social or occupational functioning will be present The person is more connected with the symptoms themselves instead of what they might mean Hypochondriasis I Symptoms become the person s identity and the person has numerous visits to a physician This disorder is a rare condition that mostly affects unmarried women In order to be diagnosed the person must complain of at least 8 different physical symptoms such as pain gastrointestinal symptoms nausea diarrhea sexual symptoms sexual dysfunction menstrual difficulties and pseudo neurologic symptoms double vision numbness amnesia I Patients with this disorder present their symptoms in a histrionic manner dramatic seductive self centered and vague The patient may exhibit a lack of concern for physical symptoms I The disorder begins in adolescence and must deliver extended history of physical complaints before the age of 30 I It is caused by a family history ofillness and weak behavioral inhibition system I No treatment exists with demonstrated effectiveness The tendency to visit numerous medical specialists is reduced by assigning a quotGatekeeperquot physician The physician reduces supportive positive consequence of talk about physical symptoms and reduces secondary gain I The criteria include 4 pain symptoms 2 gastrointestinal symptoms 1 sexual symptom and 1 pseudo neurological symptom 0 Conversion disorder features of I Dramatic physical malfunctioning without any physical or organic pathology and the malfunctioning often involves sensory motor areas such as vision hearing and motor areas I It makes no anatomical sense and often resembles neurological impairments I The patient may complain of pain that does not correspond with the innervation of the body I The idea of this disorder is the physiological con icts are converted into physical symptoms The person shows quotla belle indifference lack of concern about physical symptoms but retains normal functions I This is a rare condition with chronic intermittent course is seen primarily in females with an onset in adolescence Is not uncommon in certain cultures or religious groups I It is caused by an emphasis on the role of trauma conversion and primarysecondary gain A detachment from the trauma and a negative reinforcement seems critical in the causation I It is treated in ways similar to Somatization disorder attending to the trauma removing source of secondary gain and reducing supportive consequence of talk about physical symptoms 0 Dissociative identity disorder features of I Involve several alterations or detachments in identity memory or consciousness Involves the adoption of several new identities The identities display unique sets ofbehaviors voice and postures It was formerly known as multiple personality disorder Psych 3082 Test 2 Review Has variations of normal dep ersonalization and derealization o Depersonalization means distortion is perception of reality 0 Derealization is losing a sense of the external world Effect on personality 0 Alters refers to the different identities or personalities in DID 0 Host the identity that seeks treatment and tries to keep identity fragments together 0 Switch often instantaneous treatment from one personality to another The average number ofidentities is close to 15 The ratio of females to males is high 91 The onset is almost always in childhood There is a high comorbidity more than one disease rate with a lifelong chronic course Almost all cases have histories ofhorrible unspeakable child abuse It is closely related to PTSD It is viewed as a mechanism to escape from the impact of trauma Treatment focuses more on reintegration ofidentities and aims to identify and neutralize cuestriggers that provoke memories of traumadisassociation 4 Mood disorders Depression feelings of disappointment or despair quotUnipolarquot is only depression Patients suffer from overwhelming suffocating or numbing sadness There are four considerations in diagnosing depression It is a quotstrangequot sadness not normal Mood change is pervasive across situations and persistent over time Mood change may occur in the absence of any precipitating events or it may be completely out ofproportion to the person s circumstances Mood is accompanied by inability to function in usual social and occupational roles A cluster ofadditional signs and symptoms accompany the change in mood Major depressive episode extremely depressed mood state lasting at least two weeks Feelings ofworthlessness indecisiveness and vegetative or somatic symptoms are central to the disorder Anhedonia lost of pleasureinterest in usual activities Major depressive disorder single episodes are highly unusual Recurrent episodes are more common Double depression person experiences major depressive episodes and dysthymic disorder the dsythmic disorder often developing first It is associated with severe psychopathology and a problematic future course Bipolar disorder the person experiences episodes of mania or hypomania as well as depression quotBipolarquot means one suffers from both depression and mania Bipolar I disorder alternation between full manic and depressive episodes 0 Manic elevated euphoric mood or irritable racing thoughts pressured speech decreased need for sleep grandiose thoughts increase in goal directed or psychomotor agitation increase in risk taking or pleasurable activities may become paranoid or psychotic 0 Average age on onset is 18 years but can begin in childhood It tends to be chronic and suicide is a common consequence Bipolar II disorder alternations between major depressive episodes and hypomaniac episodes Psych 3082 Test 2 Review 0 Hypomanic a less severe form of mania A mood that many don t perceive as a problem it may actually feel good You have a greater sense ofwellbeing and productivity However for someone with Bipolar disorder hypomania can evolve into mania or switch into serious depression 0 Average age on onset is 22 years but it can begin in childhood Only 10 13 of cases progress to Bipolar I disorder It tends to be chronic Dysthymia differs from major depression in both severity and duration It represents a chronic more than 3 months mild depressive condition that has been present for many years The person must over a period of two years exhibit a depressed mood most of the day on more days than not Two or more of the following symptoms must be present and must not be absent for over two months during the twoyear period or it will be diagnosed as manic depression I Poor appetite or overeating I Insomnia or hypersomnia I Low energy or fatigue I Low selfesteem I Poor concentration or difficulty making decisions I Feelings ofhopelessness I Early onset vs late onset differences 0 Late onset typically in early 205 0 Early onset before age 21 greater Chronicity poorer prognosis Cyclothymia chronic but less severe form of bipolar disorder The person must experience numerous hypomaniac episodes and numerous periods of depression during a period of two years one year for children and adolescents but less severe than bipolar disorder There must be no history of major depression It tends to occur in females and is chronic and lifelong The average onset is 12 14 years of age Those with Cyclothymia are at high risk for developing Bipolar I or II disorder Anxiety vs depressive disorders I Depression generates emotions such as hopelessness despair and anger Energy levels are usually very low and depressed people often feel overwhelmed by the daytoday tasks and personal relationships essential to life I A person with anxiety disorder however experiences fear panic or anxiety in situations where most people would not feel anxious or threatened The sufferer may experience sudden panic or anxiety attacks without any recognized trigger and often lives with a constant nagging worry or anxiousness I Without treatment such disorders can restrict a person s ability to work maintain relationships or even leave the house Both are treated in a similar manner which may explain why they are often confused Antidepressants are often used for anxiety while behavioral therapy frequently helps people overcome both conditions I Most depressed people are anxious but not all anxious people are depressed Etiology causes of depression theories how sleep plays a role I The learned helplessness theory of depression related to lack of perceived control over events 0 Internal attributions negative outcomes are one s own fault Psych 3082 Test 2 Review 0 Stable attributions believing future negative outcomes will be one s fault 0 Global attribution believe negative events will disrupt many life activities 0 All three domains contribute to a sense ofhopelessness I Psychological dimensions cognitive theory 0 Negative coping styles a tendency to interpret life events negatively Depressed people tend to engage in cognitive errors 0 Arbitrary inference overemphasize the negative 0 Overgeneralization generalize negatives to all aspects of a situation 0 Cognitive errors and the depressive cognitive triad 0 Think negatively about oneself 0 Think negatively about the world 0 Think negatively about the future I Integrative theory 0 Shared biological vulnerability overactive neurobiological response to stress 0 Exposure to stress stress activates hormones that affect neurotransmitter systems The stress activates certain genes and affects circadian rhythms It activates dormant psychological vulnerabilities ie negative thinking and contributes to a sense of uncontrollability It fosters a sense of helplessness and hopelessness Social and interpersonal relationships are moderators o Meds for depression and bipolar disorder Tricyclic medications antidepressant widely used in the past tofranil elavil They block the reuptake of Norepinephrine and other neurotransmitters It takes 2 8 weeks for the therapeutic effects to be known Negative side effects are common and it may be lethal in excessive doses I Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors antidepressant that blocks monoamine oxidase an enzyme that breaks down serotoninNorepinephrine User must avoid foods containing tyramine beer red wine cheese Selective serotonergic reuptake inhibitors SSRIS antidepressant that specifically blocks uptake of serotonin Prozac is the most popular Zoloft and PaXil are also used Celxa is closely related SSRIs pose no unique risk of suicide or violence but negative side effects are commom I Lithium a mood stabilizer Lithium is a common salt This is the primary drug of choice for bipolar disorders why it works remains unclear I Anticonvulsants Tegretol Depakote etc I Electroconvulsive therapy ECT is effective for cases of severe depression It involves applying a brief electrical current to the brain and results in temporary seizures Usually 6 to 10 outpatient treatments are required There are few side effects but include short term memory loss We are unsure why ECT works Relapse is common Psychological treatment of mood disorders I Cognitive therapy addresses cognitive errors in thinking It also includes behavioral components U39l Psych 3082 Test 2 Review I Interpersonal psychotherapy focuses on problematic interpersonal relationships I The outcomes with psychological treatments are comparable to medications o Suicide I The 8th leading cause ofdeath in the US It is overwhelmingly a white and Native American phenomenon Rates are increasing particularly in adolescents Males are more successful at committing suicide than females females attempt suicide more often than males I Risk factors Suicide in the family increases risk low serotonin levels depression a psychological disorder alcohol use and abuse past suicidal behavior increases subsequent risk experience ofa shamefulhumiliating stressor publicity about suicide and media coverage Eating disorders 0 Anorexia and bulimia nervosa involve severe disruptions in eating behavior involve extreme fear and apprehension about gaining weight and have strong sociocultural origins Westernized views 0 Anorexia Subtypes I Restricting subtype limit caloric intake via diet and fasting I Bingeeatingpurging subtype about 50 of anorexics 0 Symptoms and characteristics of Anorexia I Severe weight loss I Intense fear of obesity and losing control over eating I Show a relentless pursuit of thinness often beginning with dieting I Defined as 15 below expected weight I Most show marked disturbance in body image I Methods ofweight loss can have severe lifethreatening medical consequences I Most are comorbid for other psychological disorders I Majority are white female from middle to upper middle class average intelligence I Likely to come from competitive environments I Usually develops at around age 13 or early adolescence I Tends to be more chronic and resistant to treatment than bulimia o Anorexia Maintenance I Medical treatment none with demonstrated efficacy I Psychological treatment weight restoration is first and easiest Treatment involves education behavioral and cognitive interventions It often involves the family I Longterm prognosis for anorexia is poorer than for bulimia o Anorexia Etiology I Media and cultural considerations cultural imperative for thinness translates into dieting Standards ofideal body size change as much as clothes I Psychological and Behavioral considerations low sense ofpersonal control and selfconfidence food restriction often leads to a preoccupation with food 0 Bulimia subtypes I Purging most common subtype vomiting laxatives enemas I Nonpurging excess exercise fasting 0 Symptoms and characteristics of bulimia Psych 3082 Test 2 Review Binge eating hallmark of bulimia Binge eating excess amounts of food Eating is perceived as uncontrollable Purging selfinduced vomiting diuretics laxatives Some exercise excessively whereas others fast Most are concerned with body shape fear gaining weight and have comorbid psychological disorders Purging can result in severe medical problems Most are within 10 of target body weight Most are female with onset around 16 to 19 years of age Lifetime prevalence is about 11 for females 01 for males Tends to be chronic ifleft untreated o Bulimia maintenance Drug treatments antidepressants can help reduce binging and purging behavior They are not efficacious successful in the longterm Psychosocial treatments cognitive behavior therapy CBT is the treatment of choice Interpersonal psychotherapy results in longterm gains similar to CBT o Pica rumination disorder symptoms of Pica repetitive eating of inedible substances Rumination disorder chronic regurgitation and reswallowing of partially digested food 6 Sexual disorders 0 Male and female practices of sex Women stop having sex because of evolutionmenopause they can no longer reproduce A reason for drop offin sexual activity with age there is a decrease of available sexual partners because of age death and health problems Women show roughly the same amount of sex but fewer partners 8990 of males reported that they masturbate 45 ofwomen report ever masturbating Frequency is 3x higher in males Masturbation has only positive side effects often used as a major component of treatment in some sexual disorders Men masturbate more because sexual experimentation is more accepted in males and it s physically easier 0 Gender identity disorder Person feels trapped in the body of the wrong sex They assume the identity of the desired sex but the goal is not sexual The causes are unclear It develops between 18 months and 3 years of age Sexual reassignment surgery is a treatment Prerequisites before surgery must make sure they don t have disorders before the surgery so that it s not a function of another disorder 75 of candidates report satisfaction with their new identity Psychosocial treatment of GID involve realigning the person s psychological disorder with their biological sex Few large scale studies have been done Most don t seek psychological treatment after surgery 0 Paraphilias sexual attraction and arousal to inappropriate people or objects Often multiple paraphilic patterns of arousal High comorbidity with anxiety mood and substance abuse disorders Psych 3082 Test 2 Review Fetishism and the transvestite type of fetishism I Fetishism sexual attraction to nonliving objects ie inanimate andor tactile Numerous targets of fetishistic arousal fantasy urges and desires I Transvestite sexual arousal with the act of crossdressing Males may show highly masculinized compensatory behaviors most do not show any Many are married and the behavior is known to the spousepartner Masochism suffer pain or humiliation to gain sexual gratification Sadism in ict pain or humiliation to gain sexual gratification I Some rapists are sadists but most do not show paraphilic patterns of arousal Rapists show sexual arousal to both violent sexual and nonsexual material Pedophilia Pedophiles have a sexual attraction to young children It is rare but not unheard of in females Most rationalize the behavior and engage in other moral compensatory behavior Associated with sexual and social problems and deficits Patterns of inappropriate arousal and fantasy may be learned early in life Psychosocial treatment most are behavioral and target deviant and inappropriate sexual associations 0 Covert sensitization imaginal procedure involving aversive consequences 0 Orgasmic reconditioning associate masturbation with appropriate stimuli o Familymarital therapy address interpersonal problems 0 Coping and relapse prevention teaches self control and coping with risk 0 About 70 100 of cases show improvement 0 Poorest outcomes are for rapists and persons with multiple Paraphilias I Medical treatment the drugs work greatly to reduce sexual desire fantasy and arousal Relapse rates are high with medication discontinuation o The equivalent of chemical castration is used for dangerous sexual offenders o Cyproterone acetate antiandrogen reduces testosterone sexual urges and fantasy 0 Medroxyprogesterone acetate DepoProvera also reduces testosterone o Triptoretin a newer and more effective drug that inhibits gonadtropin secretion Voyeurism practice of observing an unsuspecting individual undressing or naked The risk associated with quotpeepingquot is necessary for sexual arousal Frotterism someone who rubs up against an unsuspecting victim This arouses and excites them It involves nonconsensual rubbing against another person to achieve sexual arousal The frotter has recurrent and intense sexual urges to do so Exhibitionism exposure of genitals to unsuspecting strangers There is an element of thrill and risk is necessary for sexual arousal Sexual desire disorders Psych 3082 Test 2 Review I Hypoactive sexual desire disorder little or no interest in any type of sexual activity Masturbation sexual fantasies and intercourse are rare in this disorder I Sexual aversion disorder little interest in sex Extreme fear panic or disgust related to physical or sexual contact 10 of males report panic attacks during attempted sexual activity Sexual arousal disorders problem is arousal NOT desire The problem affects about 5 of males and 14 of females Males are more troubled by the problem than females The most common is male erectile disorder I Male erectile disorder difficulty achieving and maintaining an erection As males age there is an increase in ED but not as high as you might think I Female sexual arousal disorder difficulty achieving and maintaining lubrication Orgasm disorders I Inhibited orgasm inability to achieve orgasm despite adequate sexual desire and arousal Rare condition in adult males but is the most common complaint in adult females I Premature ejaculation Ejaculation occurring before the man or partner wishes it to 21 of all adult males meet criteria for premature ejaculation Most prevalent sexual dysfunction in adult males It is more common in younger inexperienced males but declines with age Sexual pain disorders defining feature marked pain during intercourse I Dyspareunia extreme pain during intercourse Adequate sexual desire and ability to attain arousal and orgasm Must rule out medical reasons for pain I Vaginismus limited to females The outer third of the vagina has involuntary spasms and the female complains of the feeling of ripping burning or tearing It affects over 5 of women in the US Prevalence is higher in conservative countries and subgroups Assessing sexual behavior I Psychophysiological evaluation exposure to erotic material determine extent and pattern ofphysiological and subjective sexual arousal o Males penile strain gauge 0 Females vaginal photoplethysmograph Treatment of sexual dysfunction I Education alone is surprisingly effective I Masters and Iohnson s psychosocial intervention education eliminate performance anxiety by focusing on nondemanding pleasuring sensual massages without happy endings etc I Squeeze technique premature ejaculation Also stopstart technique stop before you orgasm I Masturbatory training female orgasm disorder I Use of dilators Vaginismus The patient uses a small vibrator and works her way up to larger vibrators I Exposure to erotic material low sexual desire problems I Medical treatment for ED Viagra Levitra injection of vasodilating drugs into the penis penile prosthesis or implants vascular surgery vacuum device therapy vacuum pump to make penis larger I Few medical procedures exist for female sexual dysfunction Exam One Study Guide describes behavioral psychological or biological dysfunctlons that are unexpected in their cultural context and associated with present distress or impairment in functioning or with increased risk of suffering death pain disability or and important loss offreedom Psychological dysfunction refers to a breakdown in cognitive emotional or behavioral anctioning Distress the criterion is satisfied if the individual is extremely upset This alone does not indicate abnormal behavior ie ifsomeone close to you dies you will be distressed Impairment Useful but not entirely satisfactory ie many people are shy but it only impairs you if you are so shy that you find it find it impossible to interact with other people Statistical deviance at times something is considered abnormal because it occurs infrequently or deviates from the average Cultural inappropriateness if you are violating social norms even if people are sympathetic to your point of view This is useful in considering cultural differences ie believing you are possessed re ects a psychological disorder in most Western cultures but not in other societies where the behavior is acce ted and expected n quot 39l y Many mental health r u professionals take a scientific approach to their clinical work and therefore are called scientistpractitioners Three ways Keep up to date with latest scienti c developments in their field and therefore use the most current diagnostic procedures Evaluate their own assessments or treatment procedures to see whether they work They are accountable not only to patients but to the government agencies and insurance companies that pay for their treatments so they must clearly demonstrate that they work Conduct research often in clinics or hospitals that produces information about disorders or their treatment thus becoming immune to fads that plague our field at the expense of patients and their families ie miracle cures for s chological disorders Lu Squot Psychologlst clinical and counseling psychologists receive a PhD and follow a course of graduatelevel study lasting approximately 5 years that prepares them to conduct research into the causes and treatment of psychological disorders and to diagnose assess and treat these disorders Psychiatrist first earn an MD and then specialize in psychiatry during residency training that lasts 34 years Psychiatrists also investigate the nature and causes of psychological disorders often from a biological point of view make diagnoses and offer treatments Exam One Study Guide Many psychiatrists emphasize drugs or other biological treatments although most use psychosocial treatments as well Social worker typically earn a Master39s degree in social work as they develop expertise in collecting information relevant to the social and family situation of the individual with a psychological disorder Social workers also treat disorders often concentrating on family roblems associated with them quot39la w original complaint reported by the client to the therapist The actual treated problem may be a modification derived from the resenting problem m number of new cases or a disorder appearing during a specific redicted develo ment and change ofa disorder over time in er P le Freud says the mlnd has three parts id ego superego Dix started the quotMental Hygiene Movement which crusaded for humane treatment of patients She placed an emphasis on moral guidance and counseling as opposed to medical treatment This was not as affective as people hoped but it led to alternative psychological models that were sometimes in con ict with each other and explained mental illness in very different ways Galen a Roman physician associated with the humoral theory which stated that normal brain functioning was related to four bodily uids or humors blood from heart black bile from spleen yellow bile from liver and phlegm from brain The theory believed that diseases were from too much or too little ofthe four humors Kraeplin was the fist to derive a classification system for mental disorders He is the father oftoday39s classification system Skinner associated with behaviorism explanation of human behavior including dysfunction based on principals of learning and adaptation derived from experimental psychology Operant conditioning voluntary behavior is controlled by the consequences that follow the behavior The main concept is that people do things for rewards and only engage in voluntary behaviors because they are reinforced I Intrinsic reinforcement feel good about volunteering I Negative reinforcement alcoholism Drinking takes away the shakes and addictive feeling Pinel reformed mental hospitals in France by unchaining the inmates 12 Exam One Study Guide a 1 DH s u HUN 3 Id pleasure principle that is illogical irrational and emotional ie GO to the party Ego reality principle that is logical and rational driven by secondary processed thinking DON39T go to the party you need to study Superego driven by morals and ethics helps keep id and ego in check ie DON39T go to the party stay and study because it39s the right thing to do Conscious thoughts feelings or con icts that are in a person39s awareness Preconscious the part of the mind below awareness where memories that have not been repressed can be recalled Unconscious Freud believes that the vast majority of our thoughts behaviors and feelings are at the unconscious level or things out of our awareness si ival u 111qu Classical conditioning fundamental learning process first described by Ivan Pavlov An event that automatically elicits a response is paired with another stimulus event that does not a neutral stimulus After repeated pairings the neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus that by itselfcan elicit the desired response Unconditioned stimulus environmental event that would elicit a response in almost anyone and requires no learning Unconditioned response the natural or unlearned reaction the unconditioned stimulus Conditioned stimulus environmental event that acquires the ability to elicit a learned response as a result ofclassical conditioning Conditioned response learned reaction following classical conditionin l Supernatural explanation of human behavior and its dysfunction that posits important roles for spirits demons grace sin etc Treatments include exorcism torture beatings and crude surgery I Lunacy in the Middle Ages mental illnesses were seen as a function of the stars Term quotrocks in your headquot comes from crude surgeries done in the street by vendors who made small incisions and would quotpull rocksquot out Behavioral explanation of human behavior including dysfunction based on principles of learning and adaptation derived from experimental psychology ie classical conditioning Exam One Study Guide 0 Biological explanation of psychological dysfunction that primarily emphasizes brain disorder or illness as the cause Led to penicillin treatment because psychological disorders were believed to be caused by a biological factor bacteria and were treated as such 0 Biopsychosocial the integrative model used today There is no sinle exlanation for an illness and one must consider all factors ll KT IK39TiiL L39U I Dll SLU jVH lf39J39f V f39i 0 Dominant genes one of a pair of genes that strongly in uences a trait Only one dominant gene must be present in that pair in order for that trait to be produced 0 Recessive genes one ofa pair of genes In order for a recessive trait to be shown two must be present 14 M r quotU39v 39 hypothesis that both an inherited tendency and specific stressful condition are required to produce a disorder ie individual with 39alcoholism39 gene drinks frequently in college with a friend without the gene The individual with the 0 ene is more likely to become an alcoholic 15 quotm gem etaviimzninn a hypothesis that people with a genetic predisposition for a disorder may also have a genetic tendency to create environmental risk factors that promote the disorder ie person who is shy stays away from crowds and is unable to make friends This may lead to de ression because the erson is lonesome 16I r 7 w 13 L EE LTJJE t7 Neurons function electrically but communicate chemically Soma the cell body 0 O o Dendrites branches that receive messages from other neurons 0 O Axon trunk ofneuron that sends messages to other neurons Axon terminals buds at the end of the axon from which chemicals are sent 0 S na tic cleft small gaps that separate neurons 17 39 m t chemical that crosses the synaptic cleft between nerve cells to transmit impulses from one neuron to the next Relative excess or deficiency ofneurotransmitters is involved in several psychological disorders 0 Norepinephrine blocks Betareceptors so that the response is reduced which keeps blood pressure and heart rate down fight or ight Serotonin low levels lead to depression and overreacting Low levels are also associated with aggression suicide over eating and excessive sexual behavior Serotonin drugs work by preventing the reuptake of serotonin ie Prozac Dopamine balances serotonin Excess is associated with schizophrenia a shortage is associated with Parkinson s Disease Exam One Study Guide 0 Gamma Aminobutryic Acid GABA low levels lead to anxiety It reduces osts natic activi 18 will p 7 U1 o Sympathetic automatic nervous system th t prepares the body for activity or to respond to stressors ie increasing blood ow to heart or musclesfight or ight o Parasympathetic part ofthe automatic nervous system that regulates body systems ie digestion while activity level is low and that balances the s mathetic nervous s stem M flail 39 39 r 3 j Temporal lobe hearing advanced visual processing Occipital lobe vision Parietal lobe body sensation Precentral gyrus primary motor cortex Frontal lobe planning of movements recent memory some aspects of emotions Postcentral a rus primary somatosensory cortex mm Fear response Prepares body for ight or ight Associated with dilated eyes increased heart rate adrenaline rush blood ow away from major muscles so you don39t bleed out in case of a major o Affect conscious subjective aspect ofan emotion that accompanies a person at a given time how the mood is conveyed o Mood how a person is feeling 0 Sensorium person39s general awareness of the surroundings including time and place 0 Hallucinations psychotic symptom of perceptual disturbance in which something is seen heard or otherwise sensed although is not actually present 0 Delusions psychotic symptom involving disorder ofthought content resence ofstron beliefs that are misrepresentations ofreality ll U U 0 Reliability degree to which a measurement is consistent for example over time or among different raters o Validity degree to which a technique measures what it purports to measure 0 Standardization process of establishing specific norms and requirements for a measurement technique to ensure it is used consistently across measurement occasions This includes instructions 22 i Exam One Study Guide for administering the measure evaluating its findings and comparing these to data for lar e numbers ofpeople 1 j Identifying information Presenting problem Specific symptoms Detailed history ofproblems Sociallifefamily history Alcoholdrug history Developmental history Academic history ifappropriate Vocational history Mental status exam Diagnostic impressions Recommendations Pro nosis or in redicted outcome LGH Wg 1 Projective Le inkblots projects aspects of personality onto ambiguous test stimuli with roots in psychoanalytic tradition It requires a high degree of clinical inference in scoring and interpreting Reliability and validity tend to be mixed at best Objective uses less ambiguous stimuli and requires minimal clinical inference in scoring and interpretation has extensive reliability validi and normative database 25 Rorschach Test Ink blot test Thematic Apperception Test 31 cards with pictures and one blank card Only 20 cards are typically used The subject must tell a dramatic story about the picture 0 MMPI empirically derived standardized personality test that provides scales for assessing such abnormal functions as depression and paranoia It is one of the most widely used and heavily researched assessment instruments M m 4 39 Categorical approach classical categorical approach with strict categories Kraeplin Describes each individual disorder as distinct and with its own cause The problem is that a single or unique cause cannot be found for each disorder Exam One Study Guide Dimensional approach classification based along dimensions which involves a severity rating mild fair extreme The problem is that most theorists can39t agree on how many dimensions to measure Prototypical approach Most recently used combines both classical and dimensional views One must have certain essential required characteristics to have a disorder but allows for additional symptoms that do not chan e the disorder 27 Axis I Clinical syndromes ie all mental except personality disorders and mental retardation Axis II stable enduring problems ie personality disorders mental retardation Axis III medical conditions related to abnormal behavior ie asthma Axis IV psychosocial problems affecting function of treatment ie recent divorce unemployment Axis V GAF numerical estimate of functioning 1100 ie higher means better functioning 28 Anxiety state characterized by marked negative affect and bodily symptoms of tension in which a person apprehensively anticipates future danger or misfortune Anxiety may involve feelings behaviors and psychological responses 0 Fear emotion of an immediate alarm reaction to present danger or lifethreatenin emerencies o Panlc attack abrupt experience of intense fear or discomfort accompanied by several physical symptoms such as dizziness or heart palpitations I Situational quotcuedquot panic expected or bound to happen in certain situations I Unexpected quotuncuedquot panic unexpected without warning I Situationally predisposed panic it may or may not occur in some situations Panic disorder debilitating anxiety and fear arise frequently and without reasonable cause quot fear or avoidance ofsituations associated with panic 7w i anxiety about being in places or situations the perso belleves mlght induce a dreaded panic attack Symptoms and concern for another attack must persist for at least one month Exam One Study Guide 39 excessive uncontrollable anxious apprehensive and generally worr1ed about life events The patient believes excessive worrying will revent thin from ha enin ie man who calls wife 50x per day 39 l 39 ill 39 3921 disorder characterized by intense uncontrollable unfocused chronic and continuous worry that is distressing and unproductive accompanied by physical symptoms of tenseness irritabili and restlessness Persists for 6 months or more 33 r Army o 35 ofthe populatlon meets criteria for panic disorder 23 is female Onset is often acute sudden between ages 25 29 o 4 of population meets criteria for anxiety disorder Females outnumber males 21 Onset is insidious gradual beginning in early childhood The tendency to be anxious runs in families By nature general anxiety disorder also leads to many phobias Persons with GAD have been called quotautonomic restrictorsquot because they fail to process emotional component of thoughts and images and think irrationall 35 I i used for treating panic disorder Tries to control pan1c by exposing patient to unwanted situation then helping them realize it is OK and their panic is only psychological Best longterm outcome is with c itive behavior therapy 36 I Bloodinjuryinjection phobia ie quotneedlesquot I Situational phobia public transportation or enclosed bridges ie planes bridges I Natural environment phobia events occurring in nature ie water fire weather heights I Animal phobia animals and insects I Other phobias do not fit into other categories ie choking vomiting 37 L 39l391 n lquot extreme enduring irrational fear and avoidance ofsocial or performance situations 38 r excessive enduring fear in some children that harm will come to them or their arents while they are apart 39


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

50 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Kyle Maynard Purdue

"When you're taking detailed notes and trying to help everyone else out in the class, it really helps you learn and understand the I made $280 on my first study guide!"

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.