INTR TO PSYC
INTR TO PSYC PSYC 2000
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Clementine Boehm on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 2000 at Louisiana State University taught by Jennifer Knapp in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 41 views. For similar materials see /class/222975/psyc-2000-louisiana-state-university in Psychlogy at Louisiana State University.
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Date Created: 10/13/15
Chapter 3 Nature Nurture and Human Diversity Here we are back to the question of nature vs nurture How much of who we are and what we do is due to our genetic code given to us at conception and how much is due to the environment 7 every nongenetic in uence from prenatal nutrition to the people and things around us Behavioral genetics 7 explores the impact of genetics and environmental factors on 39 differences in the 39 39 39 39 39 and t J 39 39 39 39 processes of groups Genes Our Code for Life Chromosomes are bundles of coiled DNA and are found in every cell that has a nucleus In humans there are 46 chromosomes in every nucleus of every body cell In total there are 23 pairs or kinds of chromosomes in a human nucleus Chromosomes are made up of molecules called DNA deoxyribonucleic acid DNA is made up of genes pieces of genetic material that control or in uence traits Methods for Studying Behavioral Genetics Twin Studies There s a solid logic to twin studies basically people produce two types of twins7 Monozygotic 7 identical 100 shared DNA always same gender Dizygotic 7 fraternal about 50 shared DNA either same gender or different gender Twinned environment 7 the way they are raised and given and treated the same way If monozygotic twins are more similar DNA assumed to be in uential It has been argued that identical twins share more environmental experiences than do fraternal twins 7 could this be a stronger effect on similarity than their shared genes Research seems to say no 7 identical twins treated very similarly by their parents are no more alike than identical twins whose parents tried to treat them differently Separated Twins the anecdotal evidence from identical twins raised apart gives startling insight into the in uence of genes Your book tells the story of 2 Jims separated at birth whose lives were amazingly similar I d like to tell you another story 7 this is from the New York Post 7 September 23 2007 Some things to remember about amazing stories like this 1 If any 2 strangers spent a lot of time together they would discover similarities in their histories 2 Identical twins look alike 7 our appearances affect the way others treat us 3 Adoption agencies tend to place separated twins in similar homes Adoption Studies 7 focus on children who were adopted at birth and brought up by parents not genetically related to them a Compare adopted kids to biological and adoptive parents on some trait b Adopted children have genes of their biological parents Anything acquired environmentally is from their adopted parents Family studies 7 are based on the assumption that if genes in uence a trait close relatives should share that trait more often than distant relatives because close relatives have more genes in common a If genes in uence a trait close relatives should share it more often than more distant relatives Using these methods we can talk about heritability 7 extent to which variation among individuals can be attributed to differing genes This does not refer to the in uence of genes on a trait in one person7it means we can talk about the genetic in uence on the differences between people Do not forget the importance of the environment in determining behavior Gene Environment Interaction From Sandra Scarr 1 Passive genotype environment correlations 7 occur when biological parents provide an environment that matches their own genetic tendencies which the children inherit from them 2 Evocative genotype environment correlations 7 occur because a child s genotype elicits certain types of physical and social environments 3 Active niche picking genotype environment correlations 7 occur when people seek out environments that they find compatible and stimulating The New Frontier Molecular Genetics Molecular genetics 7 attempt to identify specific genes in uencing behavior Most of our traits are polygenic7in uenced by several genes working in concert Evolutionary Psychology Understanding Human Nature Evolutionary psychology 7 the study of the evolution of behavior and the mind using principles of natural selection Natural selection 7 principle that among the range of inherited trait variations those that lead to increased reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations Example Gender differences in sexuality Environmental In uences on Behavior Parents Prenatal Environment 7 the in uence of parents begins early Beyond giving us DNA our parents affect our prenatal environment Experience and Brain Development Once we are born the rearing environment provided by our parents has a huge effect on our developing brains Ex Rosenzweig and Krech s research on rats Rats raised in an enriched environment showed a heavier and thicker brain cortex than rats raised in an impoverished environment If our parents provide us with an enriched environment we will preserve more synaptic connections If those synaptic connected are not used they are pruned How Much Credit or Blame do Parents Deserve Keep in mind that parental in uence on who we later become is most evident at the extremes 7 extremely good parenting and extremely bad parenting Also remember that the outcomes for good parenting are more variable than the outcomes for bad parenting Peer In uence Men resemble the times more than they resemble their fathers Ancient Arab proverb As we get older and our social circles widen peer in uence becomes a better predictor of behavior than parental in uence in some but not all areas Here s a good quote from your text Howard Gardner is trying to sort out parental vs peer in uences Parents are more important when it comes to education discipline responsibility orderliness charitableness and ways of interacting with authority gures Peers are more important for learning cooperation for nding the road to popularity for inventing styles of interaction among people of the same age Cultural In uences Culture 7 behaviors ideas attitudes values and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next Norms standards of right and wrong that set expectations for behavior We want theses behavior rules They give us little social scripts and schemas that make life easier because now you don t have to think about the appropriateness of your behavior You don t have to worry if your behavior is appropriate Ex personal space times of stress roles criminality insanity Culture and the Self Individualistic cultures prize individual achievement and happiness Western cultures tend to value the independent self the self that makes its own decisions and decides its own fate Collectivistic cultures promote the good of the many over the good of the one Eastern cultures tend to value the interdependent self one that is cooperative one that contributes to the group over the individual one that maintains social harmony Gender Development Of all the characteristics that make up who you are one of the most farreaching is your sex Most of human functioning has a gendered cast Sex 7 biological status ofbeing male or female Biological sex is genetically and hormonally determined The fetus becomes a male or female depending on whether it has XY or XX chromosomes and on the balance between the male and female hormones in the bloodstream Hormones have a definite in uence on physical characteristics Besides sex itself hormones can also in uence gender typed behavior Gender Identity 7 the individual s internal sense of being male or female Gender Role 7 social categories of male and female Gender and Aggression o Males aggress overtly women aggress covertly o Relational aggression 7 spreading rumors exclusion etc Gender and Social Power 0 Females are more likely than males to go along with others commands 0 When trying to persuade them otherwise females rely on tact or polite suggestions whereas males are more likely to be forceful and demanding Gender and Social Connectedness 0 Females of all ages exhibit greater emotional disclosures to their parents and their friends than do males 0 This finding is consistent with traditional male concepts of masculinity that emphasize men are not supposed to express emotional concerns and feelings o Rapport vs report talk The Nature of Gender How plastic is gender 0 00000 00 O O O OO O The story of David Reimer AKA BruceBrenda AKA JohnJoan David Reimer was born a normal male infant one of identical twins At 6 months both boys were diagnosed with phimosis Referred for circumcision at 8 months Bruce was circumcised using a Bovie cautery machine 7 not intended for use on extremities and genitals Bruce s penis was destroyed Brian s circumcision was cancelled and he made a full recovery from his condition without further treatment Bruce s parents took him to see John Money7pioneer in the eld of sexual development and gender identity Theory that gender identity was relatively plastic in infancy and developed primarily as a result of social learning from early childhood At 22 months surgery was performed to remove his testes and construct a vagina Especially valid test case of the social learning concept of gender identity Money reported on Brenda s progress as the JohnJoan case describing apparently successful female gender development Brenda did not feel like a girl By 1997 he had undergone surgery again to reverse the reassignment and was living as David Reimer David Reimer took his own life with a gun in 2004 Gender and Child Rearing 1 Equot Social Learning Theory Albert Bandura and Walter Mischel Gender role instruction is no different from any other kind of social learning Children learn gender roles through P Direct tuition 7 AKA differential reinforcement7adults and peers reward kids for behavior considered appropriate and punish them if they depart too far from what is considered gender appropriate 5quot Observational learning 7 children adopt the attitudes and behaviors of variety of samesex models both directcontact models and media models Gender Schema Theory 7 came about in the early 1980 s Gender schemas are networks of gender information a Bem asserts that we apply these gender schemas to the surrounding world and ourselves
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