Bio 121 Final Exam Study Guide (Wiles) (Syracuse University) (Biology 121) (Biology 121 Final Exam Wiles)
Bio 121 Final Exam Study Guide (Wiles) (Syracuse University) (Biology 121) (Biology 121 Final Exam Wiles) BIO 121
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This 21 page Study Guide was uploaded by Holden Hershey on Friday December 5, 2014. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 121 at Syracuse University taught by Wiles in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 1260 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Biology at Syracuse University.
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Date Created: 12/05/14
Small segmented fishlike animals Vertebrate Evolution Cramales 1 VOflODl39CIOC retrapods l I I Jawless hshes Ammoles 6 39 3 9 39 2 K 8 32 1 gt A 2 L 3 s 3 2 m 53 quot2 8 53 3 s 5 2 3 2 5 9 C 59 w 5 A 23 go 9 ga 5 3 8 E 3 2 xg e c 5 s Q Q 32 g 53 82 is as o 2 23 55 E E2 2 O lA g s Jaws bladder vna 923117 Thamuxn Huang Fnuggnon Lancelets Hagfish Lampreys Cartilaginous Fishes Modern Bony Fish Below Swim bladder Nerve cord Dorsal fins Caudal fin Stomach Pelvic fin Intestine Cloaca A uany Is uL Class Amphibia Salamanders Frogs Toads Caecilians Most reproduce in water Amniotic Egg below Class Reptilia Paraphyletic Group Dinosaurs Turtles Lizards Snakes Alligators Dry skin horny scales Lungs with multiple chambers 3 Chambered heart separates oxygen rich and oxygen poor blood Class Aves Birds Feathers Wings light bones Powered ight Four Chambered Heart Endotherms Class Mammalia Hair Mammary Glands Red blood cells without nuclei Endoderm internal generation of heat Monotremes Subclass Duck billed Platypus spiny anteaters Monotremes lay eggs Marsupial Subclass Metathesis Include Pouch animals Kangaroos opossums Young are born in embryonic stages Complete development in mother39s marsupial Nourished with milk from mammary glands Placental Mammals Subclass Eutheria Characterized by placenta For exchange between embryo and mother Problems Facing Earth s Ecosystem Pollution airwater Food Shortage Global Warming Climate Change Habitat Destruction Human Growth Population Ecology Intro Flow of Energy Cycling of Materials Laws of Thermodynamics Exchange Reactions Biotic v abiotic Energy Flow C 3 is r 3 trophic level trophic level trophic level trophic level Decomposers producers primary secondary tertiary saprotrophs consumers consumers consumers Heat Heat Heat Heat Heat 9 2007 Thomson Higher Education Cycling of Materials NT 750 Soil Animal and microorganism Decomposition Photosynthesis plant respiration respiration by land plants t 1 pf 560 9 Combustlon r39 P 39 R i if lt1 quot7l3 M l l I quot 39V 3 quot 14539 1 P u 39 I u fl 39 0 Dissolved 4gt M quot Erosion of 002quot W319 1 limestone to 33000 soquot Paruy Manna form dissolved Burial and compaction to lonn rock limestone H Il1 Thnnngnn LluLA Ealuggbuuu Competitive Exclusion Principle Two species cannot occupy the same niche in the same community for an indefinite period One species is excluded by another as a result of competition for a limiting resource Lecture Notes 1 130121 0 Ecology Energy Cycles Biomes Competitive Exclusion Principle Two species cannot occupy the same niche in the same community for an inde nite period One species is excluded by another as a result of competition for a limited resource Resource Partitioning Evolution of di erences in resource use Reduces competition between similar species Example Dijferent species of Warblers birds inhabit di erent parts of a tree Each obtains nutrients lives in a di erent part of the tree The nonrandom filter of natural selection is responsible for e ective resource partitioning in nature Character Displacement Reduces competition among some species 30 reflected back Less than one billionth of the into space sun39s total energy 0 immediately reaches Earth39s outer pQ tgeabsorbed atmosphere atmosphem 23 runs the P P Less than 1 D hydrological cycle drives the winds and P E ocean currents x All solar energy is ultimately reradiated to space as heat u I J 3939f 39 2 r T F vi A p G39 L lI EV fr nL y g 39 S J V H quot F W photosynthesis vt39rflt W M 39 39 39 J 39 I lr39L39 r 39Wquot Earthnhasiswesons because of the t wI izs airisi T 4 Seasonal Temperature Changes Summer Solstice june 21 Longer day Shorter night Winter Solstice December 21 Longer nigh t Shorter day March Equinox March 21 12 hours ofday 12 hours ofnight September Equinox September 2239 12 hours ofday 12 hours ofnight Heat Energy Can be moved around by winds and ocean currents Huge e ect on climate Energy Flow First Trophic Level Producers Second Trophic Level Primary Consumers Third Trophic Level Secondary Consumers Fourth Trophic Level Tertiary Consumers Fifth Trophic Level Decomposers Initial Energy is absorbedfrom the sun Heat is released and transferred as Energy Flow continues Hvdrologic Cycle Movement oi moist air 40000 Aunosphere Condensatp 13000 p M iM 0 Zlt udf0rmaMgtn V Precipitation on land 71000 111000 Evaporation Precipitation from ocean to ocean 425000 385000 quotb 239i H U L quot5 vaporatlonfromsoll 7 E A 0 ms rivers and lakes 5 2 1 1 40000 Ocean 1 350000000 1 pp v M 7 6 Percolation through soil and porous rock I 1 1 EEO00 O 2007 Thomson Higher Education Carbon Cycle 1 Photosynthesis by plants Carbon Dioxide released as a byproduct 2 Decomposition from soil Soil microorganism respiration Animal Plant Respiration 3 Plants decompose make natural gas over time 4 Natural Gas Oil are harvested by human activity 5 Combustion Human activities release C02 into the atmosphere More carbon dioxide is constantly released and then broken down Carbon Cycle quot m9 mi 750 H 9 So 6 0 Animal and microorganism Decomposition Photosynthesis plant respiration respiration by land plants x b n pe I s I Combustionwr quot human and natural quot395quot I 39 0 39 39 6 0 39 i ggqw mw s EM 5 ii iii M lt 0 1 l l 9 lt39 0 Dissolved k lb 0 Erosion of 002quot WW9 limestone to 33000 SOquot Par y Marine A form diSSOV6d 1500 Qf39 39 39 quotquot 95V Coal CO2 Burial and 9393 I 39 39 39quot fgfga s compaction 0 to form rock limestone 9 0 2 39 Natural gas Coal Illegal Commerce Hunting Commercial Harvest Succession Orderly replacement of one community by another Primary Succession in an area not previously inhabited bare rock Secondary Successionin an area with a preexisting community soil abandoned farm land EVERYTHING RELA TES T0 FLOW 0F ENERGYAND CYCLING OF MATERIALS Biom es A large and distinct terrestrial region that have spec139fic Climates Soil Plants and Animals 400 ropica 0 V 300 39339quot E Temperate forest ran I fO3968t 3 5 200 To 3 C C U 0 3 100 Savanna 9 lt 0 10 O 10 20 30 Average temperature C Arctic Tundra Precipitation Less than 100cm per year Average Temperature 0 C or lower Soil Fertility Low Plant L139fe Scarce Animal Life Scarce Boreal Forest Precipitation 50 150cm per year Average Temperature Around 0 C Soil Fertility Average Plant L139fe Varies Animal Life Average Temperate Rain Forest Precipitation 200cm 300cm per year Average Temperature 10C 20C Soil Fertility High Plant Life Plentiful Animal Life Plentiful Temperate Deciduous Forest Precipitation 1 00cm 200cm per year Average Temperature 10C 20C Soil Fertility Average to High Plant Life Plentiful Need for resources Spacefood water Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Green House Gasses quot Leads to rise in Global Temperature Greenhouse Gases Changes in Selected Atmospheric Greenhouse Gases Preindustrial to Present Estimated Pre 175O Present Gas Concentration Concentration Carbon dioxide 280 ppm 377 ppm Methane 730 ppb 1847 ppb Nitrous oxide 270 ppb 319 ppb Tropospheric ozone 25 ppb 34 ppb CFC12 O ppt 545 ppt CFC11 O ppt 253 ppt Source Carbon lio39ide Information Aiialysis Center Environmental Sciences li39ision Oak Ridge National Llltr lltr ppm 2 parts per million ppb parts per billion ppt parts per trillion 39 lerived from in situ sampling at tlmna Lon Hawaii All other data from Mace Head Ireland monitoring site Important Themes Concepts to be familiar with for the Final Exam Levels of Biological Organization Cell is the basic Unit of life Feedback Mechanisms Concepts from Chemistry Atoms Polarity Compounds Types of Bonds CohesionAdhesion Properties of Water Carbon Organic Molecules lsomers Polymers Macromolecules 4 major macromolecules 9 Protein Structure Function in DNA Replication T ranscription Translation 1 0 Nucleic Acids Types of Nucleotides 11 Di erences between DNA and RNA 12 Biological Membranes and Di usion 13 Active and Passive Transport Which require energy Which do not 14 Di erence between a catabolic reaction and an anabolic reaction 15 Di erence between Endergonic and Exergonic Reactions 01 U ll E gt
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