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Date Created: 12/05/14
Ethics need informed consent must tell them they are in a study and what they are doing in the study Cant stop them from stopping if they feel uncomfortable no harming confidentiality must debrief them after Chapter 2 Spotlight effect being more self conscious of our behavior and appearance than people actually notice Schema cognitive map you have about yourself something you believe about yourself Selfreference effect only know certain things because it relates to you lincoln s birthday don t know it unless it plays a role in your life Possible selves visions of the self depressed people may have unattainable goals or have trouble evaluating their own attributes Social identity define ourselves by the groups we are apart of Social comparison Upward comparison compare yourself to someone who is doing better than you Downward comparison compare yourself to someone doing worse than you Individualism self before others Collectivism whole before the individual Colbert Should I steal medicine to save my life Conventional Postconventional most people don t reach this level Selfconstrual 1 Independent 2 Interdependent Markus and Kitayama book talk about personal space Impact bias overestimating the enduring impact of emotioncausing events 911 Michaela Deprince war orphan to ballerina talks about experiences in village watched as teacher was hacked by a machete Not saying that traumatic events shouldn t affect people Shows people recover Immune neglect tendency to neglect the ability to recover after bad things happen Dual attitude differing automatic and conscious attitudes towards the same object Implicit automatic implicit attitude test pgl22 Explicit conscious Self esteem negative correlation with drug abuse depression and delinquent behavior To help HIV awareness sponsored a soccer team so they had a higher self esteem of themselves Don t make the best decisions because we don t take care of ourselves Ch3 Priming Activating particular associations in memory Different pictures of fire bring up different emotions Wolves commercial Alive inside Oliver sacks man who mistook his Wife for a hat talks about priming effects of music Perceiving and interpreting events don t always see What s there Misinformation effect Elizabeth Loftus incorporating information into an event after being misled false implanted memories Show video and then asking people with specific Word choice changes people s response Had someone come in and steal her stuff and when asked the students had different accounts Confirmation bias or belief perseverance maintain initial cognitions even when belief has been discredited Look for evidence for a point you already believe in which leads to belief perseverance Janay Rice could believe that it Wasn t a big deal or Wont happen again Heuristics mental shortcut Availability heuristic when We hear of something often We think its more common But really hear about it more because it s rare Fear of ying or driving Representative heuristic stereotypes who is the librarian Making assumptions Illusory correlation perceive a relationship when none exists superstitions Because an event happens close to another We create a relationship for cause and effect Fundamental attributional error when you make a mistake its caused by an external cause but with others its due to their personality that they are bad Selffulfilling prophecy Ch4 Attitude positive or negative evaluation thought or belief Behavior Action Nature VS nurture before they were bom kids exposed to more testosterone in the womb were more masculine and liked girls despite sex Generational differences Katherine Hepburn wearing pants was very scandalous during her time however now its not Situations and person Affect different people differently People often choose their situations People often create their situations Not responsible for the links at the end of PowerPoint Chicago bears pro bowl wide receiver Brandon Marshall Diagnosis of borderline personality disorder emotional reactivity impulsivity confusion lose sense of themselves parasuicidal behavior cutting not a real attempt more a cry for help Unmasking masculinity helping boys become connected men ted talks pope had experiments with orphans where he left babies without any connections no play talking or touch All the kids died Social isolation are 3x more likely to get cv disease Infant boys are more expressive then female infants Men openly express anger contempt pride Male emotional funnel system as they grow are taught to only express a few emotions Test Review 1 50 mc questions Daniel gilbert irrevocable commitment Married at first sight Yale baby lab nicer to nice puppets Didn t like the mean one and liked to punish the mean one Liked the puppet that had similarities cereal Researcher didn t know which doll was the good or bad doll One that liked the cereal got helped they liked the one that helped When they saw the different one being punished they like the punisher Arab Americans forward news when it was bad with an Arabic name but not when it was good Like good guys people like us like helping It was statistically significant Researchers name if there s a picture if we talked about it in class Power ranger study boys who watched it became more aggressive Can have both one and neither Mundane realism is it something that will actually happen Baby labhave seen puppets Finger in teeth to smilemore likely to be happyfacial feedback loop study is not mundane realism EXperimental realism do the people in the experiment believe that it s real Festinger cognitive dissonance study had them to do a boring task and needed them to tell the next and everyone heard the response day 1 the responses were scattered and over the course of the experiment began to average around 2 inches Contagious yawning Provine showed pictures of eyes and it was a better indicator than the mouth to see if someone was yawning Solomon Asch Line eXperiment which comparison line was the closest to the standard line Had confederates of the experiment who would purposely say the same wrong answer In 37 of the experiments people conformed Normative In uence you conform because you want to fit in Informational In uence People accept evidence about reality provided by other people waiting in line for the bathroom stand with people you see from your ight Aspects to increase conformity 1 Group size larger group 2 Unanimity everyone gives same answer 3 Cohesion dynamic of the group relies on everything being together band class Some groups are the opposite like art schools 4 Status age position role models more likely to follow them 5 Public response if people have to say their response publicly conformity increases 6 Prior commitment if you already said something its hard to go back and change your mind Conformity following indirect commands never told you have to do something Obedience following direct commands Milgram original test test obedience told people to shock a confederate in increasing intensity in another room every time they got an answer wrong Two people one a teacher and the other learner Used a real shock machine but learner wasn t connected testing memory and punishment Played a recording of the learner screaming trying to leave and silence 65 went all the way to 450 volts enough to kill Participants were stressed some stopped People did it because of diffusion of responsibility rationalized it by saying the researchers were the ones in control Try to make the fundamental attribution error and just say these people were bad Not one person ever got up to check on the other person Experiment requires that you continue All men Revisiting milgrim not scientific stopped at 150 volts 2 people confederate stopped more people continued because they didn t want to fail partner Both men and women McDonalds workerfake call to hold girl Zimbardo Roger Fisher harder to kill one person than killing everyone In order to launch missles put the codes on someone s heart and in order to get it must kill the one person Resisting persuasion Challenging beliefs Inoculation programs Developing counterarguments teachers asking kids what will they say if someone offers them drugs Public commitment if you make a public commitment to something you are more likely to follow through William McGuire Attitude inoculation Against peer pressure Poison parasite use an ad that you are familiar with to scare you into not doing something Marlboro man I miss my lung bob CH 8 group in uence Group minimum of 2 people interacting Social facilitation strengthen dominant response with an audience If you re good you re better with an audience if you suck you are worse Social loafing don t pull your weight assume that others will do it for you Deindividuation loss of individualism people would do things they wouldn t necessarily do alone Minority in uence Leadership taskfocused sometimes exclusively on getting the task done Social more focused on the relationship of the group Transformational somebody you interact with you are different for having known them Snow Falling on Cedars movie has Walt and Mildred Woodward opposing Japanese internment They wrote articles in their newspaper against these internment camps In doing so they slowly changed the way people thought about interment camps Ch 9 Prejudice Government don t ask don t tell policy Media Banksless likely to give money to women Motivational sources of prejudice Scapegoat theory displacement bad feeling and you take it out on someone who is normally a safe target other than the source of the feeling Frustrationaggression hypothesis Archival data instead of doing experiments look at records When cotton prices were low there were more lynchings There s a correlation not cause and effect Realistic group con ict theory completion and scarcity of resources lead to prejudice Begin to think positive of us and negative of them Social identity theory we create social schemas and heuristics We categorize identify and compare Ingroup bias like the self serving bias except applied to your group This is due to a need for status importance and belonging Group identity increases when you re smaller or you re threatened Outgroup homogeneity effect perception that members of the outgroup are all alike But in the your own group you notice the differences among each other Ownrace bias when asked to identify people of the same race they were better than identifying those of other races Vanman facial muscles indicated more frowning with outgroupautonomic response Distinctivenessz recognize people from the out group when they are very different JustWorld phenomena people think that the person did something wrong and that s why it happened Monday moming quarterback Stigma consciousness expect people will judge you on a stereotype you are more likely to fall into that stereotype Stereotype threat Claude Steele disrupting concem that one will be negatively evaluated bc of stereotype On a math test telling women they were worse than math at men they usually were If nothing was said they scored a lot more closely to men A class divided Jane Eliotteacher told students blue eyes are better than brown eyes to teach discriminationl prejudice Riceville Iowa After this experiment they all seemed to do better They bonded This experiment had a lot of negativity from the town Had a huge impact on the participants Only top group could drink from the fountain got extra time at recess couldn t mix during play could have seconds Bottom group had identifying mark collar told they were not as smart selfish Science of love the Aron Study asks males on a swinging bridge and on a sturdy bridge to participate in a study and then to call the attractive researcher back later Excitation transfer transfer excitement from a scary situation to an attractive person Fight or ight mode shallow breaths pupil dilates heart races Sympathetic nervous system works the same when you get angry love nervous or scared Competition over resources Perceived injustice think that you aren t getting everything you deserved Someone gets more than you of something Misperception misinterpreting behaviors as threats or misinterpreting situations or expectations How to achieve peace Contact Contact hypothesis interacting with someone from an outgroup where you are treated as equals equal status contact gets rid of the boundaries that once separated you The Help started to talk to the white lady because of contact Equality makes it better for contact hypothesis NonZerosum games winwin cooperation not competition Superordinate goals allows outgroups to work together Sherif R0bber s cave experiment summer camp eXperiment Took kids to camp and separated them into 2 groups the rattlers and the eagles After a couple of days created prejudice against the other group If they asked questions about the other group they would say they lie steal Created superordinate goals a heavy water pump was broken needed both teams to help to fix it This reduced the prejudice and con ict between groups Cooperation Communication Remember the Titans Examples of increasing prejudice and discrimination 1 Revised frustrationaggression hypothesis refused service at the bar when daughter found out dad wasn t getting coaching job she kicked him The poster fightpower struggle between 2 leaders 2 Scarcity of resources scarcity of spots on the team The poster 1968 Olympic games where they put up the symbol of black power fightpower struggle between 2 leaders Decreasing prejudice and discrimination 3 Superordinate goals winning gameschampionships not having to practice anymore 4 Contact hypothesis With equal status same rooms seats on the bus same aggression singing forcing them together with everything Cooperation Crossracial friendships Shelton and Richeson don t need it reduces prejudice Jackie Robinson change is inevitable equalstatus puncture the norm of prejudice no violence 42Observational leaming kid watches father yelling out racist slurs and began following his dad Pee Wee Reese put his arm around Jackie Robinson maybe one day we will all wear 42 April 15
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