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by: Ariel Kautzer


Ariel Kautzer
GPA 3.83

D. Shipka

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This 57 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ariel Kautzer on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to MC 2000 at Louisiana State University taught by D. Shipka in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see /class/223145/mc-2000-louisiana-state-university in Journalism and Mass Communications at Louisiana State University.

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MC Notes Exam 2 4302009 61000 PM faFebruary 9 2009 Don t let the politicians persuade you Era of Responsibility February 11 2009 Newspapers and Their Social Impact Chapter 8 o History The Inverted Pyramid Most Important Facts in 1St Paragraph Supplementary Information o History PENNY PRESS and Mass Circulation 0 NEW YORK SUN launched by printer Benjamin Day in 1833 Price is a penny per copy instead of subscription sales Increased literacy rising middle class and improved printing New definition of news focus on middle class not elite Advent of professional reporters to collect news The rise of wire services which relayed news stories and info from around the world o History YELLOW JOURNALISM feeds demand Hearst NY WORLD vs Pulitzer NY Journal 0 Sensational Reporting aka Yellow Journalism Overstatement of fact Emphasis on undue aspects of the situation Introduction of bias Association of the subject of the story with irrelevant issue Frivolous treatment of story OverProduced screaming headlines graphic illustrations o History NEW YORK TIMES and Just the Facts Modern Journalism Emphasis on facts Objectivity Attempt to report all sides of a story Thorough coverage of a story Ochs purchases the TIMES in 1896 focuses on thorough news coverage builds circulation THE TIMES becomes one of America s great newspapers History INTERPRETIVE JOURNALISM Debuts in 19205 Interpretive Journalism n Emphasis on facts but makes greater attempt to analyze complex news events a Objectivity is enhanced by indepth coverage and analysis a PressRadio War o Can news be copyrighted SHNO o History LITERARY FORMS OF JOURNALISM o Advocacy Journalism a reporter actively promotes a particular cause or viewpoint 0 Precision Journalism Attempts to push news more in the direction or science ie polls 0 Literary Journalism New Journalism adapted fictional story lines to nonfictional material and indepth reporting Ex In Cold Bl00d JFK movie February 13 2009 Ca tegorizing News o Consensusoriented journalism 0 Carries local articles on local schools social events town government etc Because of small advertising ba se journalists are careful not to offend local advertisers non daily local papers o Conflictorientedjournalism 0 Front page news is defined by events issues or experiences that deviate from social norms Journalists often maintain adversarial relationships with politicians and public officials national and metro dailies Ethnic Minority and oppositional newspapers o Immigrant and ethnic press 0 Began with Ben Franklin Philadelphische Zeitung 1732 Several hundred papers exist in 40 languages o African American Newspapers 0 Freedom s journal began giving antislavery voice to African Americans Fought many of the jim crow laws as well as social injustices around the country c Spanish language newspapers 0 New York s El diariola prensa Number of Hispanic newspapers has drastically fallen The newshole o Most dailies devote one half to two thirds of their pages to advertising These ads are positioned in the paper first The rest of the space is the newshole 35 to 50 So why are newspapers deciling o People getting old 0 In 1965 a Gallup study showed that 67 OF AMERICANS UNDER 35 HAD READ A NEWSPAPER THE DAY BEFORE 0 BY 1990 THAT PERCENTAGE WAS DOWN TO 30 o Readership declines goodbye ladies o By 2000 newspaper readership among women was down by five percent 49 of women read a newspaper once a week as opposed to 54 of women preferred to read books and magazines in their spare time o Declining circulation 0 As of June 302008 newspaper ad revenue was only 113 billion down 86 from last year Although the newspaper remains the dominant local media Changing demographics psychographics Retail consolidation and growth of major retailers Growth of other media including direct mail and magazines and network TV 0 Online competition for readership and want adds o Ownership trends 0 O O O O 0 Growth of newspaper group owners 0 Decrease in the number of cities with competing newspapers o Declining circulation and the internet 0 Broadband penetration is at 57 o Largest circulation decrease between 2002 and 2006 in countries where broadband connections exceed 20 Online vs traditional Online Traditional Gathersevaluates organizes info Transmitted digitally Prints edition as needed to cover circulation area No length limitations ships by truck to distributors carrier delivery to Interactivity subscribers Cheaper to produce How to make a profit Economics o Advertising Revenue 0 National 5 0 Local 50 o Classified 40 o Preprinted 5 o Circulation Revenue o Expenses 0 Editorial Sales Mechanical Printing Distribution Administrative 0 O O O 0 February 16 2009 Magazines in the Age of Specialization c There is a magazine for everything Shipka doesn t like it because it creates false images Bigness of the Industry o 24000 different domestic and international consumer magazines o 9600 trade magazines available o Nearly 1000 new conSumer title s each year c 22000 consumer and trade magazines published in America Magazines Top Ten Circulations 10 Family Circle PNWPWP NFDED Woman s Day Time Ladies Home Journal Good Housekeeping National Geographic Better Homes and Gardens Reader s Digest AARP Bulli ten AARP the Magazine History Tracing Magazine Development Colonial Period Aimed at educated urban literate audiences After the Revolution Political and topical articles Penny Press Era Written for the middle class Magazine Boom Available money better printing lowered priCes special mailing ra tes muckrakers The 20th Century Specialization the digest the news magazine the pictorial magazine also the rise of photojournalism Some Classic Magazines o Saturday Evening Post Romanticized American virtues o Reader s Digest Applicability lasting interest and constructiveness o Time was interpretive journalism o Life was passalong journalism The Fall of General Interest Magazines o TV Guide Electronic media begins to change environment 0 People After the demise of Look and Life it filled the need for celebrity February 18 2009 Consumer vs Trade Magazines o Consumer Magazines 0 Appeal to specific audience 0 Most sell advertising on about 50 of their pages 0 Have larger circulation base and are more profitable o Trade Magazines 0 Specialized business publications often required for a particular job industry or profession Trade magazines do not compete with consumer magazines Not found on newsstands Lower circulations and revenues High subscriptions or controlled free circulation making money from ad revenue Other Types of Magazines o Three Content Categories 0 Literary reviews and academic journals 0 Newsletters 0 Public relations magazines Newspapers are for everything magazines are not 0 O O 0 Economics o Revenue 0 Subscriptions 0 Singlecopy sales 0 Advertising o Expenses for a typical dollar 0 Advertising 9 cents o Circulation 31 cents 0 Editorial 9 cents o Manufacturingdistribution 40 cents o Other costs 1 cent 0 Administration 10 cents OwnershipBusiness Trends of Magazines o Increasing Foreign Ownership o Greater Concentrated of Ownership o Continued Specialization o OnlineElectronic Editions Magazines Online Ezines o May be an extension of printed version a duplicate or totally new material o PROBLEM Advertising cannot guarantee profitability o Fun Fact 0 There are now an estimated 10000 magazines online o Why we like online magazines 0 Online publishing is cheaper 0 On line publishing allows us to reach a new type of consumer 0 Online publishing allows greater freedom of content and presentation 0 Online publishing allows greater feedback an reader services c PROBLEM Profitability resource drain Magazine Ownership o Mergers and acquisitions have resulted in an industry dominated by large corporations 0 Preliminary planning Ideas converted into subjects for articleseManaging editor gives assignments to staff writers or freelancerseMiniature dummyeEditorial and production schedulesearticles edited typeset on computers9To Press February 27 2009 Books and the power of the world Chapter 10 Colonial America Religious themes sentimental fiction political pamphletss Penny Press Era Impact of printing technology and growth of literacy The Paperback Boom Dime Novels Early 20th Century Commercialization of publishing houses mass market dependence on banks Post WWII New channels of distribution growth of text and recreational publishing March 2 2009 Types of Books Trade books cookbooks self help technology and computer publications Professional books law business medicine etc Textbooks Mass Market Paperbacks Stephen King Erica Jong Danielle Steel John Grisham Religious bibles hymnals spiritual and inspirational Reference Dictionaries atlases medical manuals University Press Books encourage diverse subjects Audiences Two thirds of all books are purchased by people over 40 Readers under 25 account for 4 Government continues to make education a priority thus encouraging book sales Audiobased book sales continue to grow Publishing the Book Getting Ideas into Print 3 main sources 0 submissions from agents 0 unsolicited manuscripts from authors 0 book ideas generated from editor STEPS TO GETTING A BOOK PUBLISHED 0 Author submits a proposal 0 Proposal forwarded to an acquisitions editor 0 If evaluation is favorable contract is signed and author begins work As chapters come in editors review book Mechanics of the book are checked writing grammar etc Design decisions are made production is scheduled Book is printed bound and shipped O O O 0 March 4 2009 Books Online Authors showcase Promotion Book Selling 0 Barnes amp Noble 0 Amazoncom Banned Books Frankenstein the theme trying to create manike god Black Beauty Adventures of Ton Sawyer The Bible The Call of the Wild Twelfth Night Hamlet Macbeth King Leer Little Red Riding Hood underage drinking A Look Ahead Ondemand printing Goodbye publishing houses Custom Textbooks No need for college book publishers Growing importance of the Internet Look for more etailingquoton ine might be better form of book distribution Mass Com Notes 4302009 61000 PM January 14 2009 Chapter 1 Mass Communication What is communication o Communication is the process of creating symbol systems that convey information and meaning Ex Language pictures motion and still computer codes or language Morse code How does communication work Sender source or encoder Message Channel here s the Mass Media part Receiver decoder Feedback Shared experience What is culture o The symbols of expression that individuals groups and societies use to make sense of daily life and to articulate their values 0 When we listen to music read a book watch television or surf the web we are trying to connect with someone or something H WFWN Fquot A Little History o Oral and Written forms3 0 Oral traditions passed by poets teachers and tribal storytellers 0 Once the written alphabet was created the wealthy used manuscripts to convey society 0 Oral debates were a way to discuss public issues o The Printed Word 0 The printing press introduces the first mass marketed product in history books Paved the way for major social and cultural changes by transmitting knowledge across national boundaries o Electronic and Digital delivery 0 Invention of the telegraph 1840s began instantaneous information 0 0 Rise of film early 19005 Radio 19205 Television 19505 and the Internet 19905 continued the trend o Media Convergence o The technological merging of content or media marketers 0 What s next January 16 2009 Shifting Values in Culture o PreModern period pre18005 o Peasants merchants farmers 0 Local communication reach 0 Relied on oral comm And the pen home 0 Believed in natural or divine order o Modern 1800519505 Industrial Revolution 0 Factory workers managers national CEO s 0 National communication reach 0 Relied on printelectronic and typewriter home 0 Individualism rationalism antitradition 0 Print based controlled by publishing families o Postmodern 19505pre5ent 0 Temporary workers managers global CEO s Global communication Relies on electronic or digital transmission Antihierarchy skepticism about science diversity multiculturalism irony Soumwhy do we hate the media o Maybe because its so diverse 0 Documentary vs reality shows 0 Historical Drama s vs anything with Tori Spelling 0 Classical Music vs Britney Spears 0 Newspapers vs National Enquirer o Maybe we just don t want to open up our minds Selective Exposure o Audiences shape media to fit their own perceptions O O O o Audiences typically seek messages and produce meanings that correspond with their own cultural beliefs o This makes audiences active not passive Popular Culture Pop Culture o High culture identified as good taste and often supported by wealthy patrons and corporate donors Fine Art o Low culture Aligned with questionable tastes of the masses who enjoy the commercial junk circulated by the mass media Culture as a Skyscraper where do your tastes fit o Some concerns 0 Popular culture may distract some students from serious literature and philosophy Popular culture exploits classic works of literature Popular culture has a shortlife span Pop culture undermines or exploits high culture driving out higher forms of higher forms of culture and cheapening public life 0 O 0 January 21 2009 Free marketplace of Ideas Open Discussion o exposes the false o Prepares society for stresses and strains that work to tear civilization apart but there are different models of press freedom o Authoritarian model general public needs guidance from the elite ruling class Criticism is not tolerated RUSSIA o Communist or State model press control resides in government Some government criticism is tolerated but not if it challenges the basic premise of state authority CHINA o Libertarian model encourages vigorous government criticism and supports the highest degree of freedom No restrictions o Social Responsibility model press should act as a watchdog to make sure its leaders have the public interest at heart Fourth Estate PR amp Democracy o Censorship as prior restraint courts cannot block any publication or speech before it occurs o Same standard of protection is not necessarily accorded to commercial speech 0 Joe Camelcigs 0 False Advertising 0 Calvin Klein basement videos Defamation libel and slander o A is a falsehood that generates public hatred contempt ridicule injury to reputation O O O 0 January 23 2009 Legal Controls Chapter 16 o Defamation 0 Plaintiff must prove Print broadcast electronic communication Heshe was identifiable Actual injury occurred financial reputation emotionmental Communication was malicious or negligent New York Times v Sullivan quotactual malice as false or reckless disregard for truth Reckless disregard the defendant entertained serious doubts as the truthfulness of the statement 0 Defense against defamation Honest purpose Lack of malicious intent Mark McGuire and his brother Open Forum eg theater public display The Fair Comment Defense o Used by critics Movie and theatre Environmental groups Those companies that sell there wares Truth is relative Invasion of Privacy o Addresses a person s right to be left alone Intrusion in which unauthorized recording devices are used secretly The publication of private matters such as health sex and economic conditions The unauthorized appropriation of a person s name image for advertising or other commercial benefit Copyright c Copyright does not project ideas but only the specific ways in which those ideas are expressed o Authorship is defined in 7 categories 0 Literary works Musical works Dramatic works Pantomimes and Choreography works Pictorial graphic or sculptural works Movies 0 Sound Recordings c Copyright protection 0 Author s life 70 years 0 Business or organization 95 years from first publication Was extended 20 more years because of Mickey Mouse Public domain vs private profit Trademark Infringement o Capitalizing on reputation o Intent to confuse public 0 O O O O o Similarity of organizations o Evidence of active protection of trademark o Unique o Misappropriate personality voice image o Violation of right of publicity 0 Only celebrity can cash in on fame Fair Use c Need permission for 0 Advertising promotions o Context of quote 0 Multiple Copies o Quote and attribute copyrighted material without permission 0 Limited copies for criticism comment research Obscenity c To be judged obscene a work must meet three criteria 0 Work is of a prurient interest according to community standards Material depicts or describes sexual conduct in a patently offensive way 0 Material as a whole lacks serious literacy artistic political or scientific value 0 January 26 2009 Media Literacy and Effects Chapter 151 Are you a cynic or a critic c To be literate about media you need strike a balance between taking a critical position developing knowledgeable positions and becoming tolerant of diverse forms of expression January 28 2009 5 Steps to Media Literacy 1 Description 0 Identify the programs articles strategies subjects identify the contents 2Analysis o Isolate patterns that call for closer attention 3 Interpretation 0 Determine the meanings of the patterns you analyzed Ex The sowhat question 4 Evaluation 0 Making an informed judgment You re not a critic but judge 5 Engagement 0 Determine if the program actively best serves democracy Questions about Media Consumption and Impact o Does media have a direct impact on you c Does media make you violent o What positive influences do you get from the media o How does media influence your thinking about social and political issues Effects of Mass Media Direct or Indirect Assumption of media s direct influence comes from assumed success of World War I propaganda campaigns 0 Government sells bonds to finance the war effort 0 Government creates support for the war among skeptical public The Magic Bullet or HypodermicNeedle Model o The media shoot potent effects into unsuspecting victims Audience is extremely passive January 30 2009 Effects of Mass Media Direct or Indirect o Reactions to the War of the Worlds broadcast begin to change assumptions about media s powerful effects 0 Research reveals that people have selective perceptions 0 People begin to doubt the absolute power of the media The Minimal Effects Model o Selective exposure we pay attention to media content that is most familiar 0 Media effects largely depend on the consumer s predisposition Selective retention We retain messages that reinfOrce our values and attitudes 0 Most influences people are uneducated poor and those who have no prior views or exposure o Uses and Gratifications Model Viewers will actively engage in media consumption depending on the individual psychological needs that must be met He believes this but we don t have tocause this is America 0 Fails to address questions surrounding medias impact on society Theories Explaining Media Effects o Agenda Setting Media determine prominent social issues by the stories they decide to cover Media tells us twat to think about 0 Complicated by more TV channel availability and interactive media such as the Web o Cultivation Theory Heavy media consumption may develop perceptions about reality 0 Most influenced people are uneducated poor and those who have no prior views or exposure o Spiral of Silence Theory We keep our views to ourselves if we believe our views are in the minority for fear of isolation o Social Learning Theory We imitate acts of violence or aggression as presented in the media 0 Uses 4 steps attention retention motor production and motivation Cultural Approaches to Media Research o Cultural Studies how people make meaning apprehend reality and order experience through cultural symbols in print and visual media 0 Textual analysis is one research method 39to use February 2 2009 What is News o Information that enables citizens to make intelligent decisions but does it make an impact or are we on overload o Newsworthiness information most worthy of transformation into news stories Timeliness Proximity Prominence Human Interest Usefulness Novelty Deviance Other Values in Journalism o Neutrality o Individualism focuses on people not organizations The most prominent value c EthnocentrismReporters especially in foreign coverage judge other countries and cultures on the basis of how they live up to or imitate the US o Responsible Capitalism Journalists sometimes naively assume that businesspeople compete with one another to maximize profits for the increased prosperity of all o Smalltown Pastoralismfavor the small over the large rural over urban Ethics and the News Media o Absolutist Every decision either right or wrong o Existentialist Decisions are based on immediate practical choice o Situationalist Decisions based on which would cause the least harm most good Other Ethical Issues o Deploying Deception o Invading Privacy o Conflict of interest Reporting Rituals Getting a good story Getting a story first 0 Herd Journalism when reporters follow a story in such large groups that the profession comes under fire Relying on experts Balancing story conflict Acting as adversaries TV Journalism o Many differences with print 0 TV is technology based meaning it has justify the expense even when there is no story TV must make a visual show for audiences TV relies on the viewers trust with reporters whereas print relies on objectivity o The Sound Bite Pretty face and happy talk culture Visual language and critical limits BIASED journalism The New Face of Journalism Public Journalism more community involvement but does it pander to what the community wants to hear Fake news and satiric journalism The blogisphere O O 0 TEST IS THURSDAY FEB 5 STUDYQQ Exam 3 4302009 61000 PM Sex in The CinemaThe Beginning First movie shot in April 1896 The Kiss The beginning c There was always a preoccupation with sex The End of Sex The Hays Code o The post master general Will Hayes 1933 he banned 0 Adultery No passion Seduction and Rape Sex White Slavery Miscegenation sex relationships between the white and black races 0 Sex hygiene and venereal diseases 0 Scenes of actual child birth even in silhouette 0 Children s sex organs NEVER exposed In movies 0 O O O O Stag Films o Itty Bitty Pornographies Where The Boys Are to Deep Throat 1960s ish o Early Beginnings of a New Age 0 June 1957 Roth vs US No redeeming social value 0 Hollywood distinctly conservative 0 Religious Boards and censors have much power o The Nudie Cuties o Cinematic Burlesque Shows 0 Short nonlinear moviescheap and easy to make Shown in driveins especially in the South and disreputable movie houses 1959 The Immoral Mr Tees was the biggest movie at the time o The First Hit 1964 Beatles 0 O O 0 Kennedy Assassinated in 1963 European invasion turning away from all things American Hollywood sticks to formula Mondo Cane like the first reality show o The Pioneers O 0 Russ Meyer American Preferred exuberant well endowed women Exploitative sexist violent Dealt with the lower class Simplistic political Radley Metzger American though filmed throughout Europe Preferred strong self possessed modern women Equality among the sexes sex was meant to be enjoyed by both Dealt with the upper class Complex nonpolitical n The Alley Cats o Censorships Last Stand 19671969 0 O O O O O O O I am Curious Yellow 1968 contains full female and male nudity New York Court declares it obscene Defended by sociologists psychologists and art critics Court of Appeals overturn it on grounds of intellectual effort Huge Success at the Box Office President s Nixon s commission on Porn Formation of the MPAA s rating code 1968 Came up with G PG and R Then came up with X Vietnam drug hippie culture has a strong effect O 0 Hollywood begins to take notice Midnight Cowboy becomes first X rated movie to win best picture at Academy Awards Movies become more daring and accepted March 1 1 2009 Mid60s and the European Influence O O O O 0 Most N European countries decriminalize pornography Less conservative attitude towards sex The Art Film Mystique I A Women 1966 canned confiscated wildly popular Took advantage of changing gender roles Soft Goes Hard 0 O O O O Mona 1970 because 1St hardcore movie to have a linear storyline Continued influence from Europe More provocative subject matter explored Deep Throat becomes 1St hardcore mass audience hit Gay Porn also became popular in 19705 The 70s and 80s porno chic describe the wave of pornographic movies that appeared in mainstream movie houses of the united states for the first time 0 Emmanuel softcoreEuropean movie that you could take your girlfriends to It was more romantic The Advent of the VCR O O O 0 197576 1St consumer marketing VHS2 hr vs Beta1hr Movies were about 99 People could now enjoy adult material in the privacy of their home In 1978 when fewer than 1 of American homes had VCRs over 75 of VHS tapes sold were pornographic Some have suggested that Sony s Betamax lost to VHS despite technological superiority because Sony refused to allow the porn industry to use their format March 13 2009 Radio Invention and Stuff Ch 3 cannot see radio waves or electricity History Marconi s Little Invention Telegraph History Radio Talks Reginald Fessenden Christmas Eve 1906 O Holy Night Transmitting AM Radio Daytime Ground Waves and Sky Waves AM Amplitude modulator Need a tower 0 That sends out signals At night the signal is better because there is no air traffic n Ionosphereatmospheric dust moisture Etc FM frequency modulator o Need a tower 0 has actual direction in the way it sends signals 0 signals can bounce off of objects History Here Comes the Gov t 2 Factors o Titanic crash 0 Wireless equipment plays a critical role in finding ship o Government SupportRegulation 0 Radio Act of 1912 addresses the problems of amateur radio operators cramming the airways 5 More Factors o Post WWI Big Business Steps In Marconi Fessenden and GE Development of Improved Receivers o 17 million radios sold between 19251930 Radio goes commercial The Emergence of Networks Gov t SupportRegulation 0 Radio Act of 1927 creates the Federal Radio Commission meaning that companies do not own their channels but could license them as long as they operated in public interest Historycontinued o The Depression 0 Radio ContentEscapism and Reality 0 Communications Act of 1934 0 Birth of FM WWII 0 Radio thrives war coverage Innovation an Change 19451954 0 Television begins to kill radio 0 Radio looks for a new formula Radio Begins Targeting Audiences o Transistors developed in 1947 0 Experiments with limited play lists 0 Targets teenagers o The rise of TOP 40 radio stations and FM The Rise of Radio Music Format 0 Format Radio Rotation Playing the top songs many times during the day Day segmented into parts ex 610 am 10am3pm etc Best DJ s would be put on in morning and afternoon cause that s when everyone was listening March 16 2009 Sound Recording and Popular Music Chap 3 History Edison s phonograph 1877 Berliner s gramophone 1887 Nickelodeons 1890 cylinders The Victrola 1906 first disc player Popular Music Content Sentiment and Innovaton 0 John Philip Sousa father of the American March 0 Ragtime piano styling 0 Jazz The World s 1St Rising Star 0 Enrico Caruso A Land Before Time PreRecording Era o Tin Pan Alley a nickname for America s giant music publishing business 0 Sheet music sales were aimed at instrumentplaying consumers Popular songs were spread through live performances Primitive recording available in the 19205 CARTER FAMILY COUNTRY The Impact of Radio on the Record Industry live vs canned music The Great Depression 0 Saved by a nickel and juke boxes WWII and After Shellac goes to war American Federation of Musicians strike 19421944 Free record sent to radio stations Magnetic recording tape 1947 Columbia 33gt 13 long playing record LP RCA 45rpm extendedplay record Small recording companies Radio as a promotional device New records could be mailed Record Clubsthe album was more durable The 40 s The Decade of Frank o The 1 popular artist of the century 0 O O O O O O O O O O March 18 2009 Rock and Roll 0 Youth Culture 0 Cars and teens and denim and leather 0 Roots in black rhythm and blues white popular music country and western and jazz Disc jockey Alan Freed Calls it ROCK AN D ROLLquot o The 50 s The King Arrives o EViS American Bandstand o Dick Clark Rock Goes Commercial o A New look Ricky Nelson Frankie Avalon Paul Anka Fabian 0 Pat Boone o The day the Music Died plane crash3 died o Here Come the Girls 0 Connie Francis Typical Girl Next Door 0 O O O 0 Brenda Lee Country o The Nashville Sound softens up the twang March 20 2009 o The British Invasion 0 The Beatles o Transitions 19605 0 Sgt Pepper 0 The Who and rock opera 0 The Band and Country Rock 0 Motown 0 Heavy metal o Softer Style 0 James Taylor 0 Carole King 0 Carly Simon c 19705 0 my gosh it5 DISCO o Exemplifies fun times 0 More style than substance THE DAY DISCO DIED JULY 12 1979 o Disco Rebellion Punk and the late 705 o Harder lyrics 0 Johnny Rotton 0 Steve Dahl Gary Meier and WLS The 805MTV o Began August 1 1980 o Incorporated state of the art technology 0 Added visual element to music FIRST SONG PLAYED ON MTVVIDEO KILLED THE RADIO STAR BY THE BUGGLESTHE SECOND WAS YOU BETTER RUN BY PAT BENATAR The GoGos the start of the female rock movement GIRLS JUST WANNA HAVE FUN CYNDI LAUPER MULLETS 90STHE RISE OF HIP HOP o 1990sa little bit of everything 0 rap country grunge techno heavy metal latin international 4 Generalizations o no one knows what will or won t become a hit o promotion is extremely important o conglomerates dominate the industry o the record industry is a unique blend of business and talent Organization in the Record Industry o Talent o Production o Distribution o Retail 0 O O O O Rackjobber person that puts the music on the rack TOP 6 record companies 1 Sony Records Columbia Epic JAPAN 2 Time Warner Reprise Elektra Atlantic Warner Bros US 3 RCA Ariola Arista GERMANY 4 Polygram Motown Mercury A amp M NETHERLANDS 5 EMI Group Capitol EMI UNITED KINGDOM 6 MCA Geffen CANADA Making a CD or Tape 1 Produce a demo 2 Sell the demo c or hire a manager to sell the demo 3 Record a master tape 4 Mix down the multiple tracks into a twotrack master 5 Reproduce the master on tape and disc for manufacture 6 Give a preview to the promotion department COSTS AND PROFITS OF A TYPICAL CD o Retailer s expenses and profit 500 o Manufacturer s Profit 294 o Manufacturer s Costs 0 Advertising and Promotion 200 0 Artists royalty 160 0 Packaging 130 0 Manufacturing expense 125 0 Recording Expense 65 0 Payment to musicians trust fund 65 0 Freight 09 o Distributors expenses and profit 150 1668 35 Under 30 30 Under 19 5050 Male Female Online o Promotion o Retail 0 Traditional 0 InternetSpecific o Music Clubs o Company Sites o A possible distribution channel A Look Ahead o Internet 0 Distribution 0 More live music programming o Double sided DVD 0 Hours of musicvideomultimedia Careers o Entry 0 O 0 Engineering Creative Business 0 Mobility 0 Most common route to top management is through the production sales and distribution o Related Careers 0 O O O O 0 Agents Personal managers Concert promotion Music publishing Retailing Marketing March 25 2009 The Development of Television Chapters 56 History Early TV Experiments o TV developed by Russian lab assistant Vladimir Zworykin and Idaho teenager Philo Farnsworth in 1920s 1930 Farnsworth patents the first TV RCA sues and loses First time TV is Patented History Early TV Publicity o In magazines History 1941 O O O O Costed 3950 Early Consumer TV Sets FCC adopts analog standard that remain until today 525line imag30fps NTSC electrical system FCC set channels 112 on Very High Freq VHF Channels 1483 as Ultra High Frequency UHF EARLY TV HAD 13 CHANNELS AND IT BEGAN AT 6AM WITH THE FARM REPORT AND WENT OFF AT 1 AM AND EVERY TV STATION HAD TO PLAY THE NATIONAL ANTHEM BEFORE THEY SIGNED OFF History Early Consumer TV Sets o WWII and Korean War prevented the growth of television in the 1940s History TV Blossoms During it GOLDEN AGE o TV attracts radio s stars c There is no formula for TV shows program types are experimental o Affluent sophisticated audiences buy first TV receivers History Television Grows and Prospers o Early TV stations owned by newspapers radio stations o Networking develops with Coaxial Connections o 1956 Ampex Company invents videotape Coming of Age Dealing with Television o Sponsorship s of early television programs become a problem o Quiz shows were frequently rigged to give sponsors the right to choose players that appealed to the public 1950 s UHF Color and Network Dominance o By 1960 over 90 percent of American households had TV o 559 stations were in operation TV advertising had passed the billion dollar mark in 1955 o UHF channels early promise failed March 30 2009 Years of Turmoil TV Content in the 1960s o Influence of Vietnam civil rights economic recession counter culture morals civil violence New actionadventure series The Untouchables Naked City o 1963 assasination of John Kennedy influenced the trend toward fantasy shows 0 11221963 Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas for a good will visit At ab 1230 through DD Plaza Oswald killed him Kennedy was not the first president to appear on TV but he was the first Television President I dream of Genie Bewitched Family Affair Growing Public Concern The 1970s o Television begins to experiment with diversity o Controversial shows like 0 All in the Family I Archie Bunker Sammy Davis Jr blk 2191972 was when he guest starred Sammy kissed him The Jefferson s were Archie s neighbors o Maude was Edith s cousinA I Ms instead of Mrs Or Miss her Mother had an abortion on the show right after Roe v Wade Tackle issues such as racism and abortion Violence in the 70 s o Studies on effect of violence but no longterm changes o First time that citizen groups became interested in FCC policy making 0 SWAT 0 Charlie s Angles 0 Emergency The 80 sColorful and Soapy o Cable stations like MTV effect prime time tv o Nighttime Soap Operas situation comedies and cop show s dominate o Dynasty 0 Miami Vice The Decline of the Network Era o By the mid80s network viewership began to decline The reason 0 Cable More stations 0 VCR s Time Shifting o DVR s Cable TV Friend or Foe o Emerged as a way to overcome dark spots in TV station coverage o Satellite transmission enables cableonly program service WTBS super station CNN Weather Channel 0 1972 Pay television debuts as HBO begins operation 0 Today cable reaches 585 of US homes 60 million households A Tivo Nation o DVRs are killing conventional TV advertising 0 DVR owners spend 60 of their time watching recorded or delayed programs 0 They report skipping 90 of the commercials o 3 out of 10 viewers watch no commercials at all Cable Income Local National Subscription Fees Advertising Local Advertising Carriage fees Subscription Fees o Wrestling is the 1 show on Cable TV TV Basics o News Local national and affiliate Newsmagazines o Comedy Sketch Carol Burnette SNL Situation Sienfield Cheers Domestic Brady Bunch Friends o Drama Anthology Twilight Zone Episodic Xfile s ER Organization of the Television Industry o Commercial vs NonCommercial PBS o Markets Designated Market Area 0 Baton Rouge is in own DMA the nation s 87th largest market 1 NY 2 LA 3 Chicago o Network Af liates Independents TV Industry Programming o Three Programming Sources 0 Local Production News 0 Syndicated Programming Oprah she produces it Dr Phil The View 0 Network Programs Lost Economics o Prime Time Most TV viewing occurs between 700 and 1000 pm local time o Next best times 500700 pm 10001030 pm Feedback Ratings o The estimates percent of ALL TV HOUSEHOLDS tuned to a specific station The rating measures popularity among potential audience 0 Channel 13 s Ratings 2 Channel 13 Households 5 Total Households Feedback Share o The estimated percent of HOUSEHOLD USING TELEVISION tuned to a specific station The share me39asures popularity among homes with sets in use 0 Channel 13 s Shares 2 Channel 13 Households 50 4 Households using TV Direct Broadcast Satellites DBS Advantages o Crisper Picture than cable o CD quality sound o More Channels o Low equipment costs o Less expensive on a cost per channel basis Digital Television DTV What is it o Current TV have 525lin scanning standard 0 DTV scans at a rate of 1080 lines per frame better picture o Current TV Picture ratio is 3by4 DTV ratio is 9by16 o FCC requiring broadcasters to leave current frequencies and convert by June 2009 Getting There Digital Television DTV o Disadvantages o Gigantic initial expense for consumers and stations 0 Needs more bandwith creating new channel space demands o Advantages 0 Better picture and sound quality HDTV 0 Stations could begin MULTICASTING airing 45 channels simultaneously 0 DATACASTING use remaining bandwidth for email data paper signals Internet access STUDY GUIDE Study Guide for Exam 3 MC 2000 NO POP CULTURE Chapter 3 Sound Recording and Music Be able to understand and explain History Be able to explain simply the history of the recording business Genres Be able to distinguish the different types of genres ie Motown Rock Etc in popular music Technology Talk about some of the technological advances that helped the industry Chapter 4 Radio Be able to understand and explain History The who s and what s of the early pioneers of radio Format What are the different formats of radio and which is most popular Ethical problems in Radio ex Payola etc Chapter 5 Television and Chapter 6 Cable Be able to understand and explain History of television and cable The different types of programming Different technologies that advanced the medium The fall of network TV TV through the decades How was each decade different Sexuality and the movies Be able to understand and explain The history of sex in the movies including filmmakers Any applicable court cases How technology changed the industry Exam 4 4302009 61000 PM April 13 2009 Cinema Film The Amazing Mr Edison and Mr Dickson o Thomas A Edison 0 First practical motion picture camera and viewing device o William Dickson 0 Continuous loop of film fed by sprockets in a camera Film1 frame of action in a long series 30 frames per second in film now its 24 Kinetoscope Parlors 1St Theatres o Holland Brothers open first parlor in 1894 o Patrons pay 25cents to see 5 short movies The Nickelodeons o Combination of projection and coinoperated machines o An afternoon of entertainment for a nickel o Popular with people in lower economic classes o Movies considered to be low culture stigma against film actors Origins of Film o The Advent of the Crank 0 George MeliesLumiere Bros French Changing Background and Costumes 1520 min long The Rise of Hollywood o Edwin S Porter Creates the Film Narrative o The Great train Robbery 1903 o DW Griffith and the Making of the Celebrity 0 The Star System Movies Spread Consumer Culture Movie Stars become idols of consumption Griffith s The Birth of a Nation Classic but controversial 6th months to stage The Disappearing History of Film o Films have disappeared o Disintegration 0 Chemicals 0 Exposure to air and moisture o Absent accounting 0 Sheer volume of production 0 Poor paper work 0 Greedselfish interests Edison also made movies Frankenstein Cinema s 1St horror film Filmatic News o Rise of the Newsreels o Seeing the News 0 1912 0 Silent 5 min 45 stories o World Wars 0 Used extensively by US ampThird Reich 0 Prelude to War Documentary The Roaring 205 o Movies ran the gamut from swashbuckling adventure comedy both slapstick and sexy horror and drama 0 Valentino Clara Beau the IT girl and Chaney Jr The Phantom of the Opera People went to the movies to be entertained Movies began to talk o 1929 s Jazz Singer introduces sound to the audience April 15 2009 The 30 s and 40 s o The power of the studio system 0 Production distribution exhibition o Big moviessmall movies 0 Theatre owners were forced into showing small movies so they could get the big ones o Movie palaces were popular 0 Got middleupper class folks into the theatres o Midcity theatres rise People used to dress to go to the movies o Hays Code o People forget the depression through film o Color 0 Gone With the Wind 1939 Wizard of 02 1939 o Wartime Propaganda 0 Used to sway and influence public opinion 0 Mrs Miniver 1941 Triumph des Willens 1935 The 1950 s o Politics and Hollywood collide 0 Hollywood Ten 0 Paramount Decision1948 Movie studios can no longer own theatres 0 Science plays a role Big bug movies Them 1954 Tarantula 1955 Godzilla 1954 o Teenagers begin to dominate the scene Rebel without a Cause Blackboard Jungle 1954 The 50 s and 60 s o Competition from television 0 The Rise of Widescreen 1962 o More adult content 0 Less Newsreels o Establishment of the MPAA o Whose Afraid of Virginia Wolf 1966 o G GP R and X o X not registered The 1970 s o Early 70s 0 Success of Easy Rider means more independent films 0 Movies like The Godfather 1972 and The Exorcist 1973 redefine genres 0 Audience don t want to see unrealistic Hollywood films o MidLate 70s The Rise of the Blockbuster o Jaws becomes first summer blockbuster in 1975 o Quickly followed by Star Wars 1977 Close Encounters of the Third Kind 1978 and Superman 1978 The 1980s o Sequel mania 0 Popular films are recycled over and over again 0 Movies like Friday the 13th 1980 and Rocky 1976 have builtin audiences ready to see the next chapter o VHS competition nearly kills independents 0 People would rather rent a movie than watch a poorly made one Drivein s die 0 Genres like porn are relegated to the home The 1990s o CG rules 0 New yet costly technology makes moviegoing experience better than watching TV Most expensive movie 1963 Cleopatra the Titanic 0 Movies like Titanic 1998 and Armageddon 1976 wow audiences o VHS and theatres learn to coexist April 17 2009 Film Genres o Classifications for movies 0 Comedy 0 Drama Romance Action Adventure Mystery Suspense Westerns Gangsters Horror Fantasy Science Fiction Musicals Mama Mia highest grossing film in Britain 0 Film Noir War o Film Criticism 0 Film critic vs Movie Reviewer film criticism is actually more closely aligned with philosophy than it is commentary The film critic tries to come to understand why film works how it works and what effects it has on people Bazin vs Ebert o Alternative Voices Independent and Foreign Films 0 Twothirds of all movies produced by independent film makers 0 Independent films Indies are less formulaic promote greater diversity of story lines 0 Foreign film industries from countries like India Bollywood are challenging Hollywood as movie capital o Studio Revenue 0 Domestice boxoffice 22 0 Foreign box office 21 o VHSDVDBluRay sales 25 0 Cable 2400 0 Broadcast TV 4 0 Airlines hotel pay per view 4 O O O O O O O 0 April 20 2009 What is Public Relations c We are all affected by public relations o PR is showed as goofy o People think that public relations is nothing but spin but it s the management function that establishes and maintains mutually beneficial relationships between an organization and the publics on whom its success or failure depends RELATIONSHIPS o Purpose 0 To motivate modify or maintain attitudes behavior and information levels of targeted publics as well as external 0 To establish maintain andor enhance those relationships that are key to the organization s success if not survival o Implies o Credibility 0 PR people have to be plugged into the world around them o Roots From 0 Julius Caesar Came up with first book to make himself look better 0 Catholic Church Spreading Christianity Recruitment King s College Columbia U commencement 1758 First press release 0 Andrew Jackson 0 Davy Crockett 4 Types of Public Relations ALL STILL USED TODAY 0 18501900 Press agentrypublicitydoesn t have to be true a Keyword Promotion n Oneway source source ereceiver a Key Practitioner o PT Barnum o Ballyhoo o Humbug O O o 190051920 Public Information a Keyword dissemination n Oneway source source 9 receiver a Key Practitioner o Ivy Lee 0 Declaration of Principles 0 Good policy makes good PR 0 19205 Public Relations a Keyword Persuasion n Twoway asymmetrical not equal power conversation w doctor sourcee receivere source a Key practitioners o Edward L Bernays amp Doris E Fleischman 0 PR Counsel 0 PR and Social Science Woman s Smoking 0 19605 to today Public Relations a Keyword counseling n Twoway symmetrical o feedback loop sourcee receiveresource receiver etc a Key practitioners o Bernays and Fleischamn John Hill Leone Baxter o Women now domination field 70 Public Opinion the collection of individual opinions on a subject of personal interest to them Self Interest 0 Once tapped opinion hard to change 0 Opinion is not aroused for long periods of time Reaction to events O 0 Large eventsetemporary opinion swings Opinions stabilize w perspective o Opinion Leaders ex Oprah people who are knowledgeable and articulate about specific events 0 O O O 0 April 22 2009 Highly interested in subject of issue Better informed on an issue than the average person Avid consumers of the mass media Early adopters of new ideas Good organizers who get people to take action Propaganda deliberate and systematic efforts to shape perceptions manipulate cognitions and direct behavior that is sought by the propagandist Jowett amp O Donnell 1999 p6 o Denotative to propagate ideas o Connotative to manipulate to manipulate the mind through deceit and distortion SYMBOLS O O O O O O O O O O O O 0 Images Structures Objects Nonverbal Words Stereotypes Name Calling Plain Folks Testimonial Bandwagon Card Stacking Transfer Glittering Generalities Persuasion ReverendPriest 1 PR for God o The use of symbols to influence the attitudes andor behaviors of another in an atmosphere of free choice Perloff 2003 p 8 USES 0 Change or Neutralize hostile opinion 0 Crystallize latent opinions and positive attitudes o Conserve favorable opinions Advertising o Is any form of nonpersonal presentation and promotion of ideas goods and services usually paid for by an identified sponsor Top 5 Ad Icons of All Time Energizer Bunny Betty Crocker Green Giant Ronald McDonald Marlboro Man 9quot r N w e Ap l242009 Functions of Advertising o Marketing o Educational o Economic c To be social The Basics of Advertising o Target Audience 0 Consumer People who buy goods and services for personal use 0 Businesstobusiness People who buy products for business use o Geographic o Nationalregionallocal 0 International o Purpose 0 Primary demand Got Milk 0 Selective demand o Action 0 Direct 0 Indirect The Media and Advertising Effectiveness o Reach How many people can get the ad o Frequency How often will ad be received o Selectivity How well does a medium reach the targeted consumer o Cost How much does it cost to reach one thousand people CPM or Cost Per Thousand Other forms of Advertising o Transit o Outdoors 0 57 words meant to be read at 70 mps o Directories 0 Directed at ppl who have decided to buy o Specialties 0 May be given away as gifts or premiums shirts Persuasive Strategies o Famous person testimonial o Plainfolks speech o Snobappeal approach o Bandwagon effect c Hiddenfear appeal o Irritation April 27 2009 The Computer and the Internet Chap 2 Swine Flew in Mexico NY Kansas and TX The Global Village Marshall McLuhan knew there was going to be a global village LONG before the internet Charles Babbage s Big Idea o Computer Visionary o Dreamed of a machine to compute mathematical tables using steam power 1822 0 Later developed the analytical engine that could be programmed to solve problems Developmental Stages of Mass Media o 3 Phases 0 Novelty or development stage 0 Entrepreneurial Stage Get money Try and see if it is marketable 0 Mass Medium Stage Make it available to the public and Try to make it affordable The Information Highway A History o 1St computer ARPAnet Advanced Research Project Agency 0 by defense department o Email invented in 1971 o World Wide Web in late 1980s o GTML code created that allowed all computers to read same language The Web A New Mass Medium o Emerged in 1990s o Original dialup replaced by broadband o 233 Million Users US o 1244000000 users world o internet reaches 696 of US population o 675 of population uses Internet o 115 growth since 2000 The Web The Wonders of Broadband o 47 of all Americans have high speed connections up from 30 in 2005 o 70 of home users have high speed c 23 still use dial up The Wed Worldwide Usage o The World s Top 5 Internet Using Countries 1 US 2 China 3 Japan 4 Germany 5 India The Web Watch Your English c 362 of users speak English 638 speak other languages The Web US Demographic Breakdown o 749 of US homes are connected o 817 of women 3554 are online o 802 of men 3554 are online o 77 of women 2534 are online o 756 of men 2534 are online o 776 of children 217 are online o 75 of young adults 1824 are online o 634 of senior citizens are online55 The Web A New Mass Medium o Users devote 13 hrs weekly to cruising sites o Half of all users visit at least on site daily o 810 users open email daily o 40 Necessity o Threefourths of users Made my life better Economics o Three ways to make profit over the Internet 0 Creating content and charging for access 0 Selling merchandise online 0 Advertising Feedback Tracking Internet Use c Click meters and cookies reveal site usage o AC Nielsen s Worldwide NetTracking o ArbitronEdison Feedback The Irresistible Audience o 80 of Americans make online purchases o Worldwide online commerce was 68 trillion in 2004 A Look Ahead 0 PC VS TV o Today of the 451 million people who own both TVs and PCs 48 frequently use the net while watching TV Social Implications of the Web Lack of Gatekeepers Children s Access Copyright Problem Privacy Concerns Obscene Material 1St Amendment and Free Speech Access Issues Cyberslacking Edemocracy 0 Getting people of like minds together o Spam 0 Junk mail Advertisting and internet BOOK Read that shit Know generalities like which audience is on the net most and stuff like that STudy Guide for Exam 1 MC 2000 Chagfer 1 Mass Communica an Be able To undersTand and explain 1 Media LiTeracy WhaT iT is and The 5 sTeps To undersTanding media a Descngfon idenTify The programs arTicles sTraTegies subjesz idenTify The conTenTs Anasis isolaTe paTTerns ThaT call for closer aTTenTion EVauafon making an informal judgmenT your noT a criTic buT judge b c Infengnefafon deTermine The meanings of The paTTerns you analyzed d e Engagemenf deTermine if The program acTively besT serves democracy The model and sTeps of Twoway communicaTion f Linear Model ltE39 V Sender Message Channel Receiver Feed back Shared experience The difference and examples of highculTure and lowculTure g High good TasTequot higher educaTion and supporT by wealThy paTrons and corporaTe donors i Symphony balleT arT museums and classic T h Low quesTionable TasTes of The masses enjoys commercial junk circulaTed by mass media Soap operas games VH1 rokcrap music ShifTing values in previous culTural periods Chapfer 14 771 Cufum of Journalism Be able To undersTand and explain 2 NewsworThiness The criTeria of iT a Info mosT worThy of TransformaTion inTo news sTories gt gt gt i V x 77meiness Proxm fy Prominence Human infenesf Usefulness No vefz Deviance The values of American Journalism ST NeufraI39fy Ina I39Va uaism focus on people noT organizaTions i MosT prominenT value d thnocenfrsm reporTers judge oTher counTries culTures on The basis of how They live up To or imiTaTe The US 9 EThical problems journalism faces e Absoufsf every decision is eiTher righT39 or wrong39 f ExsfenfaI39sf decisions are based on immediaTe pracTical choice g 5fuafonaisf decisions based on which would cause The leasT harmmosT good h Deploying decepTion i Invading privacy j ConflicT of inTeresT All The reporTing riTuals k GeTTing a good sTory GeTTing a sTory firsT i Herd journalism when reporTs follow a sTory in such large groups ThaT The profession comes under fire m Relying on experTs n Balancing sTory conflicTs o AcTing as adversaries How journalism is differenT in The age of Television p IT has To jusTify The expense even when There is no sTory MusT make a visual show for audience Relies on The viewers TrusT wiTh reporTers whereas prinT relies on objecTiviTy Visual language and CriTical Times 1075 Chagfer 15 Media Effects 3 Be able To undersTand and explain a HisTory of media effecTs i AssumpTion of media39s direcT influence comes from assumed success of WW1 propaganda campaigns 1 Gov sells bonds To finance The war 2 Gov creaTes supporT for The war among skepTical public b Differing Theories of media effecTs i Agenda Seffng media deTermine prominenT social issues by The sTories They decide To cover Media Tells us whaT To Think abouT 1 ComplicaTed by TV channel availabiliTy ii CufVafon 777eory heavy media consumpTion may develop percepTions abouT realiTy 1 MosT influenced people are uneducaTed poor and Those who have no prior views or exposure iii 5gra of5lence 777eory we keep our views To ourselves for fear of isolaTion iv SodaLearning 7771205 we imiTaTe acTs of violence or aggression as presenTed in The media c The scienTific meThod WhaT H is and iTs sTeps i ScienTific MeThod a blueprinT long used by scienTisTs and scholars To sTudy phenomena in sysTemaTic sTages 1 IdenTifying The Research Problem 2 Reviewing exisTing research and Theories relaTed To The problem 3 Developing working hypoThesis or predicTions abouT whaT The sTudy mighT find DeTermining an appropriaTe meThod or design CollecTing info or relevanT daTa Analyzing resulTs To see if The hypoTheses have been verified InTerpreTing The implicaTions of The sTudy To deTermine wheTher They explain or predicT The problem d CulTure STudies whaT is iT i CulTural STudies how people make meaning apprehend realiTy and order experience Through culTural symbols in prinT and visual media Chagfer J 6 Legal Confms39 gt19th Be able To undersTand and explain e The 1St AmendmenT i Congress shall make M respecTing an esTablishmenT of religion or prohibiTing The free exercise Thereof or abridging The freedom of speech or of The press or The righT of The people To peaceably assemble and To peTiTion The governmenT for a redress of grievances Differing models of press freedom ii Aufhorfaran press censorship no criTicism of gov or public dissenT allowed iii Communsf press serves The sTaTe some governmenT criTism no public dissenT iv Liberfaran encourages gov criTicism open expression dissenT v Socalresgonsblify encourages governmenT criTicism responsible expression and coverage The difference beTween copyrighT libel slander vi Conggh using a wriTer or arTisT wordsmusic wiThouT consenT or paymenT vii Ml defamaTion of characTer in wriTTen or broadcasT expression viii Slander spoken defamaTion DON39T STUDY ABOUT MOVIE RATINGS INDECENCY THAT S LATER I I MC 2000 Test 2 Study Guide Chapter 8 Newspapers 0 Understand and be able to explain 0 Histogy of Journalism 0 Penny Press I Price was a penny per copy instead of subscriptions I Increased literacy rising middle class improved printing I Focus on middle class no elite I Advent of professional reporters to collect news 0 Modern I Emphasis on facts I Objectivity attempt to report all sides Thorough coverage of story Example The Times 0 Ochs purchased the Times in 1896 o Focused it on thorough news coverage builds circulation o Became one of Americas greatest newspapers 0 Literacy I Adapted fictional story lines to non fictional and in depth reporting 0 Pioneers of Journalism 0 Penny Press I New York Sun 0 Launched by Benjamin Day in 1833 0 Modern journalism I New York Times 0 Bought by Ochs in 1896 focused on thorough news coverage 0 The Inverted Pyramid of news writing 0 Most important facts in the first paragraph 0 Supplementary information after 0 Different t es of 39ournalism ellow advocac ob39ective litera etc 0 Y ellow Sensational reporting I Overstatement of the fact I Emphasis on undue aspects of the situation Introduction of Bias Association of the subject of the story with irrelevant issue I Frivolous treatment of the story I Over producedscreaming headlines graphic illustrations Advocacy the reporter actively promotes a particular viewpoint Objective attempt to report from all sides of a story Literacy adapted fictional story lines to non fictional and in depth reporting Precision attempts to push news more in the direction of science 1nterpretive emphasis on facts but makes greater attempt to analyze complex news events M odern emphasis on facts thorough coverage of the story and attempt to show from all sides 000000 0 Learn what is a 39newshole39 not as bad as it soundssmile o The amount of spaceprinted or time TV or radio given to news content MC 2000 Test 2 Study Guide Chapter 9 Magazines 0 Histogx of magazines 0 Colonial period aimed at educated urban literatre audiences 0 After the Revolution political and topical articles 0 Penny Press Era written for the middle class 0 Magazine Boom available money better printing lowered prices special mailing rates muckrakers 0 20 Century specialization the digest the news magazine the pictorial magazine 0 Differin t es of ma azines Trade Consumer litera etc 0 Trade I Specialized business publications 0 Often required for a particular job industryprofession I Don t compete with consumer I Not found on newsstands I Lower circulations and revenues I High subscriptions or controlled free circulation making money from ad revenue 0 Consumer I Appeals to specific audiences I Most sell advertising on about 50 of their pages I Have larger circulation base and are more profitable 0 Literary reviews and Academic Journals I Content Category 0 Newsletters I Content Category 0 Public relations Magazines I Content Category 0 E Zines I May be an extension of the printed version a duplicate or totally new material I PROBLEM Advertising cannot guarantee profitability o The economics of the magazines 0 0 Revenue I Subscriptions I Single Sale Copies I Advertising Expenses I Advertising 9 I Circulation 31 I Editorial 9 I M anufacturingDistribution 40 I Other Costs 1 I Administration 1 0 MC 2000 Test 2 Study Guide 0 Most popular magazines 1 AARP the Magazine 2 AARP Bulletin 3 Reader s Digest 4 Better Homes amp Gardens 5 National Geographic 6 Good Housekeeping 7 Ladies Home Journal 8 Time 9 Woman s Day 1 0 Family Circle Chapter 10 Books 0 Histo ofbooks ioneers o ColonialAmerica I Religious themes I Sentimental fiction I Political pamphlets 0 Penny Press Era I Impact of printing technology and growth of literacy o The Paperback Boom I Dime novels 0 Early 20th Century I Commercialization of publishing houses I Mass market I Dependence on banks 0 Post WWII I New channels of distribution I Growth of text and recreational publishing 0 How to publish a book 0 Getting Ideas I 3 Main Sources 0 Submissionsfrom agents 0 Unsolicited manuscripts from authors 0 Book ideas generated from editor 0 Getting Published I Author submits a proposal Proposal forwarded to an acquisitions editor If evaluation is favorable contract is signed and author begins work As chapters come in editors review book Mechanics of the book are checked writing grammar etc Design decisions are made production is scheduled Book is printed bound and shipped MC 2000 Test 2 Study Guide 0 The most popular types of books 0 Trade books I Cookbooks I Self help I Technology and computer publications 0 Professional Books I Law I Business I Medicine I Etc 0 Textbooks 0 Mass Market Paperbacks I Stephen King I Erica J ong I Danielle Steel I John Grisham 0 CU m tn 03 o t 4 I Bibles I H ymnals I Spiritual and Inspirational 0 Reference I Dictionaries I Atlases I Medical Manuals 0 University Press Books I Encourage Diverse Subjects One question on Test 0 Priming in political communication is 0 When the media can get people to talk about a certain issue 0 When the media in uence people to vote for a certain candidate 0 Getting the ultimate coverage for your political candidate 0 The best way to conduct political communication 0 When the media can get people to talk about a certain issue is example of o Consensusorientation journalism 0 Priming o Advocacy journalism 0 Precision journalism


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