Exam 2 Study Guide
Exam 2 Study Guide CO1223
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Date Created: 10/13/15
Intro to Communication Theory CO 122301 Fall 2015 Exam 2 Chapter Outlines Exam 2 will cover what we have covered in class to date Speci cally prepare for chapters 5 8 25 29 8 OriginsHistory of Communication covering Symbolic Interactionism 5 Social Penetration Theory 89 Media Ecology 25 Cultivation Theory 29 History of Communication Lecture Theories as nets lenses maps and tools The Transactional Model of Communication be able to draw and label correctly De nition of noise 4 types of noise 8 examples 4 dimensions of context Social Penetration selfdisclosure Depth and Breadth Semantic Triangle be able to draw label and explain Chapter 5 Symbolic Interactionism I Introduction A George Herbert Mead was an in uential philosophy professor at the University of Chicago but he never published his ideas B After his death his students published his teachings in Mind Self and Society C Mead39s chief disciple Herbert Blumer further developed his theory 1 He coined the term symbolic interactionism which describes the humanizing effect of communication 2 The three core principles of symbolic interactionism are meaning language and thought 3 These principles lead to conclusions about the formation of self and socialization into a larger community II Meaning the construction of social reality A Humans act toward people or things on the basis of the meanings they assign to those people or things B Once people de ne a situation as real it39s very real in its consequences C Meaningmaking is a community project III Language the source of meaning A Meaning arises out of the social interaction people have with each other B Meaning is not inherent in objects C Meaning is negotiated through the use of language hence the term symbolic interactionism 1 As human beings we have the ability to name things 2 By talking with others we ascribe meaning to words and develop a universe of discourse D Symbolic naming is the basis for society the extent of knowing is dependent on the extent of naming E Symbolic interactionism is the way we learn to interpret the world 1 A symbol is a stimulus that has a learned meaning and a value for people 2 Our words have default assumptions IV Thought The process of taking the role of the other A An individual39s interpretation of symbols is modi ed by his or her own thought process B Symbolic interactionists describe thinking as an inner conversation or minding 1 Minding is a re ective pause 2 We naturally talk to ourselves in order to sort out meaning C Whereas animals act instinctively and without deliberation humans are hardwired for thought 1 Humans require social stimulation and exposure to abstract symbol systems to have conceptual thought 2 Language is the software that activates the mind D Humans have the unique capacity to take the role of the other The self re ections in a looking glass A Self is de ned through the interconnection of meaning language and thought B Self cannot be found through introspection but through taking the role of the other This mental image is called the lookingglass self and is selfconstructed C Self is a function of language 1 One has to be a member of a community before consciousness of self sets in D 2 The self is always in ux Self is an ongoing process combining the quotIquot and the quotmequot 1 The quotIquot sponsors what is novel unpredictable and unorganized about the self 2 The quotmequot is the image of self seen through the looking glass of other people39s reactions V Community the socializing effect of others39 expectations A B C D VI F The composite mental image a person has of his or her self based on community expectations and responses is the generalized other or quotmequot The generalized other shapes how we think and interact with the community The quotmequot is formed through continual symbolic interaction The quotmequot is the organized community within the individual A sampler of applied symbolic interaction A Creating reality 1 Erving Goffman develops the metaphor of social interaction as dramaturgical performance 2 The impression of reality fostered by performance is fragile Meaningful research 1 Mead advocated ethnography 2 Experimental and survey research are void of the meaning of experience Generalized other the tragic potential of symbolic interaction negative consequences can reduce a person to nothing study through participant observation a form of Naming 1 Namecalling can be devastating because it forces us to view ourselves through a warped mirror 2 These grotesque images are not easily dispelled Selfful lling prophecy 1 Each of us affects how others view themselves 2 Our expectations evoke responses that con rm what we originally anticipated Symbol manipulation symbols can galvanize people into united action VIII Critique a theory too grand A B C D Most interpretive theorists featured in this book owe a great debt to Mead Mead39s theory is hard to summarize and lacks clarity Mead overstates his case particularly when distinguishing humans from other animals Nonetheless Mead39s theory has greater breadth than any in this book Chapter 9 Social Penetration Theory II III IV VI VII Introduction A Developed by social psychologists Irwin Altman and Dalmas Taylor social penetration theory explains how relational closeness develops B Closeness develops only if individuals proceed in a gradual and orderly fashion from super cial to intimate levels of exchange as a function of both immediate and forecast outcomes Personality structure a multilayered onion A The outer layer is the public self B The inner core is one39s private domain Closeness through selfdisclosure Talk is the tool we use to generate closeness A With the onionwedge model the depth of penetration represents the degree of personal disclosure Depth and breadth of disclosure topics and info B The layers of the onion are tougher near the center The depth and breadth of selfdisclosure A Peripheral items are exchanged more frequently and sooner than private information B Selfdisclosure is development C Penetration is rapid at the start but slows down quickly as the tightly wrapped inner layers are reached 1 Societal norms prevent too much early selfdisclosure 2 Most relationships stall before a stable intimate exchange is established 3 Genuine intimate exchange is rare but when it is achieved relationships become meaningful and enduring D Depenetration is a gradual process of layerbylayer withdrawal E For true intimacy depth and breadth of penetration are equally important reciprocal especially in early stages of relationship Regulating closeness on the basis of rewards and costs A If perceived mutual bene ts outweigh the costs of greater vulnerability the process of social penetration will proceed B Social penetration theory draws heavily on the social exchange theory of John Thibaut and Harold Kelley Outcome rewards costs A Thibaut and Kelley suggest that people try to predict the outcome of an interaction before it takes place 1 The economic approach to determining behavior dates from John Stuart Mill39s principle of utility 2 The minimax principle of human behavior claims that people seek to maximize bene ts and minimize costs 3 The higher we index a relational outcome the more attractive the behavior that might make it happen B Social exchange theory assumes that people can accurately gauge the bene ts of their actions and make sensible choices based on their predictions C As relationships develop the nature of interaction that friends nd rewarding evolves Comparison level CL gauging relational satisfaction A B C VIII B C D The CLalt explains why people sometimes stay in abusive relationships F IX F1190 3911 A person39s CL is the threshold above which an outcome appears attractive it is our minimum One39s CL for friendship romance or family ties is pegged by one39s relational history the baseline of past experience Sequence and trends play large roles in evaluating a relationship Comparison level of alternatives CLalt gauging relational stability A The CLalt is pegged by the best relational outcomes available outside the current relationship When existent outcomes slide below an established CLalt relational instability increases Social exchange theories have an economic orientation 1 Some women endure abuse because Outcome gt CLalt 2 They will leave only when CLalt gt Outcome The relative values of Outcome CL and CLalt help determine one39s willingness to disclose 1 Optimum disclosure will occur when both parties believe that Outcome gt CLalt gt CL Critique pulling back from social penetration Certain predictions of the theory fail to be supported by reallife data The highest reciprocity of selfdisclosure may occur during the middle range of penetration rather than the exploratory stages of relationships The original theory did not account for gender differences in vulnerability but later research concludes that males are less open than females As relationships deteriorate selfdisclosure often increases Why is this Altman now proposes a dialectical model in which human social relationships are characterized by openness or contact and closedness or separateness between participants Can a complex blend of advantages and disadvantages be reliably reduced to a single index G Are people so consistently sel sh that they always opt to act strictly in their own best interest Paul Wright believes that friendships often reach a point of such closeness that selfcentered concerns are no longer salient Ch 29 Cultivation Theory I Introduction A F1150 George Gerbner argued that heavy television viewing creates an exaggerated belief in a mean and scary world Gerbner emphasized the symbolic content of television drama Television has surpassed religion as the key storyteller in our culture Violence is television39s principal message and particularly for devoted viewers Although other media have violent content television is the most signi cant II An index of violence A B III mecca IV B C D Cultivation theory suggests heavy viewers will regard the world as more Gerbner developed an objective measure for evaluating television violence He de ned dramatic violence as the overt expression of physical force with or without a weapon against self or others compelling action against one39s will on pain of being hurt andor killed or threatened to be so victimized as part of the plot Gerbner and his associates monitored incidences of violence on television for over twenty years Equal violence unequal risk Gerbner found that the portrayal of violence varies little from year to year Over half of primetime programs contain violence or the threat of violence Twothirds of the major characters are caught up in violence heroes are just as involved as villains Old people children Hispanics African Americans women and bluecollar workers are more often victimized Television places marginalized people in symbolic double jeopardy by simultaneously underrepresenting and overvictimizing them Not surprisingly marginalized people then exhibit the most fear of violence as a result of television programming Establishing a viewer pro le A Gerbner used survey research to measure viewer behavior and attitudes because the nature of the cultivation hypothesis rules out experimental testing He distinguishes between light viewers up to two hours per day and heavy viewers four or more hours per day whom he calls quotthe television type Light viewers watch particular shows but television types aren39t selective dangerous than light viewers V Minds plowed by television grow fearful thoughts A B Gerbner seeks the quotcultivation differential which compares the attitudes of light and heavy viewers He focuses on four attitudes 1 Chances of involvement with violence light viewers predict their weekly odds of being victimized at 1100 whereas heavy viewers predict 110 2 Fear of walking alone at night heavy viewers overestimate the danger by a factor of ten 3 Perceived activity of police heavy viewers overestimate the size of law enforcement by a factor of ve 4 General mistrust of people heavy viewers are suspicious of others39 motives the mean world syndrome VI B VII B C VIII B C IX B Mainstreaming Blurring and bending of viewer attitudes A Mainstreaming is the process by which heavy viewers develop a commonality of outlook through constant exposure to the same images and labels Gerbner illustrates the mainstream effect by showing how television types blur economic and political distinctions 1 They assume that they are middle class 2 They believe they are political moderates 3 In fact heavy viewers tend to be conservative Gerbner labels the general quotmainstreamquot political outlook of heavy viewers the I quotnew populism Reagan a position that aligns itself with the policies of former President Resonance Reliving experience of reallife violence A Resonance occurs when repeated symbolic portrayals of violence cause viewers to replay their reallife experiences with violence over and over Resonance ampli es cultivation patterns Rather than focus on the few people who imitate television violence Gerbner wants to look at the large majority of people who are terri ed by the world Does dramatic violence still cultivate fear A Does the dramatic portrayal continue to cultivate the fear of a mean and scary world in the age of wider media choices Gerber found the more things change the more they stay the same Violence in programs has been replaced by violent video games and graphic newscasts Critique Is the cultivation differential real large crucial A Although Gerbner39s basic claim makes intuitive sense his theory and research methodology are controversial Cultivation theory advocates Michael Morgan and James Shanahan argue that attacks on Gerbner s cultivation theory focus on quotmethodological minutia and are politically motivated Yet how do we interpret the consistent yet small relationship between heavy television viewing and the belief in a mean and scary world Performing a metaanalysis of cultivation studies that examine the link between hours watched and the tendency to give quottelevision answers Morgan and Shanahan discovered a consistent positive relationship 091 1 Given the large sample sizes used this correlation is statistically signi cant 2 However it is only one factor among many a small portion of the total picture 3 But it points out the criticalness of the issue at hand and fear s paralyzing effects Demonstrating continued commitment to the issues addressed by cultivation theory Gerbner founded the Cultural Environment Movement a coalition of organizations and social activists Chapter 25 Media Ecology I Introduction A B Media critic Marshall McLuhan was himself a media gure He believed that the new electronic media have radically altered the way people think feel and act II Communication inventions the balance points of history A B C D III IV T WPQPU 339 W90 PU McLuhan divided human history into four epochs electronic The changes from one age to the next were rapid and were caused by new communication technology These new technologies were the phonetic alphabet the printing press and the telegraph The electronic media have created social upheaval tribal literate print and We shape our tools and they in turn shape us McLuhan39s theory is technological determinism changes in modes of communication cause cultural change and shape human existence McLuhan extended the work of Harold Innis No aspect of culture is untouched by communication technology McLuhan proposed He believed that every new form of media innovation extended some human faculty Media organize and interpret our social existence e medium is the message Our lives are a function of the way we process information Key communication technologies change the way people think about themselves and their world A medium has more in uence than its explicit messages McLuhan39s pun quotthe medium is the massage indicates that the media work us oven The dominant medium of an age dominates people V A media analysis of human history A B C D The tribal age an acoustic community 1 The senses of hearing touch taste and smell were more advanced than visualization 2 quotPrimitivequot people lived richer lives than their literate descendants because the ear does not select 3 People acted with more passion and spontaneity The age of literacy a visual point of view 1 Literacy moved people from collective tribal detachment 2 Literacy encouraged logical linear thinking and fostered mathematics science and philosophy The print age prototype of the industrial revolution 1 The printing press made visual dependence widespread 2 The development of xed national languages produced nationalism 3 McLuhan regarded the fragmentation of society as the most signi cant outcome of print The electronic age the rise of the global village involvement to private 1 McLuhan believed that the electronic media are retribalizing humanity 2 In an electronic age privacy is a luxury or a curse of the past 3 Linear logic is useless in the electronic society we focus on what we feel VI Television is medium cool A McLuhan39s mediacultural analysis sought to explain the social unrest of the 1960s B He classi ed media as either hot or cool 1 Hot media are highde nition channels of communication usually directed at a single sense receptor print photographs motion pictures and radio 2 Cool media39s lowde nition display draws a person in requiring high audience participation telephone C Parallels exist between the categories of hot and cool and the leftbrain and right brain functions 1 Hot media tend to be highly visual logical and private 2 Cool media tend to be aural intuitive and emotionally involving D Although people think of television as visual McLuhan disagrees to him television is cool because it requires viewer involvement and doesn39t bypass either sight or sound VII Living on the edge of an era A Politics 1 Modern politicians must work the medium of television effectively 2 The fall of the Iron Curtain demonstrates the ability of the electronic media to carry the message of freedom throughout the global village B Education 1 The acoustic media threaten an educational establishment invested in books 2 Educators need to plunge into the vortex of electronic technology C Sex and drugs 1 McLuhan believed that television is tactile and acoustic 2 Thus he argued that television inspired the sexual revolution and increased drug usage VIII The new digital age an era of technopoly A Has the recent revolution in communication technology wrenched us into a new digital age that is qualitatively different from the four historical epochs McLuhan names Neil Postman warns that each media technology carries an inherent ideology that it thrusts upon its users Postman believes we have become a technopoly our thoughtworld is dominated by technology tools have taken over The mediated world has replaced traditional print values with cybervirtues such as speech emotional involvement and immediate grati cation Postman believes we must assess the effect on our lives of technologies before we adopt them F1190 IX Critique How could he be right But what if he is A McLuhan did not adequately support his claims B His prose is very difficult to understand C Deterministic theories have difficulty with the criterion of falsi ability D Yet some cultural critics and media practitioners praise McLuhan39s insights 1 Tom Wolfe suggests that McLuhan may be one of the great geniuses of our era 2 Tony Schwartz praises his insights into political advertising 3 Malcolm Muggeridge conducts McLuhanesque analyses of religious broadcasting E Although it is difficult to accept all that he said his historical analysis has heightened awareness of the possible cultural effects of new media technologies Origins of Communication Dr John Nicholson The Earliest Communication Almost all animals including mammals use chemical signals and cues to quotcommunicatequot information about mood sexual fertility to mark territories etc Mammals use gestures and movements and facial expressions as well Vocalizations are found across the animal kingdom as well Many of the above are innate Humans and Learning Communication Humans do use innate chemical cues and facial expressions but humans also teach and learn even more codes Most humans can create new codes as well Writing was and is such a learned code Talking is too Communication Tools Some early tools and trinkets have markings 4530000 years ago we see purposeful carvings and creation of objects 15000 years ago we begin to see ritual use of these objects Icons look like what they represent Symbols may connect the arbitrary Arbitrariness and Symbols The shapes and their meanings are decided by someone or some group The meanings are not built into the shapes a sphere doesn t have to be worth 100 or 50 for example and a pyramid may be worth 10 or 10000 Some cultures use tokens others use strings Hieroglyphs By 3000 BCE Egyptians built a language in symbols we call hieroglyphs Each symbol is a sound This is a phonetic alphabet An alphabet can also use symbols that are not just a sound This is a logographic alphabet or logography Literacy is power Those who could read and write in a society had the power of memory beyond recall How important could that be How do you quotprove it to those who can t read words King Richard s Seal Seal of King Richard showing anyone that it was official and legitimate Critical before many all could read The Print Revolution Gutenberg s Printing Press 1455 180 copies made of the Bible many times faster than a scribe could be Moveable type is key Mass Communication for the rst time one to many The print revolution begins Communication Development Icons 30000 years ago or more Symbols 30005000 years ago tokens Writing 3000 years ago hieroglyphs Printing Press woodcuts 1000 or so years ago China Moveable Type Printing Press Western Mass Comm Gutenberg circa 1450 Newspapers 1605 rst emerged and spread Magazines 1663 Almanacs mid 17th century 1650s Photography 1825 to preserve image Early Photography Muybridge Captures Motion Electronic Communication 1839 First Commercial Electronic Telegraph 1876 First Telephone Patent Bell 1877 Phonograph gramophone 1878 Moving Pictures Muybridge httpenwikipediaorgwikiEadweardMuybridge 1896 rst public viewing of projected motion pictures 18911898 Radio experiments and patents 1920 Radio hits homeland 1927 Talkies hit the movies 1936 Television Olympics broadcast in Germany then WWII hits Recent Communication History 1948 television hits USA 1973 Cell phone demonstrated 1983 Cell phone commercially available 1990 124 million cell phones globally 2010 46 Billion cell phones 2011 Smartphones integrate elements of all of the previous communication technologies 2014 Google Glass Consequences LDOOQG CHIRWNH The Magic of Symbols Words and Communication The Semantic Triangle Ogden amp Richards Thought or Reference Symbol Referent thing Symbols and their referents are connected by our thoughts They do not necessarily have any other connection to one another This is especially true for words that are completely arbitrary which is most of them The connections between symbols and thoughts as well as the relationship between referents and our thoughts are more direct Our minds thoughts are directly connected to both symbols and referents The connection between symbols and referents is much more tentative and circumstantial That is the magic of words and other symbols Noise anything that interferes with the clear production transmission or reception of a message Transactional Model of Communication Sender Encoder Messages Channels Effects Receiver Decoder Feedback Filters Sender Encoder The Four Dimensions of Context Receiver Decoder physical temporal cultural and relational The Four Types of Noise physical psychological physiological and semantic J y 0 l L V x y v w
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