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Exam 2 Study Guide

by: Nicole Sackett

Exam 2 Study Guide psyc 303

Nicole Sackett
GPA 3.0
Industrial/Organizational Psyc
Konstantin Cigularov

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About this Document

This is an outline/study guide for all the material that will be covered on exam 2 in industrial/organizational psychology. This exam consists of the end of chapter 3 through chapter 5.
Industrial/Organizational Psyc
Konstantin Cigularov
Study Guide
IO Psych, psych, industrial, organizational, industrial/organizational, Psychology
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Nicole Sackett on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to psyc 303 at Old Dominion University taught by Konstantin Cigularov in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 151 views. For similar materials see Industrial/Organizational Psyc in Psychlogy at Old Dominion University.


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Date Created: 10/13/15
Study Guide Exam 2 October 15 2015 Chapters 3everything after Gardner s Model 4 amp 5 Chapter 3 A Gardner s Theory of Multiple Intelligences 1983 a 7 Types Logicalmathematical the ability to learn higher mathematics to handle complex logical arguments Linguistic the ability to communicate well both orally and in writing in several languages Spatial ability to know where you are relative to a fixed location accomplish tasks requiring 3D visualization and placement of your hands iv BodilyKinesthetic ability to use one s physical body well v Interpersonal sense other s feelings and be in tune with others vi lntrapersonal selfawareness ability to know your own body and mind vii Musical ability to learn perform and compose music b Benefits i Broadens conceptualization of intelligence ii Draws attention to ignored and downplayed abilities iii Allows us to tailor the education system to each individuals patterns of strengths and challenges iv gifted smart not based on school achievement 0 Problems Not much empirical and theoretical support Are factors really intelligence B Salovey amp Mayer 1990 a coined the term quota form of social intelligence that involves the ability to monitor one s own and others feelings and emotions to discriminate among them and to use this information to guide one s thinking and action b Awareness of our own amp others emotions C Emotional Intelligence a 5 components i i ii v v Selfawareness Selfrecognition Motivation Empathy Social skill b Boston Juvenile Delinquency Study I ii iii iv v vi Early 1940 s by Sheldon amp Eleanor Gleck 40 year old 3 generations Longitudinal 500 delinquent boys matched with 500 nondelinquent JH school boys based on age 142 ethnicity IQ and highcrime neighborhoods Most recent data collection in 1983 278 men Main finding lntellectualization vs IO 1 lntellectualization is the best predictor isolation of affected a cold Calvinistic intellectual approach to life amp work p907 2 Childhood abilities to handle 0 UCBerkley Study 40 year old longitudinal 80 PhD s in sciences in 1950 as graduate students Feist amp Barron 1996 identified measures of emotional balance and interpersonal effectiveness d Study Guide Exam 2 October 15 2015 Chapters 3everything after Gardner s Model 4 amp 5 iv EQ carry out accurate reasoning about emotions measures explained 13 of career success about and beyond IQ v IQ explained 0 of career success above and beyond EQ Stanford University marshmallow studiesquot i 4yr olds ii Years later higher 210 points SAT scores and educational attainment ii 30 yrs later lower BMI v Each additional minute that a preschooler delayed gratification predicted a 02 point reduction in BMI in adulthood D Assessment Procedures bold is most common PB FTFFFPPPFP O E Cogn v a b C d e Cognitive ability tests Knowledge tests Physical ability tests Psychomotor ability tests Personality tests Integrity tests Individual Assessment Interviews Assessment Centers Work sample tests Situational judgment tests Biodata Grades amp Letters of Recommendation Graphology Polygraph e Ability Tests Allows individuals to demonstrate what they know perceive remember understand or can work mentally Yahoos i 85 years of research shown GCA to be the best predictor of future performance learning and training Lowest costs amp most research amp theory Best Combos GCA and integrity test GCA and structured interviews ii iii Oops i adverse impact Which one does the NFL use Wonderlic Personnel test Which one is used by the Army ASVAB F Facts about Wonderlic a b 50 questions 12 minutes ave IQ 20 Practice items i When a rope is selling 20 cents per 2 feet how many feet can you buy for 30 dollars Which of the numbers in this group represents the smallest amount 1 03 2 008 3 1 4 033 Testretest reliability 94 1 Over 5 years Validity most strongly associated with overall intellectual functioning which is purported to measuring Study Guide Exam 2 October 15 2015 Chapters 3everything after Gardner s Model 4 amp 5 G Personality TestsMeasures a Screenout tests gt Identify psychopathology i Generally used for positions of public trust ii May only be administered after offer of employment iii Eg Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory MMPI b Screenin tests gt Identify normal personality i May be administered as preemployment tests ii eg Hogan Personality Inventory HP 0 Yahoos i Predictive vailidity ii NoIess adverse impact d Oops I Lower predictive validity then CA tests ii Can be faked H Integrity Tests a b c d 9 Main Purpose detect dishonesty and problem behavior In selection want to predict trust worthiness and problem activities On the job want to detect deceitfulness and problem activities Overt integrity test i Do your friends ever steal from their employers ii There is nothing wrong with telling a lie if no one suffers any harm Personality based integrity test i Do you like taking risks ii Would your friends describe you as impulsive Yahoos i High predictive validity 1 Training success r 38 2 Job performance r 41 3 Work unsafety r 52 4 Property damage r 69 Oops i Little construct validity I Job Interviews a b 9 d e Tend to cover job knowledge abilities skills personality amp personorg fit Structured vs unstructured i Structured reliable ratings multiple ratings interviewer training standardized questioning more resistant to legal challenges ii Which one is preferred by scientists vs managersunstructured iii Which one is more valid 1 Unstructured r 2030 2 Structured r 51 Situational futureoriented vs behavioral pastoriented i Which one is more valid 1 Behavioral r 39 2 Situational r 51 Yahoos i Criterionrelated validity Oops i Managers reactions J Assessment Centers a Collection of procedures for evaluation Study Guide Exam 2 October 15 2015 Chapters 3everything after Gardner s Model 4 amp 5 b A process not a Supercenter 0 Typical characteristics i Assessment done in groups ii Assessment done by groups iii Multiple methods of assessment employed iv Multiple dimensions eg communication influencing drive problem solving K Controversial Assessment Practices a Graphology i Assumes traits can be assessed from various characteristics of a person s handwriting ii Predictor of job performance b Polygraph i measures person s physiological reactions amp signals deception ii can be faked iii unreliable inadmissible in court iv validity questionable an honest person may be nervous when answering truthfully a dishonest person may be calm Chapter 4 Job Analysis A Job Analysis a Process that determines the essence of a job b The more information gathered from the greatest number of sources the better the job analyst can understand the job 0 Important tasks of a job and the human attributes necessary to successfully perform those tasks d Types i Taskoriented begins with statement of actual tests and what s accomplished by those tasks ii Workeroriented focuses on attributes of the worker necessary to accomplish tasks B Taskoriented job analysis a Uses task inventories b A list of statements of actual tasks amp what is accomplished by those tasks 0 Example 1 Corporate Chief Executives i ACTION Task 1 Prop feet and legs on top of desk to relieve pressure on the brain ii GOAL Task 2 Issue conflicting or unclear orders to subordinates in order to challenge them d Example 2 Psychology Professors i same as Example 1 e Generating tasks by SMEs Subject Matter Experts i A list of 30100 tasks ii Sort into 812 broader categories f Ratings of tasks by SMEs i Time spent 0 not performed 1 rarely 2 occasionally 3 frequently ii Criticality 0 not performedtrivial 1 important 2 crucial C KSAOs a Knowledge collection of discrete related facts and information about a particular domain b Skills Practiced act Ability stable capacity to engage in a specific behavior Other Characteristics interests personality 90 Study Guide Exam 2 October 15 2015 Chapters 3everything after Gardner s Model 4 amp 5 D Workeroriented job analysis a Uses KSAO inventories b Focuses on attributes of the worker necessary to accomplish tasks 0 Example 1 Corporate Chief Executives i K Knowledge of embezzlement laws ii S Listening what other people are saying at the banquet iii A Ability to play golf and goof around iv 0 Be cool d Example 2 Psychology Professors i same as Example 1 e Generating KSAOs by SMEs same as tasks f Ratings of KSAOs by SMEs i Criticality 0 not related 1 helpful 2 important 3 essential E How job analysis is done a Need to use multiple methods b Observation i Important in court intrusive c InterviewsFocus Groups i Incumbents Supervisors Trainers Experts d Critical incidents amp work diaries Questionnairessurveys Review of documents i job descriptions training manuals perf appraisals previous JAs strategic plans charts ONET F ONET occupational information network a Introduced by federal government to replace the Dictionary of Occupational Titles DOT i 54000 JAs done for DOT by 1939 ii 1991 last edition of DOT 13000 occupations b Electronic medium so it can be updated instantaneously as changes occur G Definitions of Performance a Measures of performance sales sales b Performance actions or behaviors 0 Effectiveness evaluation of results of performance d Productivity ration of effectiveness output to cost of achieving that level of effectiveness input H Campbell s Model of Job Performance a 3 direct determinants of job performance i Declarative knowledge DK knowing your job ii Procedural knowledge and skills PKS knowing how to do your job iii Motivation b 8 basic performance components bold essential for every job i Jobspecific task proficiency ii Nonjobspecific proficiency ii Written and oral communication task proficiency iv Demonstrated effect v Maintenance of personal discipline vi Facilitating team and peer performance vii Supervisionleadership viii Managementadministration I Task vs Contextual Performance cum Study Guide Exam 2 October 15 2015 Chapters 3everything after Gardner s Model 4 amp 5 a Task Performance doing what is expected i Requirements vary from job to job ii Individual differences tied to abilities and knowledge iii Activities part of job description b Contextual going beyond what is expected i Common to most jobs ii Individual differences tied to personality iii Activities not part of job description iv Supports organizational environment 0 5 aspects of contextual i Persisting with enthusiasm amp extra effort ii Volunteering to carry out task activities not in job description i Helping amp cooperating with others v Following organizational rules amp procedures v Endorsing supporting amp defending organizational objectives d Contextual increasing importance in today s workplace i Global competition will require more effort from employees ii Teams are more common now iii Downsizing requires adaptability amp extra effort iv Customer service increasingly important J Adaptive Performance a Beneficial due to changing nature of work i Changing technologies alter work tasks ii Mergers downsizing amp corporate restructuring iii Globalization amp working in different cultures b 8 areas and definitions i Handling emergencies or crisis situations ii Handling work stress iii Solving problems creatively iv Dealing with uncertain and unpredictable work situations v Learning work tasks technologies and procedures vi Demonstrating interpersonal adaptability vii Demonstrating cultural adaptability viii Demonstrating physically oriented adaptability K Dark side of performance a Counterproductive Work Behaviors CWBs i Voluntary behavior violating significant organizational norms amp threatening organization its members or both b Interpersonal deviance i Directed at a person ii Harassment discrimination gossiping 0 Organizational deviance i Directed at organization as a whole ii Ex Stealing L Common Counterproductive Behaviors a Dishonesty i Employee theft or dishonest communications b Absenteeism i Failure to report for or remain at work as scheduled c Sabotage i Acts that damage disrupt or subvert the organization s operations Study Guide Exam 2 October 15 2015 Chapters 3everything after Gardner s Model 4 amp 5 M Why CWB Age Situational constraints Feelings of injustice Individual needs Lack of selfcontrol i remember the marshmallow studies Big Five g Negative work situation low C A amp high N 9095 h Chapter 5 Performance Appraisal A Reasons for Performance Appraisal a Personneladministrative decisions betweenperson i Promotions pay increase termination just cause insufficient performance b Employee development amp motivation withinperson i Internal 0 Research criterion data B PA Process a Step 1 define performance i Job analysis job performance chapter 4 b Step 2 rating sources i Supervisors 1 Most common information source 2 Many actively avoid evaluation amp feedback 3 Why For fear of a Takes time b lntrapersonal conflicts 0 Law suits d Challenges of evaluation 4 More reluctant with a Less time as supervisor b Less employee experience 0 Less trust between supervisor and subordinate d Lower confidence in appraisal system ii Peer Ratings 1 More likely to know about a worker s typical performance 2 Conflict of interest likely when competing for fixed resources ie administrative decisions 3 Personality match between rater amp rate leads to higher evaluations iii SelfRatings 1 Discussion of rating with supervisor increases perception of procedural fairness 2 Potential for distortion amp inaccuracy a Minimized with supervisor discussion 3 Conflict of interest if used for administrative purposes 4 Research a Zenger 1992 40 of engineers in one company thought they were in the top 5 b Consequences of overestimation i Ineffective and unsafe behavior C Study Guide Exam 2 October 15 2015 Chapters 3everything after Gardner s Model 4 amp 5 Step 3 i vi ii Overconfident CEOs amp risky investment strategies ill advised mergers amp acquisitions iii Set up for disappointment less rewards except for CEOs average of 14 mil in 2007 0 Best for developmental purposes Other rating sources 1 Subordinate ratings a Critical that subordinate feedback be kept anonymous b Supervisors don t like them if used for administrative decisions 2 Customer amp supplier ratings a Important from business strategy vantage point 360 Degree systems 1 Collect amp provide an employee with feedback that comes from many sources 2 Often used for feedback amp employee development methods to measure performance Objective quantitative count of the results of work Subjectivejudgmental evaluation of the effectiveness of an individual s work 1 Graphic rating scales a Graphically display performance scores running from high to low b Use questionnaireschecklists with criterion dimensions 0 Raters evaluate rate on each dimension using some scale d Pros i Can rate nearly any criterion ii Easy to collect information e Cons i Susceptible to rater errors 2 Employee comparison methods 3 Behavioral scales Personnel personal file 1 Absences accidents advancement Relationship between objective amp subjective 39 16 overlap of measuring different things 1 Not a direct measure Subjectivejudgmental most direct way to measure job performance with some integrationprecaution of objective amp personnel Types of rating errors 1 Halo effect a Draw a general impression based on one characteristic b What is beautiful is good if goodlooking then must be happier outgoing successful kinder etc 0 Eagly et al 1991 More attractive people were perceived as having more i Social Competence outgoing fun loving popular likeable ii Adjustment good mental health selfesteem happiness maturity iii Potency power and dominance iv Intellectual Competence intelligent skillful rational ambitious hardworking successful at school amp work d Small difference for Integrity Study Guide Exam 2 October 15 2015 Chapters 3everything after Gardner s Model 4 amp 5 e No difference for Concern for Others f Inability to distinguish between performance dimensions Leniency rater is too easy Severity rater is too hard Central tendency rater afraid of end points Fundamental Attribution Error a When observing and judging others The tendency to underestimate the influence of external situational factors and overestimate internal personality factors b EX I assume you have not done much because you are lazy rather than perhaps tired or lacking the right resources 0 EX you re late for class again so you probably don t care or like this class d Beware of people blaming you for things outside of your control e Counter act i Use consensus information ii Asking oneself how one would behave in the same situation iii Looking for unseen causes specifically looking for less salient factors vii Employee comparison methods 1 Simple rating scales a Numbering performance from 15 1 being best 2 Paired comparison scales a Two choices pick best one 3 Forced distribution scales a Bar graph 4 Advantages a Prevent distributional errors b Useful in making layoff or downsizing decisions 5 Disadvantages a Halo can still be a problem b Cumbersometime consuming 0 Feedback is difficult because there is no clear standard of performance d Difficulty in comparing individuals in different groups e Provide only ordinal measurementll i Everyone might suck in actuality 9P9 viii Behavioral Scales 1 Based on critical incidents 2 Behaviorally anchored rating scales BARS a Rating format that includes behavioral anchors describing what worker has done or might be expected to do in a particular duty area 3 Advantages a Overcome most rating errors associated with graphic rating scales b Provide interval measurement 0 Increase employee and supervisor buyin 4 Disadvantages a Costly amp time consuming to create Study Guide Exam 2 October 15 2015 Chapters 3everything after Gardner s Model 4 amp 5 b Not useful if criteria change frequently


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