Popular in Statistics
Popular in Statistics
This 2 page Study Guide was uploaded by Erin Hipskind on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 30100 at Purdue University taught by in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Statistics in Statistics at Purdue University.
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Date Created: 10/13/15
Juliane Kaminski Andrea Pitsch and Michael Tomasello decided to set up a study to see if different lighting had an effect on dogs when they were given the opportunity to steal food Their unit was a dog that was at least 1 year old interested in food and was comfortable without its owners even in a room of complete darkness The scientists population was all dogs living as pet dogs with their owners in a mediumsized city in Germany that had received the normal obedience training typical for domestic dogs For their sample twentyeight pet dogs 14 male and 14 female of all breeds and ages were chosen from a database of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology The experiment was done in a dark room with only two lights one facing the experimenter and one facing the food The dogs would be shown food told not to eat it and then the experimenter would set the food on the oor and slowly back away and sit a few feet away from the oor facing the dog Each dog had to undergo four different treatments four times concluding in sixteen treatments all together One treatment was with both lights off so neither the food nor the human was visible Another treatment was with the food light on and the human light off The third treatment was with the food light off and the human light on and to nish both lights were on for the last treatment The three principles of experimental design were met fairly well The control of the experiment was met by comparing the four treatments in the same manner over the four day period the testing was going on It also was controlled by testing the dogs that were chosen to make sure they would be able to participate in the study One variable that possibly could have been a lurking variable was allowing the dogs to be returned to their owners after the testing each day According to the study owners were never present during the test and were not informed about the purpose of the study before the end of the last session to avoid possible training between the testing days Because the dogs were returned to their owners this means all the dogs most likely would be fed differently which in turn could possibly have an impact on the study If an ownerjust fed their dog before the study or if an owner failed to feed their dog before the study the dog s appetite may or may not have an in uence as to whether or not it tries to steal the food The principle randomization was met because during the trials the experimenter sat still the entire time irrespective of whether the dog did or did not take the food and looked at a predetermined spot on the opposite wall Replication was also met by using twentyeight different breeds and ages of dogs Although it may have been better to have a slightly bigger sample size considering the experimenters had to exclude some dogs due to nonresponse and response bias The basic data ethics principles for working with animals are replacement reduction and re nement Replacement is using nonanimal models such as microorganisms or cell culture techniques computer simulations or species lower on the phylogenetic scale This ethic was not applied to this study because real animals were used and dogs are high on the phylogenetic scale Reduction is using methods aimed at reducing the numbers of animals such as minimization of variability appropriate selection of animal model minimization of animal loss and careful experimental design The study followed this ethic by using a small sample of only twentyeight dogs but making sure they were all different types of breeds and ages Re nement is the elimination or reduction of unnecessary pain and distress The study followed this ethic by not harming any of the dogs even when they stole the food none of the dogs were harmed The two most obedient dogs were Kimi and Merlin Kimi only stole the food twice once with both lights off and once with only the light on the human Merlin only stole the food three times twice in the dark and once with the light on the human Zozi and Thyson were the least obedient dogs in the study because both stole the food every single time during all sixteen trials In Table 1 the information at the bottom of the last column food light human light tells that the shape of the distribution of the data was bimodal There were many dogs that did not steal the food or only stole it once Then there was a drop in numbers when only three dogs stole the food twice followed by another jump in the data when eight dogs stole the food three times and then only two dogs the least obedient ones stealing the food all four times The graph in Figure 2 at the top of page 390 is not showing the distribution of a categorical variable it is showing the distribution of a numerical variable because the yaxis is labeled in seconds Because this graph is quantitative and the bars touch each other this makes it a histogram According to the study dogs had a tendency to steal more food when it was completely dark in the room About the same number of dogs stole the food when either the food or the human was illuminated and the least number of dogs stole the food when both the food and human was illuminated There is no absolute evidence of how well dogs can see in the dark however this study clearly shows that dogs behavior is different based on the lighting in the room
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