1. Women’s Peace Party: An American organization established at a three-day meeting organized by Jane Addams as well as other feminists. This was their way of standing up to World War I (1914). Many women joined at this conference to voice their opinions on a variety of issues: call for limitation of arms, mediation of the European conflict, and the removal of the economic causes of war.
2. Red Scare: The red scare began with anti-German sentiment during WWI around 1917- 1920. Americans viewed them as the enemy, rounding up and deporting several hundred immigrants. Essentially, the scare was caused by the overwhelming fear of communist ideals in the US after the Russian Revolution. Palmer Raids: Letter bombs were sent to anti-communists and they felt threatened by communists over seas. Communists in the US investigated and arrested, “raids” by the federal government. “Red Ark” deportations occurred when many were deported to Russia. Mitchell Palmer was so set on the Red Scare that he announced the threat of May Day, May 1st 1920, when a huge communist uprising would occur. He felt that they needed to act before anything happened – but nothing happened. The Red Scare finally dies down, but not before throwing the country into terror.
3. Fourteen Points: Written by Woodrow Wilson on World Peace ideas at the end of WWI. They were classic progressive ideas, plans for a united nations – League of Nations (UN had not yet been formed). But received little support, especially from Europe.
4. American Protective League: 250,000 members from over 600 cities, funded by government. Organization of private citizens that worked with Federal law enforcement agencies during the World War I era to identify suspected German sympathizers and to counteract the activities of radicals, anarchists, anti-war activists, and left-wing labor and political organizations. Don't forget about the age old question of What is a disease discovered by samuel cartwright that was an explanation for when slaves did shoddy work?
5. Committee on Public Information: (CPI) Propaganda organization headed by president Woodrow Wilson; anti German and anti Left Wing. Why war was necessary – pro war and anti-German terrorist groups. From April 14, 1917, to June 30, 1919, it used every medium available to create enthusiasm for the war effort and enlist public support against foreign attempts to undercut America's war aims.
6. Espionage Act of 1917: US federal law (1917) coming into effect right after the US entrance to WWI. This Act tried to prohibit the interference with military operations or recruitment to prevent insubordination in the military and to prevent the support of US enemies during the war. Sentenced up to 20 years and $10,000 fine for persons “aiding the enemy”, “disallowing recruitment of soldiers”, etc. – 6,000 Americans detained If you want to learn more check out Define reaction rate.
7. Sedition Act of 1918: Act of US Congress after the Espionage Act of 1917 covering a wider range of offenses by US citizens. These offenses included: speech and the expression of opinion that cast the government or the war effort in a negative light or interfered with the sale of government bonds, harsh penalties using harsh/abusive language about government, the flag, soldiers, etc. – 1500 arrested, 10,000 badly hurt by law. Liberal Union members were anti-war. Federal government monitors their mail and arrests some members
8. Schenk v. United States: United States Supreme Court case about the Espionage Act of 1917. (Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr.) Concluded that defendants who distributed leaflets to draft-age men, urging resistance to induction, could be convicted of an attempt
to obstruct the draft, a criminal offense. Many thought this contradicted the first amendment, but “it was okay to repress one’s speech if the conditions were right”. 9. Abrams v. United States: United States Supreme court case about the Sedition Act of 1918 regarding the criminal offense to urge curtailment of production of materials necessary to the war against Germany with intent to hinder the progress of the war. The defendants were convicted when they printed leaflets and threw them from windows in NYC. The pamphlets shared their negative feelings of sending American troops to Russia and the efforts to impede the Russian revolution and the banning of weapon production. We also discuss several other topics like What is the relationship between race/ethnicity and socialization?
10. 19th Amendment: (1920) Extends the right to vote to women. They now have representation at local and state level, although they still have little power, they are moving toward political equality. Over 70 years later of fighting for this amendment, women start to see relief.
11. “New Woman”: Late nineteenth century icon of changing gender norms. Females are less constrained with a greater freedom to pursue public rolls with more public permission to flaunt “sex appeal”. Women are able to express autonomy and individuality, reject mother ways and accept more independence and modern choices. Women are venturing into the professional and public world with full time jobs in offices, teaching and fashion. They are starting to move into the political world and even starting to go to secondary school (law school, medical school). Flappers were a kind of new woman – not feminists, care little about politics, party girl, take advantage of party scene, not many. Majority were worried about denser things – politics (American women can vote), sexual freedom (birth control) and economic and financial freedom (jobs, live independently or have more power in household, more single women) Don't forget about the age old question of What is a research study that allows you to infer causality through manipulation and control?
Don't forget about the age old question of What general issues divided the soviet union and united states in the cold war super-power rivalry for global hegemony?
12. 1920’s Consumerism: Great deal of economic fortitude in the 1920’s post WWI induced the sense to buy new products and items to make the way of life better. The country was experiencing vast economic power as the wealthiest nation in the world without any rivals. Industrial output increased by 60%, gross product production increased by 40%, average income increased by 20%, and economy grows 7% each year. The general average standard of living improves. In the end, confidence leads to stock market crash because so many were investing in the stock market without hard cash on them – buying stocks on margin.
13. Volstead Act: AKA National Prohibition Act. 18th amendment of the constitution in 1919 that banned the manufacturing and selling of intoxicating liquors. Closed taverns, bars, saloons, etc. In January of 1920, it was illegal to sell drinks with more than .5% alcohol which drove the liquor trade underground. Illegal speak easy’s/blind pigs opened, sketchy and illegal bars were kept secret led by bootleggers and organized crime figures. Many middle class white Americans felt it would control immigrant masses because they associated alcoholism and drunkenness with them, such as the German and Irish men. “Dries” support prohibition. Drinking was a symbol of what they dislike about urban areas – drunkenness and disorder. They wanted to turn the clock back to earlier and better times. If you want to learn more check out Who is the first emperor of rome?
14. Great Migration: Marks relocation of African Americans from South to Northeast urban areas. In the early 20’s, NYC African American population increases by 66%, Chicago AA increases by 148%, Philly AA population increases by 500%, and Detroit AA population increases by 611%. But they still encounter equally difficult reality in the
north - dangerous, females have a hard time finding jobs, middle class in north are just as racist. Leads to the Harlem Renaissance.
15. Harlem Renaissance: jazz and literacy movement originating from African Americans. This made northern whites very uncomfortable. It occurred from around 1918-1937, becoming the most influential movement of African American culture. This was a way for African Americans to re-conceptualize their culture after being suppressed by white people for so long. This laid a great base for movements later on in equality, African American literature and art. Named after the Harlem district in NYC, it took place in a wide variety of northern urban areas.
16. Immigration Act of 1924: Also known as the Johnson-Reed Act. Regards immigration reform. Sets annual quota of any nationality at 2% of said nation’s population in the US in 1890 and completely excluded immigrants from Asia. This was a less than subtle way to restrict people from Southern and Eastern Europe (Italy, Russia, Slovakia, Poland, etc.). It was much easier to come from Western and Northern Europe to migrate to US because more of them lived in the US in 1890 (Great Britain, Germany). This was a means to preserve American racial homogeneity – white Anglo-Saxon protestant.
17. Scopes Trial: This is indicative of American’s discomfort with “modern” ideas, specifically the teaching of evolution. The trial challenged a new Tennessee state law teaching anything denying the biblical account of the rise of man (evolution). Traditionalists thought it undermined the US normalcy. John Scopes (24) taught in the Tennessee public high school and included evolution in his class. He was arrested for teaching but unions supported him. In trial, state lawyer argued that evolution threated the US and the bible should be what structured the classroom. In the end, the court determined that his actions violated the law and he was fined $100. This law stood in Tennessee school for another 42 years, but the issue was brought to public attention. “Bryan (state lawyer) won the case but lost the argument” – press.
18. Dust Bowl: A series of periodic dust storms in the mid-western prairies. They destroyed the ecology and farmland in the mid-west, drastically hurting the farmers and all those who relied on agriculture in the west. It also forced a massive migration out of states like Oklahoma, Kansas, and Texas. It caused a great deal of erosion needing attention from the soil conservation service.
19. 2nd KKK: Revival of the (second) Ku Klux Klan represent a return to values that the 20’s was ignoring. New targets were set (Catholics, Jews, political radicals, new women – threatened husbands – homosexuals). Membership skyrockets, especially outside of the South. Membership is both permissible and respectable with even women joining. They were uncomfortable with modernity. The federal government is uncomfortable with it and sets restrictive immigration legislation.
20. Buying on Margin: when someone did not have the cash to buy stocks, they would buy it on margin – put down some money and borrow the rest from a broker. Often, they only needed 10-20% hard cash to put down. This was incredibly risky, a leading cause of the great depression. Speculative investing – often times investors were excited to invest more than the elite – their entire savings. They are very optimistic because the stock market had become a place where everyday people believed they could become rich. “Margin Call” – when a stock buyer needed cash to pay back loan immediately – more money in stock market than in hard cash. Margin calls were sent out in October of 1929 when prices of stocks were dropping harshly. Many could not pay for stocks because
they were worth less than they actually paid for.
21. Black Thursday: Thursday, October 24th, 2929. Beginning of stock market crash begins when prices of stocks drop 12% in one day. Steel production, automobile and home consumption had suddenly dropped.
22. Hoovervilles: aka shanty towns. A collection of makeshift huts and shacks often from recycled materials and cardboard boxes housing the unemployed during the Great Depression. President Hoover was often blamed for the conditions in the US, hence “Hoover”-ville.
23. Scottsboro Nine: The Scottsboro Trials were some of the most famous cases from the Jim Crow South. In the early 1930’s, nine young black men were falsely accused ot raping two white women on a train. They were argued twice at Supreme Court Level, and although there was a great deal of evidence to clear the men’s names and even a retraction of the accusation, the all-white jury found them guilty. Several of the accused were sentenced to prison terms and all endured long stays in prison as the case made its way through the legal system.
24. Bonus Army: The popular name of an assemblage of some 43,000 marchers—17,000 World War I veterans, their families, and affiliated groups—who gathered in Washington, D.C., in the spring and summer of 1932 to demand cash-payment redemption of their service certificates.
25. Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA): (New Deal) Government built 21 dams to generate electricity for tens of thousands of families, providing jobs for thousands. It was established to control floods, improve navigation, help the standard of living for farmers and produce electrical power.
26. Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA): (New Deal) This established the nation’s first system of agricultural price and production support. It was a partnership between government and main agricultural producers agreeing to raise prices by reducing farm goods. The government assigned acreage quotas to specific crops and their farmers. Although it was based on voluntary participation, it helped to raise farmer income. Though, it did not help share croppers or small farmers.
27. National Recovery Administration (NVA): (New Deal) This administration aimed to help revive the industry through national planning. It set prices, production levels, minimum wage, number of hours elicited to work per week, etc. This also aided in the creation of many labor unions. It concluded labor conflicts, overproduction, and many other issues of the time period. There were over 500 NRA codes signed only a few months after FDR was elected into office. Major industries were won over and many posters were proudly displayed in businesses across the nation. The NRA sought to stabilize the economy by ending ruinous competition, overproduction and labor conflicts as well as deflating prices. The NRA achieved only limited success because boards were mainly for big business who resented the NRA for interfering with the private sector. Many called it the “National Run Around”. But, it did successfully bring in a wide variety of labor workers, abolished child labor, established the federal regulation of minimum wage and hours, and boosted labor movement unions. Farmers were not covered.
28. Works Progress Administration (WPA): (New Deal) Established in 1933, this administration provided 2.7 million workers. There were 100,000’s miles of paved roads, 4,000 playgrounds, public buildings, etc. (Leconte Hall, Baldwin Hall, Park Hall) The
purpose of this administration was to give mostly unskilled workers jobs throughout the US during the great depression at a time with tremendously low employment. 29. Huey Pierce Long: (1893 –1935), nicknamed The Kingfish, was an American politician who served as the 40th Governor of Louisiana from 1928 to 1932 and as a member of the United States Senate from 1932 until his assassination in 1935. He was a democrat and major populist who criticized the rich and the banks and called for “Share our Wealth” which was a movement that began in 1934 during the Depression, calling for more equal financial levels, limited annual incomes, homestead allowances, balancing of agricultural production, free education and greater taxes.
30. Court-packing Plan: AKA Judicial Procedures Reform Bill of 1937 proposed by FDR to add more justices to the US Supreme Court. He wanted greater rulings regarding New Deal legislation that the court had originally ruled unconstitutional. If passed, FDR would be able to appoint an additional justice.
31. Neutrality Acts: Laws passed in 1935, 1936, 1937, and 1939 to limit U.S. involvement in future wars. They were based on the widespread disillusionment with World War I in the early 1930s and the belief that the United States had been drawn into the war through loans and trade with the Allies. Isolationism was particularly strong in the Midwest.
32. Axis Powers: Germany, Italy, Japan. Began with the rise of Germany after its economic depression power WWI. They are holding sever grudges having to demilitarize from the Treaty of Paris. In 1933 when Adolf Hitler became Chancellor of Germany, they quickly turned to a fascist state – police centered, great military, conservative. They renounce treaty obligations from WWI, begin rapid arm build up, initiate anti-Jewish campaign, demand territory, and join with Italian dictator Mussolini to become military union. Japan is at the time a hyper-militarized country wanting to expand its borders and raw materials. The 3 countries join together to expand their own industries, territories, economies, and thus, power. Although they have major success in the beginning, the allied powers win in the end, often thought possible by our openness to use women in production and help with war efforts.
33. Executive Order 9066: Order signed by FDR in February of 1942 during WWII. This gave the war department authority to declare any part of the country a restricted military area – California, Oregon, Washington, South Arizona – where Japanese-Americans were not allowed to live. Americans were fearful of the threat the Japanese posed to the US. They were forced to evacuate, ordered to take only what they could carry and leave their homes, businesses and possession behind. They were housed in internment camps in isolated and desolate locations monitored by police and surrounded by barbed wire. They lived in poor conditions and felt their rights were limited from the first amendment, leading to…
34. Korematsu v. United States: Fred Korematsu challenged the constitutionality of Executive Order 9066, claiming it limited their freedoms. It went to the Supreme Court but lost in an overruling of 6-3. They claimed that military necessity and nation security overruled the civil rights of Japanese Americans.
35. Military-Industrial Complex: network of individuals and institutions involved in the production of weapons and military technologies. The military-industrial complex in a country typically attempts to marshal political support for continued or increased military spending by the national government.
36. “Top Secret Rosies”: see video
37. GI Bill: Officially the Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944, it was created to help veterans of World War II. It established hospitals, made low-interest mortgages available and granted stipends covering tuition and expenses for veterans attending college or trade schools.
38. Truman Doctrine: aka Containment Policy; President Truman attemted to contain communism where it was and disallow it from spreading anymore. Truman asked congress for $400 million to sent to Greece and Turkey for military and economic assistance – this worked within two years and the threat to these two nations passed. This showed our support for the countries at risk of falling to communist Soviet Union.
39. Marshall Plan: This was the huge amount of financial support the US poured into Western Europe after WWII for them to rebuild. Secretary of State Marshall announced the program in June of 1947. The US provided more than $17 billion over the span of 4 years to Western Europe – Italy, Belgium, Germany, etc. This was an economic miracle for many countries that were left devastatingly poor after the war.
40. Berlin Airlift: After the Soviet Union blockaded all of West Berlin from the water supply, US, France and Britain joined together to airlift food and fuel to Berlin from their strong countries for 10 months. In may of 1949, the blockade lifts, marking the first real standoff between East and West Berlin in the Cold war – democratic victory.
41. Korean War: Korea is split into North and South along the 38th parallel. North Korea wasnts to take over South Korea and they enter into a Civil War (leading to the Korean War). In July of 1950, 75,000 soldiers enter South Korea. The US supports the South, having Douglas MacArthur fight back, not only containing communism to North Korea,
but trying to push it back to China. Truman fires him. Not much has changed since. 42. Joseph McCarthy: An American politician serving on the US Senate who became a public face during the Cold War when the fear of communism was rampant throughout the US. He was noted for making claims that there were a large number of Communist and Soviet Union supporters/spies throughout the US, a leader to the Second Red Scare.