Mid term study guide
Mid term study guide Classical Mythology
Popular in Greek Mythology
Popular in Classical Mythology
This 23 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alyson Hankins on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Classical Mythology at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see Greek Mythology in Classical Mythology at University of Missouri - Columbia.
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Date Created: 10/13/15
Apollo God of the lyre Apollo Mousagetes The leader of the Muses Patron of singersmusicians God of the bow But was not a hunter God of the plague But also god of medicinehealing God of prophecy His oracle at Delphi One of the most famous places in the ancient world God of the sun There are several sun gods Hypenon Helios Apollo Phoibos Apollo Shining Apollo Appearance Youthful beauty No beard Long hair Bow or lyre Laurel wreath Etiological hymn Part 1 Island of Delos Birth of Apollo Part 2 Delphi Foundation of Apollos famous temple Why was Apollo born on the island of Delos The trials of Leto Leto daughter of Titans Zeus Leto Apollo A pregnant Leto wanders Greece looking for a place to deliver Apollo All lands fear the birth of the new god and his future power Only small rocky Delos agrees to welcome his birth and be home to his temple Leto gives birth to Apollo For 9 days an angry Hera keeps Eileithyia unaware of Apollo s impeding birth Rheia Themis and Amphitrite tell lris lris messenger of the gods lris finds Eileithyia Leto gives birth to Apollo and sister Artemis Apollo claims bow lyre and prophecy Apollo was born on Delos because only Delos was willing to shelter Leto when she was pregnant Why is the site of Apollo s oracle called Delphi Apollo s oracle at Delphi most famous oracle in the antiquity Consulted over 1000 years Answers of Apollo delivered by Pythia an inspired priestess Apollo s sanctuary Delphi The trials of Apollo Apollo comes to a spring called Telphousa wants to build a temple and oracle there Telphousa claims the area is too noisy Advises him to move to Crisa below Mt Parnassus Crisa is guarded by a dragon named Python Apollo slays the dragon Etiological issues ln anger Apollo goes back and piles rocks on spring of Telphousa Apollo s priestess the Pythia is named after Python the dragon Apollo slew Why is Crisa called Delphi Apollo overtakes a Cretan ship Apollo needs servants for his new temple in Crisa Sees a ship from Crete He goes aboard in the shape of a giant dolphin greek dolphin delphis Apollo directs the ship to Crisa and orders the crew to be priests at his temple First command to priests is to give sacrifice to Apollo Delphinios Apollo Delphinios so Crisa becomes known as Delphi Outline Artemis Diana Nature and appearance Three myths Niobe Actaion Atalante Meleagros and the boar hunt Artemis Nature and appearance Associated with the wild and the untamed Forest uncultivated meadows mountains etc Wild animals Goddess of the countryside NOT CITY Hun ng Bow archery Potnia Theron ruler of the beasts Both slayer and defender Protector of the young Artemis Kourotrophos nurturer of the young Virginity weddings childbirth Ex Katniss Everdeen Virgin goddess Attendants are virgins too Goddess of the moon Another moon goddess Selene Apollo sun Artemis moon Often shown with a crescent shape aboveon her head Severe and quicktempered like Apollo Three myths 1 Niobe Hyginus 9 Queen of Thebes Niobe s children Queen Niobe of Thebes has 7 sons and 7 daughters Beautiful healthy virtuous children proud mom Niobe mocks Leto for having only 2 children and that the women should be worshiping her because she has 14 fabulous children Leto tells Artemis and Apollo about what Niobe s said and asks what they are going to do about it Artemis and Apollo attack Apollo kills all Niobe s sons Artemis spares 1 daughter Niobe turns to stone Niobe leaves and wanders East and grief overcomes her completely Niobe s tears flowing spring on Mt Sipylus After turned to stone she still weeps Real stone sculpture that looks a lot like a woman sitting in grief with a natural spring that runs down it Three myths 2 Actaion Apollodorus M3 amp Hyginus 180 Actaion Hunter Raised by Cheiron the Centaur Half manhalf horse Top half man bottom half horse Love drinking chaos violence stealing women from weddings Cheiron is different Wise kind trainer of heroes Actaion Asclepius Achilles and others Actaion goes hunting on Mt Cithairon Not far from Thebes At midday Actaion calls a halt to the hunt Him and his faithful dogs are hot and need to rest Actaion comes upon Artemis bathing nude while looking for water Either Innocent victim Apollodorus M3 Standard version Wants to rape Artemis Hyginus 180 Artemis turns Actaion into a deer Sends his own pack of hunting dogs after him Tries to call out to his dogs by name but nothing happens Actaion is killed by his own hunting dogs Myth 3 Boar Hunt Abandoned by her parents right when she was born Her father wanted a son not a daughter Took her to the woods to abandon her Nursed by a momma bear whose cubs just got killed by a hunter Rescued and raised by hunters who named her Beautiful swift and fearsome emulates Artemis Virgin shuns men Dwells in a cave An alternate tradition Atalante not abandoned by her parents Atalante s father arranges a competition for his daughter s hand in marriage Any man who beats her in a foot race can marry her The man can get a head start Atalante can be armed spear If she catches the man he will be killed She kills men during the race many times The race is on Hippomenes decides to compete He asks for Aphrodite39s help Aphrodite gives Hippomenes golden apples Hippomenes outruns Atalante He drops golden apples behind him Atalante can t resist picking them up Meleagros King and queen of Calydon Oineus Althaia a son Meleagros The Fates visit the parents and say that Meleagros will die when a particular log is burned up Althaia hides that log in a chest One year Oineus forgets to include Artemis in a harvest sacrifice Artemis sends a huge boar to devastate the countryside around Calydon Calydonian boar hunt Meleagros Atalante and many other heroes Meleagros falls instantly in love with Atalante On the hunt Atalante strikes first blow and Meleagros strikes the killing blow Meleagros gives Atalante the dead boar as a gift A family dispute Meleagros uncles are upset at the gift to Atalante Meleagros mother s brothers Meleagros defends Atalante and he kills his uncles A bitter Althaia gets revenge Takes the log out of the chest and throws it in the fire Death of Meleagros Recalling decree of the Fates Althaia puts the log into the fire Artemis 3 myths Niobe divine vengeance slaying of innocent children Actaion divine vengeance slaying of innocent or guilty Actaion AtalanteMeleagros instigator after divine honors ignored Hermes Messenger Intermediary Thief Protector of travelers Greek herma stonepile Waypoints for travelers Wards off evil from houses other aeBring good luck Hermes originally god of the stonepile Guide and protect all kinds of travelers Hermes Mercury The herma eventually becomes stylized Made by artists and put in peoples homes villages towns The herm Carved pillar with a head of Hermes and a penis Sacred and very popular thought to bring good luck and success Wards off evil from houses other areas apotropaic Marks boundaries distances Messenger and god of boundaries Intermediary between worlds Messenger of the gods So is Iris goddess of the rainbow Escorts souls of the dead to the Underworld Hermes Psychopompos Hermes Psychopompos Escort of Souls Prince of thieves Clever devious thief A trickster figure like Prometheus Protector of flocks Brings fertility and good health to shepherds and their flocks Sometimes represented as a shepherd Hermes appearance Hat Winged boots or sandals Herald s staff caduceus Bearded but also younger and beardless Homeric Hymn to Hermes no 4 Hermes Son of Zeus and Maia Adaughter of Atlas Homeric Hymn 18 Killer of Argos Argeiphontes The infant Hermes Born in Maia s cave Leaves cradle at once and finds a tortoise Scoops the tortoise out of his shell and lnvents a lyre out of the tortoise shell Sings a song about his mom and dad The adventures of baby Hermes At night seeks out Apollo s herd of sacred cattle steals 50 Makes Apollo s cattle walk backwards to confuse tracks Passes an old man tells him to keep his secret Hides Apollo s cattle near the river Sacrifices two cattle to himself goes back home to Maia s cave Apollo goes looking for his cattle Old man mentions baby backwardwalking cows Apollo tracks Hermes to Maia s cave Apollo threatens baby Hermes Hermes denies everything The dispute on Mt Olympus Apollo picks up baby Hermes who farts then sneezes Apollo drops Hermes They decide to let Zeus their father judge the case up on Mt Olympus Hermes lies to Zeus face Then winks at Zeus Zeus laughs but tells him to lead Apollo to his cattle Hermes returns cattle and befriends Apollo by giving him the tortoiseshell lyre in return for the missing 2 cattle Athena The birth of Athena Zeus swallows Metis goddess of wisdom Athena born fully armed from Zeus head She is Zeus favorite child 4 characteristics of Athena Wisdom Owl Athens Virginity A virgin goddess et Artemis Battle prowess Strategy and discipline vs Ares bloodlust Protector of many heroes Patron of civilized crafts and skills Weaving construction of ships and chariots Even scientific advancement She inspires these talents in others A goddess of civilization Primarily worshipped in cities as guardian deity Contrast with Artemis 2 gifts Olive tree Weaving Two titles Homeric Hymn 28 Glaukopis greyeyed owleyed Pallas virgin wielder of weapons Appearance Typically armed and wearing the aegis Sometimes accompanied by Nike winged goddess of victory The aegis Given to Athena by Zeus A kind of breastplate war crop top Inspires fear to her enemies Snakes Gorgon head Gorgon 3 Monstrous female creatures 1 is mortal Medusa Snakes for hair Tusks Big sharp glaring eyes Tongue that sticks out Medusa the Gorgon One time lover of Poseidon At one time Medusa was beautiful Anyone who looked directly at her turned to stone Nike goddess of victory Athena and Zeus shown holding Nike in their hands Literally holding victory in their hand Athena and Athens The contest with Poseidon The Parthenon Athena s contest with Poseidon Argument between Athena and Poseidon who will found the first city in Attica Zeus judge of their gifts to the city Poseidon saltwater spring Athena the olive tree Athena is victorious names the city Athens after herself Athena s olive Vital Greek crop Can be grown anywhere The wonders of the olive Food olives Profit olive oil Cooking Perfume base Athletics Prize Covered nude bodies with olive oil Bathing The Parthenon in Athens Temple dedicated to Athena in Athens The Parthenon Athena s temple Located on the Acropolis highest place in the city Named forAthena Parthenos Athena the virgin Built in the 5th century BC in the aftermath of the Greek victory of the Persians Athenians played a leading part The Persian Empire 500 BC The Acropolis The Parthenon Originally painted Pediments of the Parthenon East pediment Birth of Athena West pediment Athena s contest with Poseidon Nashville TN Parthenon Lifesize replica of the parthenon Accurate within 3 millimeters Walk around and go inside Statue of Athena inside made out of gold and ivory Athena and Arachne Arachne A master weaver Arachne arrogantly refuses to acknowledge Athena as the source of her skill Athena appears in disguise to warn her but Arachne persists Child you really should credit Athena with your extraordinary skill No I owe Athena nothing Let Athena come down and compete against me Athena vs Arachne Weaveoff Athena s tapestry Contest with Poseidon Fates of presumptuous mortals death Olive border Arachne s tapestry Gods affairs with mortal women Athena s tapestry is not clearly better so Athena transforms Arachne into a spider Athena breaks the loom and starts attacking Arachne Stubborn girl keep on living but hang Arachne Arachnid Dionysos Dionysos AKA Bacchus Specialized fertility god Grapevine ivy God of wine and intoxication ln myth last of the Olympian gods Comes from the East to assert his power and gain worshippers Must earn his respect because he s so different strange and unusual than the rest Inspires ecstasy stand outside of yourself Through wine music dance sex and possessions God of the altered state God of the theatre at Athens Theatrical performances originated in Athens during festivals in honor of Dionysos Actors assume other identities Audience suspends disbelief Emotional release Crylaugh Dionysos appearance Long hair amp beard Wreath of grapes around his head lvy in his hair Sometimes shown around wild animals Wild animals skin tied around his neck like a cape Carries a drinking cup Dionysos kantharos drinking cup Wide 2 handled cup Bacchus the boy Too much can cause you to regress Have as much self control as a child no self control Mardi Gras Put on different costumesmasks Being someone else Drinking Largely Dionysosy event Someone dresses up as Bacchus every year Dionysos attendants Wild beasts Panthers Leopards Tigers Satyrs Goatmen lewd looking for mateshorny Maenads Possessed women devoted to Dionysos All 3 in altered states Dionysos with satyr Marsyas was a satyr Lack of self control perpetual arousal Maenads Frenzied women devoted to Dionysos Hair unbound Clothes loose no shoes Often carry a thyrsos Staff wound with ivy topped with cones and grapes Often found in groups Ecstatic maenads Those naughty meanders and satyrs Dionysos party train Birth and early life of Dionysos Semele amp Zeus Tribulations and wanderings Zeus and Semele Cadmos King of Thebes His daughters lno Agave Semele Zeus seduces Semele promises to do whatever she wants Hera finds out The deception and death of Semele Disguised as Semele s servant Hera convinces Semele to ask Zeus to appear in is full power Zeus appearance incinerates Semele who is pregnant The birth of Dionysos Zeus rescues the infant Sews him into his thigh Some months later Dionysos is born Sent to lno Semele s sister and her husband Athamas to be raised as a gm in Thebes Learns to be disguised in a young age The birth of Dionysos Zeus Semele Dionysos Born from Zeus thigh Dionysos sent to lno Semele s sister and Athamas in Thebes to be raised as a girl in disguise Hera on the warpath Hera drives Inc and Athamas insane Athamas hunts and kills his older son because he thinks he s a deer Shortly commits suicide because of the grief lno boils other son in a cauldron Takes him out of the pot and jumps into the sea with his corpse Hermes then delivers the infant Dionysos to nymphs in Nysa Explains the name Dionysos Dio goddivinity Nys Nysa God who was raised in Nysa Nymphs Kind semidivine nature spirits Look like mortal women Reside in trees rivers forests mountains etc Secluded places Outside they eyes of a mortal man Sometimes found in the company of Satyrs The wanderings of Dionysos Dionysos grows up in the east unknown to the Greeks Wanders in the east converting cities to his worship Then sets his sights on Thebes Dionysos arrives in Thebes Cadmos King Has 4 daughters 1 doesn t matter 2 killed lnoSemele Agave is left Pentheus is her son Dionysos arrives in Thebes Agave Semele s sister is spreading a rumor That Semele was killed by Zeus for lying about being his lover So Dionysos comes to Thebes in disguise To gain recognition of himself as a new god To vindicate his mother restore her reputation Pentheus and Dionysos Pentheus new king of Thebes and cousin of Dionysos does not believe Dionysos is a god But the women of Thebes including Agave Pentheus mother have became maenads and left the city All been possessed by Dionysos Are holding secret rituals in the wilderness Pentheus confronts and threatens a disguised Dionysos Punishment of Pentheus Dionysos makes Pentheus admit he wants to see what the maenads in the wilderness are doing Pentheus dresses up as a maenad Dionysos leads Pentheus to possessed maenads in the wilderness The maenads including his mother Agave snatch Pentheus out of the tree he was hiding in The maenads tear him apart even after he tries to tell them he is their king because they are crazed and possessed Agave puts Pentheus head on her thyrsos and claims victory over the enemies of Dionysos Summing up Pentheus is destroyed because he resists Dionysos Dionysos manipulates Pentheus psychologically from within Dionysos god of the irrational offers joy and ecstasy to those who accept him and terror and madness to those who don t PrometheusAgave Demeter Persephone amp Hades Demeter goddess of grain Roman name Ceres Where we get the word cereal Goddess of agriculture especially prosperity of grain crops wheat barley Demeter and Persephone Demeter Daughter of Cronos and Rheia Mother by Zeusher brother of Persephone also a fertility goddess Persephone sometimes called Kore the daughter Hades Aidoneus Ruler of the dead Lord of Many Host of Many Guests Holds the key to the underworld locks the door behind the dead because death is permanent Not evil or satanic just grim and serious Falls in love with Persephone Goes to his brother Zeus for help Zeus advises Hades to abduct her while she picks flowers away from Demeter Takes her in his chariot driven by his 4 black horses The abduction of Persephone Demeter is distraught wanders torch in hand for 9 daysnights Only the goddess Hecate heard Persephone cry out Hecate Goddess who controls dark powers of the earthunderworld Abduction of Persephone Demeter and Hecate go to Helios who saw the abduction Helios explains to Demeter what happened and that Zeus approved marriage with Hades Demeter shuns the company of the gods and walks the earth in disguise Persephone and Hades Persephone becomes the bride of Hades Queen of the Underworld Grief of Demeter at Eleusis Demeter assumes disguise Old woman named Deo Demeter wanders to Eleusis and meets the daughters of King Celeos and Queen Metaneira Tells how she was abducted by Pirates in Crete and she escaped and needs help because she has no money She tells the daughters that she wants to be a nurse and look after children Celeos and Metaneira take Demeter into their home as a nurse to their newborn son Demophon Demeter drinks not wine but kykeon Kykeon water mixed with barley Demeter secretly gives Demophon ambrosia and puts him in fire at night he s not harmed Making him immortal burning away the mortality and feeding him the food of the gods Discovered by Metaneira and thus Demophon is not made immortal Wrath of Demeter Makes demands of Eleusis a great temple and a new ritual in her honor But Demeter is still angry no corps for mankind until she sees Persephone again FAMINE Zeus sends all the other gods to persuade Demeter and none are successful Zeus sends Hermes to talk to Hades Hades allows Persephone to visit the upper world But gives her a pomegranate to eat first Reunion of mother and daughter Happy and joyful Hermes led Persephone out of the Underworld into the arms of Demeter Persephone and nature Persephone has tasted the pomegranate in the underworld Thus 13 year underground with Hades 23 year above with Demeter Allegory of nature Persephone must descend like seed into the earth so that the new crops can grow Reconciliation Zeus sends their mother Rheia to ask Demeter to end the famine Demeter relents Return of crops and returns to Mt Olympus People of Eleusis inaugurate the Eleusinian mysteries Secret religious rites held in Demeter s honor details in Homeric Hymn match details of the rites 9 days with torches kykeon etc Initiates had to reenact the Homeric Hymn
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