Cultural Anthropology Final Exam
Cultural Anthropology Final Exam 0780
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Cultural Anthropology Notes Chapter 1 Culture and Meaning How do Human beings differ in their beliefs and behaviors Ethnocentric fallacy our beliefs are right and true while others are misguided ethnocentrism your culture is right and people should be similar to you gt intellectual and social dead end relativism no belief can be thought as wrong simply because it is different from our own relativist fallacy impossible to make moral judgments about the beliefs and behaviors of others poses problem of nothing being condemned as wrong ethnographic method the immersion of investigators in the lives of the people they are trying to understand through that experience the attainment of some level of understanding of the meanings that people ascribe to their existence anthropological field work requires participant observations the active participation of observers in the lives of their subject culture operates as a system of signs way we dress talk which means they are arbitrary bc could be anything intemal logic teacher dresses the way they do shared experiences amp events high school gt pittsburgh infinite options hidden meaning behind everyday actions what makes certain things accepted humans give meaning to things events activities Culture also blinds us to alternatives more than two genders orders behavior takes highly abstract and makes it accessible Docile bodies Body as political anatomy instruments of control instruments to be controlled mode of discipline distribution of people in space classroom organization ways in which you might talk about yourself individualism Chapter 2 commodity money money that is backed by something of worth like gold credit money money that is created by loans GDP total of all goods and services bought and sold in one year capital conversion the transformation of something that has no value into something that can be bought and sold in market political capital the freedom we have to regulate we have to regulate our own lives and the access we have to societal leaders and decision makers social capital relations of reciprocity and trust that enable people collectively to solve their problems Class Why do humans differ any choices but only a few are chosen what do we consider edible how do we express grief happiness anger based on class hierarchy gender race roles geography How do we judge ethnocentric fallacy i am judge and jury ethnocentrism i am the center of the universe relativism insider point of view can we legitimize human behavior relativist fallacy maybe we should judge How to be an anthropologist ethnography participant observation fieldwork anthropologists become marginal never go native but never see the world the same again now that you know the alternative How do we describe and interpret others experiences abstract to every day and every day to abstract cultural textswords desires items activities wink vs blink demonstration can distinguish between two fights to know difference must know something about the culture What can we learn about ourselves from ourselves good job workout homework positive praise Chapter 3 commodity money money that is backed by something of worth such as gold or silver fiat moneycredit money paper that was used as evidence of a claim of economic value but that was legally not redeemable for anything gross domestic product GDP total of goods and services bought and sold each year capital conversion the transformation of something that has no monetary value into something that can be sold and bought in the market political capital the freedom we have to regulate our own lives and the access we have to societal leader and decision makers into money social capital relations of reciprocity and trust that allow people collectively to solve their problems free trade remove barriers to the freee ow of goods and capital between nations neoliberals against any involvement minimum wages environmental regulations etc government can either respond to these concerns addressing social political and environmental concerns by highlighting democracy or they can delegate environmental issues to a panel as to completely clear themselves of responsibility of responding to the public third option is to convince media and corporations to spin new to allay public fears and interests Globalizationneoliberalismnation state class try to understand the ways in which items are exchanged igor kopytoff biography of a commodity gt who its made where its made relationship to object economic system distribution of goods rules mechanisms institutions systems of relations consumption need and opportunity to purchase buy gather particular goods top 20 consumes 86 of resources bottom 20 consumes 13 define happiness money defines all social relationships willing to take up time to help someone move yet not lending 100 to have them rent a truck what is money medium of exchange essentially worthless we give it value commodity money goldsilver fiat or credit money based on nothing perpetual growth credit card w 3 interest on in gt basing money off of money not on something tangible need people to continue to buy things capital conversion something insignificant and turn in directly or indirectly into money forests gt houses water gt water parks mountains gt ski resorts social capital people working together for a common good person w object can make friends not good for the economy political capital transfer of accountability from government to its citizens to companies and their shareholders corporate interest dominate over human interests market system regulated market good for people environment but bad for market unregulated good for market but bad for people and environment neoliberalism unregulated market system people continue to consume and buy more money for everyone removal of state from market system globalization free trade free markets antidemocratic market externalizations hidden costs or problems not included in price of commodity hog farms impact and costs w in community unseen economic collapse envelope is only worth a c gt less money less dinner just worth less in general high dependency on potential consumption compleXity of derivatives how commodities are valued eXpectation hope in rise of value Class Sweetness and Power food as an institution to understand relationships between people reveal social status roles and responsibilities dont eat everything is because if access lack of not allowed to modemization of food eating meals adapted to world of work work changed how and where we eat sugar starts in south pacific rare expensive and foreign change was social not biological altered social meaning of food queen of england gt all citizens to change diet of people is to change them their traditions and their daily lives first domesticated in new guinea in 800 bc two end productions of sugar brown V white and liquid V granular spread of sugar follows the spread of islam north africa and mediterranean technology came with sugar intro of structures and institutions connected to global processes spread institutions knowledge and ability faced multiple challenges technological political securing labor black plague reduces labor gt slavery atlantic island production sites prototype for slave plantations in americas beginning of europeans seeing sugar as early american production spainportugal slavewage labor 15 l6 gt sugar to europe santadomingo haitid republic first enslaved africans spreads to cuba jamaica and puerto rico jamestown VA 1607 sugar enslaved africans 1619 barbados 1627 british involvement SUGAR BECOMES A COMMON FOOD high point of production 16001800 mercantile economy british economic policy buy no unfinished products elsewhere sell none of your products elsewhere ship everything in british ships fell to philosophies of free trade capitalism slavery is an economic category of highest importance no slavery gt no cotton no sugar or tobacco gt no modern industry slavery colonies world trade production in uenced political economic and military citizens forms of labor free european sell one s labor criminals servants contracted laborers promise of land at the end of service coerced small farms gt plantation peripheral form tobacco sugar cane african indigenous changed how we become defined as humans sugar produced in same place cultivated synthesis of field and factory plantation is pre factory industrial revolution model punctuality and discipline harvestingprocessing time sensitive scale slaves go from america to caribbean production and consumption separated gt all year long labor unskilled and skilled labor required emancipation era imported labor asia middle east india free V forced labor economic system isn t beneficial end of slavery is not altruistic end of mercantile system gtfree trade political power dictated economic systems impacts world wide migration africans gt US caribbean indians asians gt caribbean maritius sigi hawaii Consumption British diet inadequacy of british agriculture combination of inadequate diet nutrition and agricultural practices Five functions of sugar medicine spice decoration sweetener preservative royalty gt nobility gt middle class gt working class gt poor sugar as a spice introduced to europe at 1100 ad relief from monotonous diet important feasts and rituals of power Sugar as decoration easy to combine with other products sculpted forms also edible symbol of authority and power objects become demonstration of role and status in society represents more than wedding cake and instead the power or authority only royalty and rich upper class aspired to lifestyle of the nobility making sugar available to the poor was both profitable and patriotic sugar becomes an equalizer of status Sugar as medicine muslim jewish and christian in uences 10th14th c medical in uences grounded in arab world used to treat fever coughs and stomach disease ingredient in remedies during the black plague gatorade sugar in halls Sugar as sweetener combination w tea coffee chocolate tropical stimulants drugs sugar added to beverages combination of nonalcoholic bitter calorie empty stimulant with calorie rich intensely sweet substance Tea 18th century increase in popularity declining caloric intake hot sweet beverages v bland cold food increase ritualization and production trade rea gt birth of an empire power to acquire territories and money most lucrative source of wealth became part of daily food diet replaced more nutritious food Sugar as a preservative holds off moisture and bacteria suspended in liquid or coated with crystalline sugars candied fruit replaces fresh fruit l9th century drop in world wide prices drastically increases availability to all sectors of british society change from mercantile to free trade connected to changes in economic and philosophical practices impact on family changing labor practices women and children become a part of labor force meals need to be made faster and last longer women less time to cook children feed themselves head of the household gets the big piece of meat women and children undernourished MINTZ connotations of what we consume conspicuous consumption social hierarchies present in the distribution of food huntergatherer gt now evolution of a commodity and the value we attribute sugar keeps tradition sugar used as a spice around the holidays popularity in other commodities that simply have sugar added poor look healthier than the rich because they don t eat as healthy international trade networks war over sugar dutch v portuguese sugar connects far away empires british expand empire barbados british tea industry increases due to sugar portugal and spain main producers of sugar then move to caribbean plantation system sharecropping Chapter 4 Power we endow reality with meaning sugar becomes such an important commdoity at a global product immensity of scale connect west indies slaves to british people working in factories we are part of immense networks of scale insider meaning make sense of the symbols which we are uaware of people know and are aware acquired and conventionalized intensification replication extensification innovation validates social events personal intimate do things that ADD MEANING Outsider meaning keep in mind immense networks of scale dont lose historical context political significance importance making policy and law how do you convince an entire population to make jeans significance of sugar to the empire welathy and entreprises abroad trade good and natural civilizing of the heathen investment in the plantation economy importance less about the individual lives than about the impact on market and its role in the empire supplying of sugar both a political and economic obligation Diet and consumption patterns and connections are not random directly related to the forces that created a world economy and unbalanced power between metropole and colony structural changes in economy leads to changes in daily lives new tasting opportunities new occasions for eating relationships away from home mirrored rhythms demands of factory life economy benefited from laborers increased productivity and consumption networks of immense scale sugar proletariat plantations slavery slave trade intimately linked supported associated commercial activities allowed for pioneering ventures creation of class of people singularly invested in success of sugar planters bankers slaves shippers politicians used power to in uence policy consumption of sugar was symbolic demonstration that the system worked Choice new food choices are made before one is aware of perceives it as a choice enslaved and proletariat under the same political system food production gt food consumption enslaved produced and proletariat consumed but had little in uence on the system What does it mean to decide control over how things are used consumed prized affect self determination motivate consumption habits affect personalities impact who and what you think you are Test Review short definitions repeatable worlds in MINTZ short answer 45 sentences What is Culture operates as a system of signs intemal logic shared experiences and events taken for granted infinite options hidden meaning behind everyday actions humans give meaning to things events activities and people What does culture do shields us from alternatives orders behavior takes highly abstract and makes it accessible The anthropologist ethno graphic method observation Biography of a commodity What is an economic system how quickly unknown object became very valuable What is money money must grow off of money people must keep spending and buying housing market etc capital conversion can turn everything into a commodity mountain ski resort political capital hog farm without communities choice sweetness and power significance of sugar not about material itself about others desires to make it important market externalizations things that aren t included in cost of car when bought gas insurance pollution Sweetness and Power food culture and identity what we eat who we eat with when we eat it says alot about who we think we are and who we want people to perceive us as forms of labor europe and caribbean plantation as protoindustrial sugar specifically sugar cane required skilled and well managed labor because of that the model ideals around time and efficiency ALL developed on the sugar cane plantation diet and consumption dietary needs of british and working class became critical component to consumption replaced other foods that had more nutritional value networks of immense scale triangular trade west africa americas europe ice cream and pirates game growth of factories required increased number of factories gt women entering the workforce is all related to sugar perpetual growth money used to make money social capital not good for economy counting on you to buy people gifts representation of feelings w no social capital not good for the economy economy would prefer that you gave ppl cash rather than sharing Exam 2 Chapter 5 family of procreation the family group that consists of a husband a wife and children family of orientation the family group that consist of ego and ego s father mother and siblings bilateral kinship a system in which individuals trace their descent through both parents nuclear family ideal prototype of a family matrilineal kinship a system of descent in which persons are related to kin of their mother only patrilineal kinship a system of descent in which persons are related to kin of their father only bride service the requirement that when a couple marries the groom must work for the brides parents for some specific period of time matrilineage a lineage that is formed by tracing descent in the female line patrilineage a lineage that is formed by tracing descent of the male line extended family a family group based on blood relations of three or four more generations clans a unilineal descent group whose members claim descent from a common ancestor exogamy a rule that requires one must marry someone outside ones own group bridewealth the valuables that a groom or his family are expected or obligated to present to the brides family polygamy form of marriage in which a person is permitted to have more than one spouse polygyny a form of marriage in which a male is permitted to have more than one spouse polyandry a form of marriage in which a woman is permitted to have more than one spouse partible inheritance a form of inheritance impartible inheritance a form of inheritance in which family property is passed undivided to one heir Chapter 7 gini coefficient a measure of variability developed by italian statistician and demo grapher corrado gini used to measure income distribution social classes means of production the materials such as land machines or tools that people need to produce things surplus value of labor the term suggested by karl marx and friedrich engels for the portion of a person39s labor that is retained as profit by those who control the means of production outsourcing the process by which corporations and businesses move all or some of their operations from rich countries to poorer ones to reduce their labor costs and escape environmental laws culture of poverty a phrase coined by oscar lewis to describe the lifestyle and worldview of people who inhabit urban and rural slums generalized reciprocity a form of exchange in which persons share what they have with other but expect them to reciprocate later balanced reciprocity a form of exchange in which items of equal or near equal value are exchanged on the spot negative reciprocity a form of exchange in which the object is to get something for nothing or to make a profit Chapter 5 Class roles of men and women evolving family societal structure and organization social relations economic relations leadership transmission of culture and tradition family is the building blocks for creating relationships that we see what is the family is a core social institution nurtures and socializes children provides framework for the satisfaction of sexual needs foster economic and social cooperation through the division of labor and economic support family composition family of orientation mother father self siblings family of procreation wife husband two children nuclear vs extended conjugal gt married and in laws vs consanguine family by blood matrilineal vs patrilineal we tend to trace ourselves through our fathers kinship and descent social order stability political protection membership right to access land and goods right to call on others for economic aid defining social identity and status preserving traditions providing martial partners forming marriage through family arranged marriages marry person but also marry the family some cultures age married some cultures need to be very early is love the foundation or providing for self will marriage provide bridewealth marriage doesn39t always mean begin sexual relationship possible to be divorced are all dictated by culture and differ a lot residence and gender matrilocal residence pattern is when the couple moves to the locality of the brides parents patrilocal is when the couple moves to the locality of the groom matrilocal v patrilocal or neolocal new location 60l60 million the worlds missing women sex wealth and marriage premarital sex and values brazil rachel has to be home at a certain time The Cultural Construction of Social Hierarchy socialeconomic class ethnicity african caribbean irish or italian country of origin more than 1 race black white how others classify you gender age education some of these categories we take for given and make assumptions that these are natural categories groupclass exibility ability to change one s place caste system in india we also have a caste system in america bring homless man into class no equal ranking marriage eating patterns formality informality of speech raceclass gender work opportunities interactions some of these things you can easily change but others are seem to be set in stone age youth in a social institution contributions innovators challenges to cultural norms sex drugs violence crime the world in which you live challenge mainstream power culture and authority youth as a category effects what you can and cannot do Economy contradicts you can do whatever you want money is funneled from rich to poor debt regressive tax increases inequality creates profit for those who lend money funnels money from less rich to more rich poor are poor because they are lazy etc these categories don t exist alone what comes with them is access and opportunity devalue labor control means of production when people own these able to dictate how wealth is distributed land machines tools needed ex contract devalues labor devalue not only jobs but people that do these jobs control surplus of labor reduce wages and retain net gain profits control outsourcing replacing higher paying jobs with lower paying ones given to lowest ranking culture of poverty oscar lewis critics his use of this bc it places responsibility on the poor attempt to describe worldview of people in urban and rural slums implies that poverty rooted in values of poor ignores social forces that place people in poverty think of these categories as connected to the center aka you positive kinds of adaptations kinship cooperative groups to ensure economic and social survival generalized reciprocity share w others with expectation that will receive later vs balanced reciprocity gt immediate exchange vs negative reciprocity gt something for nothing profit ex man bring food home for clan not just wife etc children gt emotional social and financial elevation independence antinuclear family once you get married harder of get a certain type of aid underground economy developed to meet basic needs off the books babysitting seamstress tending bar taking in boarders informal taxis carhome repair drugs selfdestructive adaptations drugs way to overcome poverty and discrimination life of violence substance abuse rage emotional and financial escape from condition domestic violence impact on children crack house warm in winter cool in summer death rate similar to 3rd world countries social construction of intelligence natural ability denies importance of privilege intelligence eXplains success and failure inheritable measurable fixed understanding of intelligence not universal physical and biological reality determine social reality IS test and SAT based on work of intelligence pioneers test claim objectivity teachers psychologists school administrators determine what constitutes intelligence andre gets straight A s for the small incentive of a sandwich rank by race samuel george morton science used to justify racism intelligence based on size of brians we also think of race a biological dr yearwood can t change race defined social political and economic worth white europeans always at the top of hierarchy race by itself not a problem thats a german shepard but judgment about what is connected with color is when the problem of racism develops race as biological rank and classification of plants and animals applied to humanity ignores social political and economic determinations of race physical characteristics give clues as to what is underneath new racism neoliberalism biology gt cultural racism set of belief behaviors and symbols that turn perceived differences believed to be inherent into inequality individual is solely responsible for place in society ignores institutionalized racism costs more to be nonwhite car loans mortgages health rank by gender assumed superiority of men over women seen as natural women reproduce produce labor men manage control defend football throws like a girl patriarchy privilege everything that relates to men Racial Formations biologyrace modem phenomenon began with the european contact with indigenous americas and sub saharan africans philosophical and theological debates on humanity what it means to be human and humanity really conversations about whether to count or categorize these people recognized by God the other oppositional antithesis reverse negation pathological everything they did was the opposite of what it meant to be human slavery and genocide justified through lack of similarity seen as subhuman and not full people race as central axis natural give clues about who a person is based on preconceived notions becomes common sensehegemonic embedded in social fabric of society and social institutions law rituals shape lives around it race as a social concept not a biological fact meaning has differed over time and between societies Marvin Harris hypodescent 1 black ancestor considered black passing what is whiteness whiteness seeming to be nothing at all exploitation of nonwhite groups displacement of nonwhite solidified white neighborhoods european immigrants became white facilitated by government policies racism takes these categories of race and then organizes the world based on advantages and disadvantages whiteness can have a cash value whiteness provides resources power and opportunity protects privileges by denying other opportunities opposing whiteness is not opposing white people city planning gt environmental racism different relationship with judicial system arrest rate conviction rate sentence rate many make decisions based on aversion to blackness housing education politics black middle class distances themselves from black working class father gives son house whiteness has cash value cannot pass on type of wealth individual racist action vs systemic collective coordinated group behavior nonwhite disadvantages advantages for whites attacks on affirmative action protect white privilege everyday racisms racism is not prejudiced racism infers relationship of power institutionalized racism changes it s appearance not always burning a cross may seem harmlessfunny not aberration isolated Catching Hell 108 looking forward to looking forward what are the motivations and morals and inner city dwellers Kody people in poverty don t have a way of looking forward in the future reduced opportunities in formal economy why is the inner city persistently depressed social exclusion joblessness biased judicial system different forms of blackness emerge from different experiences class education location different responses different coping mechanisms forced involuntary proximity residential segregation b1urs other forms of oppression classgendersexualitycitizenship black poor vs black middle class different aspirations values and experiences no guarantee of racial solidarity middle class attempt to create distance kody and shannon together physically move out of urban area ideologically pursue uphold mainstream values poor critical of middle class lack of solidarity necessary for survival Chapter 1 residential segregation spatially ability to move devalue spaces financially and socially employment discrimination educational inequality police brutality environmental racism effects of economic restructuring and deindustrialization creating an other negative populations will look systematically unhealthy because they are put in this situation closed to gross factories etc historical trends create everything war on poverty or war on poor 13 poor families don39t receive aid in 1990s federal budget cut to basic welfare programs big government used as excuse to cut funding impacted enforcement of fair hiring practices high level people not fully recognizing how they affect those at the bottom spatial arrangements restriction of black spatial mobility urban becomes equivalents with blackness gender and racial employment discrimination funneled into low skilled jobs preferential selection of black females over black males primarily in the service sector better language skills than latino counterparts perceive to be more docile responsible than black men inheritance no wealth from previous generations inability to pass on wealth to future generation ability to slip back into poverty is much higher asset gt home ownership completely disproportionate to white impact of latino immigration la undocumented nad non unionized so accept lower wages response to closure of of industrial plants and opening of sweatshops La second largest meXican metropolis development of hostility between black and latino communities Chapter 2 single black mothers organized their world around kinship relationships and household activities common struggles and hardships circles of solidarity used to combat circles of sorrow race determines where one lives what jobs one has police treatment kind of healthcare access transportation education segregation gt congregation help solidify relationships positively and negatively helps them individually but not in long run drug usage guilt and sadness gt drug consumption 5 hit gt few minutes of happiness cheaper than prescription drugs cope with daily experiences of oppression easy access proximity becomes part of ones lives social workers stress and lack of power in own lives rep of the stateauthoritypower missies tell you what you re doing wrong tell you what your babies should be doing what food to eat control of one s sexual and reproductive life had to behave to be worthy of public assistance fear of surprise visits lack of resources yet they want you to be able to do all these things fathers absent matriarchy vs patriarchy raising kids regardless of biological link marriage vs common law single mothers critic the lack of fathers but also critic the leadership of women chapter 3 incompatibility with societal demands with everyday life experience trap of welfare free welfare mothers cuts in benefits means to freedom impact on stress from threat of welfare cuts personal stress try to make things happen that have no control over relationship stress drugs as medication adopted as means to cope with stress hinders ability to maintain socialfamily responsibilities disciple and take care of the children who are these kids help friends clean house isolated one from networks of neighbors and friends strategies of survival not moving out established neighborhood networks better than unfamiliar new neighborscommunity strategies successful for immediate survival strategies not successful for long term structural and institutional change deemphasize individualism sharing of affection spiritual strength sharing foodmoneychildcare Chapter 4 Blackness as Mobilization and Movement police as a colonial force police not part of communities they enforce upholders of racism sexism and other forms of oppression enforces state policy societal institution how do you keep revolution from happening to serve and protect who community response strategies how do marginalized people affect larger social change resist organize goal oriented constant information exchange comradeship incite leadership and initiative radical vs everyday responses how women in tenement respond how CAPA and CSGT respond collect document use media for own gain participate in politics why not unify con icting hierarchy statuses class differences political differences age generation differences philosophical differences infiltrationdestabilization tactics blind spots gt race gender assumptions communitarian vs individual desires REVIEW family transmits culture and tradition more than parents it is an institution a mechanism to make us a part of society we have a prototype of family but can be many variations many people s last name is patriarchal vs mexico both names matriarchal family helps to teach you how to behave act manners who we can marry understanding sexual roles seen as our main economic organization all responsibilities fall on family kinship passing on of lineage not just immediate but through generations gives us order stability sense of where we come from political protection inheritance tradition history again who able to marry who why you marry what it means to marry how many people you can marry bride fam paying for wedding parallel to bridewealth etc divorce allowed who can file after married where to live wifes fam husbands fam brand new matrilocal patrilocal neolocal possible to marry within group or outside of the clan and reasons given for doing those things ideas around virginity some places very important for marriage etc other places not an issue or a problem vargas way in which we construct family attach terms and responsibilities even if not blood related we can create kinship hierarchy social economic class gender race ethnicity age education poverty viewed as the ones to blame peoples place in hierarchy are there because of long traditions cannot ignore those overarching social forces kinship can help and hurt those in poverty different types of reciprocity balanced exchange on the spot negative intent to gain something out of nothing just take and not give back positive generalized reciprocity ill contribute to the group now but later help me out women in the tenement deemphasis of the nuclear family in poverty those in poverty resist against this because limits resources underground economy drugs babysitting sex carpooling unmarked taxi service community organizing CAPA CSGT strategies to overcome gangs and police brutality intelligence grades where you are in hierarchy depends upon what resource you acquire racism set of beliefs behaviors and symbolic representations that turn perceived differences believed to be inherent into inequality noticing the differences is not the problem the implication and cultural embeddedness of that perceived biological difference into social institutions same idea with gender above the ism part comes with above initially race seen as biological sports gt ranking of gender and way in which we privilege gender vargas varying forms of black community tension between those in poverty and middle class shows us how racism is institutionalized housing segregation police brutality de industrialization of US 9no longer qualified for new kinds of working opportunities outside forces affect family structure social workers police brutality cycle dismantles kinship community CAPA and CSGT long term change Review for Exam racism police profiling judicial system incarceration residential segregation connected to race education employment status etc employment availability and type of employment welfare treatment gender black women considered more docile better language skills tenement women gt try to impress the social workers outsiders social workers gt perceive women as uninformed and in need of guidance women should get their tubes tied perception of the other that is problematic disconnect due to people not understanding the other in their own context RELATIVISM these things become social effects that we accept as true characters are living social hierarchies problematic assumptions of the other Exam 3 Chapter 4 totemism the use of a symbol generally an animal or a plant as a physical representation for a group generally a clan ritual a dramatic rendering or social portrayal of meanings shared by a specific body of people in a way that makes them seem correct or proper symbolic actions the activites that depict the meanings shared by a specific body of people ritual myth art SapirWhorf hypothesis the idea that there is a specific link between the grammar of a language and the culture of those people metaphor a figure of speech in which linguistic expressions are taken from one area of experience and applied to another domain of experience an area of human experience business family science from which people borrow meaning to apply to other areas key metaphors a term keyed by sherry ortner to identify metaphors that dominate the meanings that people in a specific culture attribute to their experience myth a story of narrative that portrays the meanings people give to their experience key scenarios dominant myths or stories that portray the values and beliefs of a specific society interpretive drift the slow often unacknowledged shift is someones manner of interpreting events as he she becomes involved with a particular activity secondary elaboration a term suggested by EB evans Peritishard for peoples attempts to explain away inconsistencies or contradictions in their beliefs selective perception the tendency of people to see and recognize only those things they expect to see those that confirm their world view suppressing evidence the tendency to ignore evidence that challenges beliefs revitalization movements the term suggested by anthony fc wallace for attempts by a people to construct a more satisfying culture frames mental structures that shape the way we see the world Class Chapter 4 how we view the world sense of the universe and ourselves language amp symbolic actions believe what we believe change in belief why people assign meanings to their experiences in different ways grid group theory language mediate between people and the world re ect the social environment of people define and guide our perception of experienece saphirwhorf hypothesis relationship between language and thought grammar and vocab re ects social and physical environment grammar impact the view of the world rich vocabulary for snow in Inuit language metaphors take language from one domain to another no necessary connection between different domains when language is extended meaning is extended describing an argument as war also quantify time with money symbolic actions activities depict the meanings shared by people ritual myth literature reinforce the view of the world as correct and proper playing chess representation of war hierarchy of social order rank in power achieved by winning over an opponent religious rituals performances such as dancing singing and praying not only depict metaphors but also teach us about order having a new belief a news reporter who became a member of a christian group he researched anthropologists who were drawn into beliefs of the people they studied interpretive drift slow shift often unacknowledged shift in someone s manner of interpreting events as they become involved with a particular activity similar to adopting a new theory or a new way of life becoming a believer of witchcraft and magic be curious gt doing practices gt becoming a believer becoming a believer is PRACTICE practice gt belief vs belief gt practice second does not happen Mary Douglas grid group theory five cultural types each cultural type creates attitudes beliefs values group how strongly people are bonded together grid how rules and restrictions limit an individual39s life fatalism hierarchy individualism egalitarianism autonomy hermit neither constraints group nor grid the person living alone and geographically isolated neither social obligations nor negotiations hierarchy strong group pressure and strong grid restrictions ranked society unequal distribution of resources high degree of control of whole society ex military egalitarianism high group low grid strong boundary between us and them free negotiation within the group ex grassroots organizations communal societes individualism low grid and low group few rules and restrictions in society free market ambiguous relationships between individuals ex wall street traders liberals fatalism low group but high gird no group boundary individuals are left to their fate not helping each other ex elderly and the poor world view of each cultural type fatalism human nature in unpredictable individualist human beings are greedy and selfseeking hierarchist human beings are born sinful egalitarian human beings are born god Chapter 6 social identities views that people have of their own and others positions in society Individuals seek con rmation from others that they occupy the positions on the social landscape that they claim to occupy individualistic a view of the self in which the individual is primarily responsible for his or her own actions holistic a view of the self in which the individual cannot be conceived of as existing separately from society or apart from his or her status or role egocentric a view of the self that defines each person as a replica of all humanity the locus of motivation and drives capable of acting independently from others sociocentric a view of the self that is contextdependent there is no intrinsic self that can possess enduring qualities identity toolbox features of a persons identify gender age etc that he or she chooses to emphasize in constructing the social self positive identity the attribution to people of personal characteristics believed to be desirable negative identity the attribution of personal characteristics believed to be less desiarble rites of passage the term suggested by arnold van gennep for rituals that mark a persons passage from one identity or status to another phallocentrism a term coined by Peggy Sanday that refers to the deployment of the penis as a symbol of masculine social power and dominance principle of reciprocity the social principle that giving a gift creates social ties with the person receiving it who is obliged to eventually reciprocate identity struggles a term coined by Wallace and Follegolson to characterize interaction win which there is discrepancy between the identity a person claims to possess and the identity attributed to that person by others Class 1029 The Cultural Construction of Identity social identities wifehusbandfriendsondaughter who we are and who we become is formed before we develop daughter and sports example i am because of you not always an internal definition no one is anyone except in relation to somebody else must have an idea of who the other person is otherwise we have to talk with each other very uniquely everyone unique infinite variety of behaviors different languages names markers of a person gabby how people conceive of themselves how people conceive of others personal name vs family name how do we introduce ourselves american individual stable autonomous exists independently of status or place holistic person does not exist separately from society or one s statusrole in society egocentric each person is a replica of all humanity self motivated self reliant capable of acting independently free to negotiate place in society responsible for whowhat she is achieve success of their own sociocentric identity depends on context depends on situation or role occupied sports no I IN TEAM identity toolbox familykinship membership main producer of social identity gender age language religion Language as identity styles of speech revelas social status of speakers japanese polite speech constantly aware of one s status american assertiveness j apanese restraintreserve maintenance of group identity dialect gt new yorker vvs texan vs cali gender how many categories sex v gender did you have a boy or a girl what decisions are made once this is known not predetermined actively choose to let listener know who you are pitch pronunciation grammar sound vocabulary permission rites of passage Ways to announce identity stages separate from existing status transition phase change incorporated into new identity transition into adulthood Class 113 Fratemities separate boy from family tests of courage malebonding security outsider gt insider sex as status and identity gt sexual conquest elevate above women fratemities and rape on campus group structures and processes vs individual values and characteristics not all frats not all males rape prone social contexts What makes rape more feasible and probable alcohol pom competition lack of monitoring women as prey violence coercion in sex can i buy you a drink why frats kind of organization kind of members practices members engage in absence of university oversight frats gt masculinity narrow def not Wimps not effeminate not homosexual militant heterosexuality ability to talk to girls avoidance of men who seem effeminate strategy to keep other men in line ideal frat guy athletic big guy can talk sportsw girls can hold liquor wealthy friendly antiintellectual clean cut hot the pledge and pledging assess and socialize prospect big brother gt teacher subordination and submission loyaltyunitytogethemess gt masculinity withstand pain and humiliation physical force gt compliance and obedience trustloyalty vs caring sensitivity brotherhood kinship term can only be earned by males share bonds of closeness and support clear separation between members and nonmembers obligations and expectations lifelong practices of brotherhood loyalty group protection secrecy alcohol as a weapon violence and physical force competition and superiority commodification of women knowingly and intentionally use women women as bait women as servers little sisters women as prey sexual gratification vs relationship caught between competition amongst males Class 11 10 Chapter 1 took the road from us isolation of towns land is how many identify suicide bombings vs operations of martyrdom cultural poetics of political violence nature of state violence mimetic violence of resistance tend to see violence in operations as isolated but actually connected acts of violence grasp the concept of fragmentation and dislocation palestinian land in 1947 almost all of is real now virtually no land mediating cultural violence sacrifice of palestnian bodies and applying violence against enemy uprooting gt rootedness fragmentation gt unity confinement gt freedom domination gt independence unsegmented peoplehood unfragmented palestine unconfined life peoples lived experience and what people except to claim ontological conditions vs aspirations lived experiences vs potentiality taking one s life asserts independence and selfreliance death an aspired form of living death is about living Fida i derived from Fida money paid for prisoner of war one who sacrifices self representa bravery honor and sacrifice Shahid martyr anyone who dies fighting in defense of the nation or homeland includes noncombative victims Istishadi martyrs one emphasizes heroism and sacrifice military and political strategy challenge international community deos not exist in traditional Islamic philosophy aimed at israeli public life relies on volunteers for some people simply a national movement in which religion is not key sacrifice one that undergoes sacrifice the social person who benefits from the effects of sacrifice brings about two results sacrificer gains moral qualities land of palestine gains sacred qualities fertilizing land cultural representations of act blood is water that nourishes land human esh is soil violence as a cultural performance eXpresses and communicates cultural ideas communicates with the enemy ch 2 historicity how the event is remembered is as important and as the event itself impact how Palestinians define themselves and relate to the rest world currently how people can remember history we wrote palestinan s much as we wrote our own names have never lived under own governance britian jordan israel education system did not teach Palestinian history speaking word palestine not allowed in school did not appear in atlases written on trees walls street soil hand notebooks not seeing map or living in time of parents but consistently being told to write and remember social poetics songs plays arts informal history parents grandparents community local and national cultural representations palestine not part of official records pre israel palestine 19th c gt 1948 fellahin rural communities collective land ownership owned land and means of production Feddan measurement of land based on what one man could plow with one working animal during specific period of time Hamula village residents who owned land Zionism European jewish nationalists sought to acquire land immigrated individually or in groups jewish nationalist fund finically supported nationalists largely unsuccessful because of land ownership homestead v real estate passed down through family gt disgrace to sell land outside of the family exchange land nor simple exchange od money selling land like selling family 1 and lose of self community and honor tabu ottoman authority in 1858 land had to be publicly recorded taxation wealthy urbanites claim land was not theirs rural Palestinians transformed from landowners to serfs allowed jewish national fund to buy land british rule reorganized land system to prepare dor creation of jewish homeland confiscated grazing land modemization process creation of industrial centers in haifa and jaffa rise of resistance 1935 general strike in protest of smuggling in of weapons to israeli immigrants assassinations of imam new confrontations between palestinians and british revoltuon of 1936 call for cease o jewish immigration raids against police thousand of Palestine dies becomes dominant feature of popular memory and history collective heroism vs catastrophe remember the alamo ighitisab filistin the rape of palestine establishment of Israel in 1948 800000 displaced alnakeba the catastrophe palestinain youth response transformed beatings into acts of heroism braver cool process of making heroic youth injures badges of honor more daring more popular also important sheet from recitation about book Class 1112 The Making of Human Bomb Chapter 3 oslo peace process israeli control of land through urban and regional planning israeli settlements given room for growth palestinian settlements confined and fragmented even more establishment of the PLO as governing body of palestine encapsulation and expansion altered property values altered people s access to spaces altered people s conception of their spaces separation of people from their spaces both physically and conceptually violence a medium to contest ownership Failure of Oslo Meeting palestinians lost hope on political solution opened way for religious groups palestinians questioned israeli intentions resulted in new forms of resistance Istishhad vs shahid istishhad hero active caries out sacrifice demonstrates strength and self reliance shahid victim at the hands of israelis no longer means for international support sympathy PA palestinian army transformed into state apparatus left space for new resistance groups to develop and grow hamas gt nationalist project hamas reframes itself to meet needs of palestinian people transition forms elf sacrifice operations gt martyrdom operations jihad fights against a threat to the nation fardh religions duty rise of islamic resistance groups support of islamic groups not a desire to create a islamic state but platform for liberation islam gt resistance to global hegemony eXpress differences tradition resistance to alliance with western nations triablaizations state makes tribes and tribe makes states only understand themselves in relationship to one and other encapsulation and fragmentation hurst palestinian nationalism reinforces localised formations and responses multiplying resistance groups belief in threat legitimizes the existence of both sides limit society39s capacity to unite across geography charismatic leadership gt uncoordinated resistance gt no direct political agenda gt local cells in cities and villages take initiative Class 1117 The Carrier today is better than tomorrow unpredictability is not always a good thing ontology of the cultural order social conditions relate to the formation of ideas and in uences action history of enduring harsh inescapable present gt unknown future subject to perpetual violence home demolition ethnic cleansing land confiscation encapsulation restricted movement denial of access to natural resources isolation from rest of the world closure city is placed under curfew army cut off all access to city closure of schools shops roads last weeks to months stops social and economic exchange try to circumvent is to risk life impact between the cities and rural areas farmers must sit with produce and cannot sell imaginary violence vs physical violence fear in living daily lives larger set of victims imaginary has longer and more constant violence stories of others violations becomes a part of one s experiences affected for extended period of time constant suspense affects of imaginary violence psychological trauma mental health problems turn abuse into meaningful act indigenization ruralization limited movement outside of villages possible to live in village Without needing to leave selfimposed isolation connected and loyal to community home base palestinian homes become base of operations for israeli military domestic occupation intensifies conditions of confinement and domination israeli soldiers also victims of occupation israeli state does not equal israel people proces of denial violence becomes a means to assert ones existence violence is a mode of communication the people feel denied not of importance martyrdom acts not a par
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