chapters 5-8 study guide for exam
chapters 5-8 study guide for exam PSYC 2380
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Dora Julianna' on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 2380 at University of Houston taught by Steers in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Intro to Social Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Houston.
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Date Created: 10/13/15
Chapters 48 Review Sheet Social Psvchologv winter 5 The Self Selfconcept the sense of being separate and distinct from others and the awareness of the constancy of the self 0 At what age do we develop a selfconcept We develop this selfconcept at around 1824 months of age 0 How do researchers know we have developed a selfconcept One way psychologists have studied how people39s selfconcept becomes more complex They do this by asking people of different ages to answer the simple question quotWho am Iquot Selfawareness the capacity for introspection and the ability to recognize oneself as an individual separate from the environment and other individuals Selfknowledge our beliefs about who we are and the way in which we formulate and organize this information Independent View of self a way of defining oneself in terms of one39s own internal thoughts feelings and actions and not in terms of thoughts feelings and actions of others This View is taught in many western cultures Interdependent View of self defining oneself in terms of one39s relationship to other people and recognizing that one39s behavior is often determined by the thoughts feelings and actions of others This is in many asian and nonwestern cultures Relational interdependence someone tends to focus more on their close relationships like how they feel about their spouse or child This tends to be with women Collective interdependence someone that focus more on their memberships in larger groups This tends to be with men Introspection looking inward to examine the quotinside informationquot that you you alone have about your thoughts feelings and motives Selfawareness theorV the idea that when people focus their attention on themselves they evaluate and compare their behavior to their internal standards and values 0 Mirror studies Causal theories Theories about the cause39s of one39s own feelings and often behaviors often we learn such theories from our culture EX My mood is based off how much sleep I got last night Reasonsgenerated attitude change attitude changed from resulting from thinking about the reasons for your attitude People assume that their attitudes match the reasons the reasons that are plausible and easy to verbalize Selfperception Theory When our feelings or attitude are uncertain or ambiguous we infer these states by observing our behavior and the situation in it which it occurs Intrinsic vs extrinsic motivation Intrinsic the desire to engage in an activity because we enjoy it or find it interesting not because of an external rewards or pressures Extrinsic Overiustification effect tendency for people to view their behavior as caused by compelling extrinsic reasons making them underestimate that it was caused by intrinsic reason Taskcontingent rewardsreward given for doing a task no matter how well the task was done Performance contingent rewardsreward depends on how well the task was done Twofactor theorv of emotionSchachter39s Theory The idea that emotional experience is the result of a twostep selfperception process in which people first experience physiological arousal and then we must seek an appropriate explanation or label for it Misattribution of arousalthe process whereby people mistaken inferences about what is causing them to feel the way they do Appraisal theories of emotions 0 Fixed mindsetidea that we have a set amount of an ability that cannot change We have a fixed amount of intelligence athletic ability musical talent and so on 0 Growth mindsetidea that their abilities are malleable qualities that they can cultivate and grow Social comparison theorvidea that we learn about our own abilities and attitudes by comparing ourselves to other people 0 Upward social comparisoncomparing ourselves to people who we are better than we are with regard to a particular trait or ability 0 Downward social comparisoncomparing ourselves to people who are worse than we are with regard to a particular trait or ability Social tuningprocess where by people adopt another person39s attitudes it can happen unconsciously Selfcontrol the way in which people make plans and execute decisions Selfpresentationbehavior that attempts to convey some information about oneself or some image of oneself to other people It denotes a class of motivations in human behavior These motivations are in part stable dispositions of individuals but they depend on situational factors to elicit them 0 Impression management way in which we present ourselves to other people trying to get them to see us the way we want to be seen 0 Selfhandicappingpeople create obstacles and excuses for themselves so that if they do poorly on a task they can avoid blaming themselves Chapter 6 The Need to J ustifv Our Actions 0 Cognitive dissonance When is it most powerful What strategies do we use to reduce it C02nitive dissonance is the feeling of discomfort by performing an action that is discrepant from one39s self concept Three strategies to reduce dissonance p x by changing our behavior to bring it in line with the dissonant cognition 2 by attempting to justify our behavior through changing one of the dissonant cognitions 3 by attempting to justify our behavior by adding new cognitions 0 Rational behavior vs Rationalizing O rational behavior decisionmaking process that is based on making choices that result in the most optimal level of benefit or utility for the individual 0 rationalizing people who are in the midst of reducing dissonance are so involved with convincing themselves that they are right that they end up behaving irrationally and maladaptively 0 Overestimating the pain of disappointment Why do we do it The process of reducing dissonance is unconscious so we don39t anticipate that it will save us from future anguish 0 Impact biasoverestimate the intensity and duration of their negative emotional reactions ex people overestimate how dreadful they will feel following a romantic breakup or loss of a job 0 Post decision dissonance dissonance aroused after making a decision typically reduced by enhancing the attractiveness of the chosen alternative and devaluing the rejected alternatives 0 Lowballing How and why does it work Lowballing is an unscrupulous strategy whereby a salesperson induces a customer to agree to purchase a product at low cost claims it was an error and then raises the price 0 Justification of effort tendency for individuals to increase their liking for something they have worked hard to attain 0 Counterattitudinal advocacyoccurs when we claim to have an opinion or attitude that differs from our true beliefs 0 External justificationa reason or explanation for dissonant personal behavior that resides outside the individual 0 Internal justificationthe reduction or dissonance by changing something about oneself 0 HVDocrisv Inductiona technique for effecting behavior change by confronting people with the inconsistency between their attitudes and their behavior 0 The power of mild punishment 0 Insufficient punishment dissonance aroused when individuals lack sufficient external justification for having resisted a desired activity or object usually resulting in individuals devaluing the forbidden activity or object Selfpersuasion a long lasting form of attitude change that results from arom attempts at selfjustification Ben Franklin effect The justification of kindness if we have done a personal favor we are likely to feel more positively toward that person than if we don39t do the favor or do the favor because of an impersonal request Chapter 7 Attitudes and Attitude Change Attitudesevaluations of people objects and ideas Coanitivelv based attitude an attitude based primarily on people39s beliefs about the properties of an attitude object Affectivelv based attitude an attitude based more on people39s feelings and values than on their beliefs about the nature of an attitude object Behaviorallv based attitude an attitude stems from people39s observations of how they behave toward an object Classical conditioning a stimulus that elicits an emotional response is accompanied by a neutral non emotional stimulus until eventually the neutral stimulus elicits the emotional response by itself Ex the little Albert experiment Operant conditioning behaviors we freely choose to perform become more or less frequent depending on whether they are followed by a reward or punishment Explicit attitudes ones we consciously endorse and can easily report they are what we think of as our evaluations when someone ask us a certain question Implicit attitudes involuntary uncontrollable and at times unconscious evaluations Yale Attitude Change approach the study of the conditions under which people are most likely to change their attitudes in response to persuasive messages focusing on the source of the communication the nature of the communication and the nature of the audience 0 Elaboration likelihood modelspecifies when people will be in uenced by what the speech says and when they will be in uenced by more superficial characteristics ex who gives the speech and how long it is 0 Central route to persuasion people elaborate on what they hear carefully thinking about and processing the content of the communication 0 Peripheral route to persuasion people don39t elaborate on the arguments in a persuasive communication but are instead swayed by peripheral cues Need for Cognition a personality variable re ecting the extent to which people engage in and enjoy effortful cognitive activities Feararousing communicationpersuasive message that attempts to change people39s attitudes by arousing their fears Emotions as a heuristic an explanation of the two ways in which persuasive communications can cause attitude change either systematically processing the merits of the arguments or using mental shortcuts ex experts are always right Attitude inoculation making people immune to attempts to change their attitudes by initially exposing them to small doses of the arguments against their position Reactance theorvpeople do not like to feel that their freedom to do or think whatever they want is being threatened an unpleasant state of reactance is aroused and people can reduce this reactance by performing the threatened behavior Theory of planned behavio when people have time to contemplate how they are going to behave the best predictor of their behavior is their intention which is determined by three things 1 their attitude toward the specific behavior 2 their subjective norms 3 their perceived behavioral control Subliminal message words or pictures that are not consciously perceived but may in uence people39s judgments attitudes and behaviors Chapter 8 Conformitv Conformity changing one39s behavior due to the real or imagined in uence of others Informational social in uence in uence of other people that leads us to conform because we see them as a source of information to guide our behavior we conform because we believe that others39 interpretation of an ambiguous situation is more correct than ours and will help us choose an appropriate course of action Private acceptance conforming to other people39s behavior out of a genuine belief that what they are doing or saying is right Public complianceconforming to other people39s behavior publicly without necessarily believing in what the other people are doing or saying Contagionthe rapid spread of emotions or behaviors through a crowd Mass stchogenic illnessthe occurrence in a group of people of similar physical symptoms with no known physical cause Social normsthe implicit or explicit rules a group has for the acceptable behaviors values and beliefs of its members Normative social in uencein uence of other people that leads us to conform in order to be liked and accepted by them What factors cause people to comply with normative or informational social in uence Body image What factors affect our ideal of beauty Social impact theorv idea that conforming to social in uence depends on the group39s importance its immediacy and the number of people in the group Idiosvncrasv credits tolerance a person earns overtime by conforming to group norms Collectivistic cultures and conformitv Minoritv in uencecase where a minority of group members in uences the behavior or beliefs of the majority Iniunctive norms people39s perceptions of what behaviors are approved or disapproved of by others Descriptive norms people39s perceptions of how people actually behave in given situations regardless of whether the behavior is approved or disapproved by others Obedience to authority gt Milgram and Burger studie participants thought they were administering potentially lethal shocks to a fellow human being Footinthe door and how it relates to obedience once the foot is in the door it is easier for people to slowly accept things at an incremental level they would normally not accept
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