Mus. 139 Module 2 Study Guide
Mus. 139 Module 2 Study Guide MUS 139
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Liliana Calderon on Tuesday March 22, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to MUS 139 at University of New Mexico taught by Paula Corbin Swalin in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see Music Appreciation in Music at University of New Mexico.
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Date Created: 03/22/16
MODULE 2 STUDY GUIDE So2 attempts, highest score is recordedhony Dur Mar. 28 at midnight Song: short composition for voice. Can be accompanied instrumentally; found in every culture, time period and place. • Art Song: a song written to be sung in recital, typically with piano accompaniment -tells a story -deliver message -unite people -express emotions ■ Origins of European Art Song: Medieval: similar to sacred style; harmonic scales polyphonic texture with voice or instruments dance rhythms performed by singer/songwriters ■ Early European song composed by Goliards (monks): named by Bishop Golias wandering, homeless, renegade priests that composed satirical poetry; songs mocked the church. ■ Troubadours: travelling poet singers who composed and performed songs for the courts of southern France. from Southern France; developed several complex song forms. Raimbant de Vaquieras: composer of Kalinda Maya creators of secular song Both Goliards and Troubadours sang of Courtly Love: idealized love dedicated to a woman as the subject of songs. Music styles/ Structure: ■ Chorus: In popular song, a section of music that repeats periodically ■ Through Composed: A song form with new music for each strophe of the poem ■ Strophic: a song form were the same music is repeated for each strophe of a poem ■ In modified strophic form, the repeated sections of music have varied or elaborated forms from the basic theme ■ Refrain: lines that are repeated in music or in verse; the "chorus" of a song. ■ Estampie: a song and dance style from the Middle Ages (Medieval Era) ■ Lieder songs: The German word for song. Romantic era art song; perfected by Schobert ■ Song Cycle: a group of Lieder (songs) that are unified by a narrative thread or theme Madrigal-: a Polyphonic Secular Song Renaissance Era: -in Renaissance era, the combination of voices and instruments is introduced. -related to organum and other forms of sacred polyphony -used catch: set-up of 4 lines of melody to have various messages other than main chorus ■ Minstrel movement gave birth to worldwide style of composing songs with folk style, leading to the establishment of tin pan alley ■ Tin Pan Alley: a neighborhood in New York City that during the late 1800s and early 1900s was a center of activity and business for music publishers and song writers – started to fight for their rights as publishers. [fight for copyrights via ASCAP] • Song recital: A solo performance by a vocalist and pianist presenting song cycles and sets of songs grouped by composer or theme American Popular Song: Golden Age • 1920s-1950s: Great American Songbook: an anthology of songs that helped composers make innovative, popular songs with catchy melodies, sentimental themes and crossover genres. “I got Rhythm” by G. Gershwin starts out as slow ballad w/pentatonic melody swing tempo, bouncy, syncopated Form: 16 bar intro to 32 bar song form: ABA form with two 8 bar phrases, a contrasting 8 bar phrase, and a return to the melody of the first 8 bars for the final phrase Harmony: “Rhythm Changes:” Chord progression written by George Gershwin; popular exercise in jazz bands. Bridge Passage (popular music) A contrasting section in a popular music piece used to break up the repetitive pattern of the song Folk Music revival: ■ Musicians begin collecting American folk songs and performing them in concert. • Began with Harry Smith: creator of the Anthology of American Folk Music. ■ Protest Songs: songs associated with the idea of social change; popular since Revolutionary War ■ Bob Dylon: American singer/songwriter who popularized the American Folk Song genre in the 1960s. -became famous due to Woody Gunthrie -began experimenting and combined folk style with electric/rock instrumentation. R&B: Combination of the Blues and up-tempo rhythms that began during WWII years. Blues: a simple, repetitive poetic musical structure based on folk and African American spirituals, work songs, shouts and call and response form Blue note: a lowered third, fifth or seventh scale degree that gives blues music its expressive style. SOUL: More religious feel to it Producer Phil Spector recruited Tina Turner and wrote “River Deep-Mountain High.” recorded with “Wall of Sound” style: played instruments into microphone and processed with lots of reverb. CHAMBER MUSIC & VIRTUOSOS: ■ Instrumental Chamer Music: played by small instrumental group. -can be in the form of trios, duets, quartets, or any other combination of instruments without a conductor. During the Baroque times in Italy: ■ Sonatas: indication that the piece was going to be played by instruments rather than sung (cantata). 2 types of Sonatas: 1. Sonata da Chiesa: meant to be played in church with many movements and altering tempos. 2. Sonata da Camera: played in parties/ small rooms ■ Basso Continuo: led by low instrument, accompanied by other instruments to harmonize. Together these instruments provide the basis for harmony and rhythm to accompany solo performers different types of Sonata forms: always some combination of slow/fast rhythms for dancing 1. Alle mande: duple meter with slow tempo 2. Courante: triple meter with fast tempo and running/jumping steps 3. Sarabande: slow stately dance in triple meter 4. Gigue: (jig) fast dance in triple meter; rousing up-tempo ending for a Sonata da Camera The Classical Era ■ in the Classical Era, Sonatas had a very specific form for each movement ■ Sonata Form: large scale form based on contrast and harmonic structure 1. Begins with Exposition: Tonic key, main theme introduced and repeated so audience can recognize it 2. Bridges off to Development: Dominant key (usually) main themes are “developed” (modified and then repeated) 3. Returns to tonic key through Recapitulation: a restatement of the first theme introduced in exposition with no repeats or key changes ***Can sometimes end with a Coda (meaning “tail”): is a short snappy ending. ■ The Classical Era (1750-1800): Something that has universal and enduring appeal named derived from return to “Classicism” (inspiration of ancient Greeks and Romans). -Enlightenment: reason vs. emotion ■ Classical Characteristics: -balance, proportion, clarity, and accessibility -reaction to the complexity and emotionality of Baroque era -emphasis on beautiful melodies, harmonic texture balanced phrases ■ Absolute Music: inspired and shaped by form, harmony, melody, as opposed to music being inspired by stories. st 1 Viennese School: masters of music: the virtuosos- ■ Virtuoso: performer who excels in technical ability and works hard to become an expert. Has passion, talent, dedication and personality ■ Franz Joseph Haydn (1732-1809); violinist/composer -as an employee of the Esterhazy court, Haydn composed music for all court events, entertainment, and church services ■ Codified and masters classical era forms: -symphony, string quartet, sonata form ■ Amusing sense of humor that showed in music – Unpredictable forms/endings – Unusual markings/ drastic changes in dynamics Ludwig Van Beethoven: performer/composer hero – Sacrificed his life for music; suffering artists; deafness – Unique personality; individualistic attitude – His success spanned over classical and Romantic eras ■ Concerto: features solo performer with full orchestra as backup ■ Nicolo Paganini and the Violin: -Infamous persona, with a devilish affiliation -worked on “Etudes” meaning studies; term used by composers to describe short compositions that show off the performer's skill and challenge a musician's technical ability ■ Capriccio: title used by Romantic Era composers for short pieces of a humorous or capricious character. Niccoló Paganini composed a set of 24 Capriccios for the purpose of showing off his virtuosity on the violin. ■ Piano and Romantic Era: -favorite instrument of virtuosos: the piano -Steinway: inventor of the metal piano with more keys and technical improvements ■ Franz Liszt: Piano Virtuoso (1811-1886) Virtuosos cont. -Hungarian pianist inspired by Paganini -turned to religion at the end of his life (abbe) -used Hungarian rhythms and dances to arrange his pieces his pieces are too difficult for most to play; included almost every possible demanding piano technique SYMPHONY: Symphony; together sounding ■ Handel: water music -water parties for the unsocial king, played in boats -used hunting horns to call attention in his music Alla Hornpipe:” dance associated with sailors ■ Before the Classical era… Italian overture; music for only orchestra Italian Sinfonia: 3 movement form, fast-slow-fast; A popular orchestral composition from the early 1700s. Originally an overture to an opera it developed into a stand-alone composition for orchestra with a slow-fast-slow form. The Italian Sinfonia is one of the predecessors to the development of the Classical Era symphony. ■ Classical Era Symphony: Carl Theodore’s court at Mannheim, Germany -Joseph Stamitz: established standard instrumentation for symphony: -strings: 2 violin sections, viola, cello, double bass -flute, bass oboe, clarinet, bassoon -trumpet, flute, lire, organ, timpani -composed about 60 symphonies -codified 4 movement form: added a moderate tempo minuet and trio for the fast-slow-fast form 1 : sonata form in tonic 2 : sonata, theme and variations or aria form in subdominant/ dominant or relative minor 3th: sonata form or rondo in tonic key -Mannheim orchestra “tricks” -Mannheim orchestra rocket: full orchestra, rapidly building crescendo ■ Haydn London symphonies were a huge hit ■ Mozart +800 symphonies Mater of musical form and current style Creator of false recapitulation ■ Beethoven Heiligenstadt Testament: Beethoven's Last Will and Testament written in Heiligenstadt, Germany after he learned he would be deaf. In the testament, Beethoven admitted that he was deaf and attempted to explain his antisocial behavior due to his condition. It was most likely a suicide note and it was discovered after Beethoven died 5 symphony in C minor unity of movements Short-short-short-LOOONG form found in all movements -”Scherzo”= joke; instead of having a typical minuet and trio, there is something else (a joke) 9 Symphony: “Ode to Joy” considered a symphonic poem due to combination of soloists, choir, and full orchestra together last symphony text written by Friederich Schiller talks of the condition of society ■ Beethoven’s Influence: Essence of classical music Changed the way composers were perceived Morphed Romantic and Classical eras “Dramatic” use of form Use of harmonic innovation and daring key changes Expanded orchestration [used trombones, piccolo, and contrabassoon] Hector Berlioz: -French composer/ conductor -ended in Paris Conservatory of music at age 23 as composition student after leaving medical school -heard Beethoven's 3 and 5; was inspired by them -read Goethe's Faust and Shakespeare play the experiences above led him to write Symphonie fantastique -is about his love life, HARRIET SMITHSON who originally did not like him, but theylater married. -early example of Romantic era Program music ■ “Idee Fixee: recurent musical theme that symbolizes a person, thing, or idea ■ For Berlioz, this was his beloved, where a certain theme was played all throughout his piece -incorporated Dies Irae chant in symphony -master of orchestration Igor Stravinsky (1882-1971) -Russian that never had a home -trends in his music include: primitivism, nationalism, neo-classism and serialism ■ Polyrhythms: different meters being played at the same time ■ Bitonality: 2 keys being played at the same time ■ Ostinato: constantly repeating rhythms Stravinsky and Diaghilev collaborate and write ballets: ■ Rite of Spring (1913) primitive culture where virgin is being sacrificed -very controversial riot at the premiere; themes expressed in ballet were not appropriate to talk about in public, and Stravinsky was a very disliked composer Carmina Burana by Carl Orff ■ Scenic cantata for choir, orchestra and soloists – Done originally by Beethoven in Ode to Joy, but donde once again for O Fortuna German music educator/composer Focused on non-traditional musical styles Lyrics from poems written by madrigal monks ■ Protected by higher Nazis ■ O Fortuna Imperatrix Mundi latin text first and last piece in the work
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