Exam 2 Study Guide- PSYC 3060
Exam 2 Study Guide- PSYC 3060 82679 - PSYC 3060 - 001
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This 18 page Study Guide was uploaded by Abigail Sanders on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 82679 - PSYC 3060 - 001 at Clemson University taught by Bruce Michael King in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Human Sexual Behavior in Psychlogy at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 10/13/15
Chapter 5 Sexually Transmitted Infections and Sexually Related Diseases WNQP PP P What causes it How is it spread What are the symptoms in early stages Who tends to show symptoms What are the complications if don t treat early What are the complications of a woman having childbirth How is it diagnosed How is it treated Gonorrhea oldest of the STIs most common 1 What causes it a Bacteria gonococcus that lives on warm moist mucous membranes in the urethra vagina rectum mouth throat and eyes How is it spread a Person s mucous membranes come into contact with another person s infected membranes b During intimate contact vaginal intercourse anal intercourse oral sex What are the symptoms in early stages a Men in ammation of the urethra irritation burn thick puslike discharge from the urethra Who tends to show symptoms a Men 80 within 2 days 20 within early stages lO35 show no symptoms asymptomatic b Women no symptoms in early stages 2040 abnormal vaginal discharge and irritation of the vulva and urethra burning during urination What are the complications if don t treat early a Men invades reproductive system and cause in ammation of the prostate and epididymis b Women invades the cervix pelvic in ammatory disease PID can cause scarring of the Fallopian tubes which results in sterility What are the complications of a woman having childbirth a Baby s eyes can become infected at delivery as it passes through the infected cervix and vagina lead to blindness How is it diagnosed a Culture test How is it treated a Combination therapy injection and oral medication Chapter 5 Sexually Transmitted Infections and Sexually Related Diseases Chlamydi resembles Gonorrhea more common 1 What causes it a Bacteria that lives on warm moist mucous membranes in the urethra vagina rectum mouth throat and eyes 2 How is it spread a a Person s mucous membranes come into contact with another person s infected membranes b b During intimate contact vaginal intercourse anal intercourse oral sex 3 What are the symptoms in early stages a 13 weeks irritation and burning of the urethra thinclear discharge 4 Who tends to show symptoms a 80 men 20 women 5 What are the complications if don t treat early a Men spread through the reproductive system causing infection of the prostate and epididymis b Women pelvic in ammatory disease 6 What are the complications of a woman having childbirth a Babies get eye infection blindness andor nosethroat infections 7 How is it diagnosed a Urethra urine test b Other mucous membranes swab is taken followed by a culture test 8 How is it treated a Antibiotics Chapter 5 Sexually Transmitted Infections and Sexually Related Diseases Syphilis great imitator most common 1 2 What causes it a Bacteria How is it spread a Pass directly through any cut or scrape into the bloodstream b Sexual contact includes oral sex What are the symptoms in early stages a 4 stages i Primary stage 24 weeks chancre ulcerlike painless sore ii Secondary stage 46 weeks painless rash all over the body iii Latent stage no noticeable signs bacteria attacks the internal organs of the body iV Late tertiary stage large ulcers gummas on the skin and bones damage to the heart and nervous system Who tends to show symptoms a Men and women What are the complications of a woman haVing childbirth a Unborn baby can catch syphilis from an infected mother through the woman s blood fetus b If not diagnosed the fetus will be aborted stillborn deformation of bones and teeth blindness deafness How is it diagnosed a Blood test How is it treated a Antibiotics during any stage Less Common Bacterial STIs Chancroid l 2 What causes it a Bacteria How is it spread a Sexually transmitted What are the symptoms in early stages a 317 days small bumps on the genitals b Painful craterlike sores What are the complications if don t treat early a Lymph nodes in the groin area become in amed and swollen How is it treated a Antibiotics Chapter 5 Sexually Transmitted Infections and Sexually Related Diseases Herpes 1 What causes it a Virus 2 How is it spread a Direct skintoskin contact 3 What are the symptoms in early stages a 3 stages i Prodromal stage tingling burning itching or anestheticlike sensation on the skin surface Where heshe came into contact With the virus ii Vesicle stage uidfilled blisters called vesicles painful iii Crustingover stage sores begin to develop scales and form scabs b Recurrent attacks stress causes them 4 What are the complications if don t treat early a Virus can be spread to the eyes leading to blindness leading cause of blindness in the US 5 What are the complications of a woman having childbirth a Babies Who get herpes at birth suffer permanent and severe heart or neurological problems or die b Doctors prefer to deliver babies by cesarean section to women With genital herpes 6 How is it diagnosed a Blood test used to test for genital herpes 7 How is it treated a No cure b Drugs that relieve symptoms and speed up the healing process during attacks Hepatitis A infectjous hepatitis liver infection 1 What causes it a Small virus HAV 2 How is it spread a Direct or indirect oral contact With contaminated feces b Most often contracted through nonsexual means such as eating food handled by infected individuals or shellfish taken from contaminated water 3 What are the symptoms in early stages a 1550 days after becoming infected b Poor appetite diarrhea fever vomiting pain fatigue dark urine yellowtinged eyes and skin 4 How is it diagnosed a Blood test 5 How is it treated a Vaccine Chapter 5 Sexually Transmitted Infections and Sexually Related Diseases Hepatitis B serum hepatitis liver infection 1 2 What causes it a Larger virus HBV How is it spread a Infected blood or body uids saliva semen vaginal secretions b Common in drug users needles What are the symptoms in early stages a 6 weeks6 months after exposure b Poor appetite diarrhea fever vomiting pain fatigue dark urine yellowtinged eyes and skin How is it diagnosed a Blood test How is it treated a Vaccine b Antiviral drugs Hepatitis C liver disease more Americans die of the complications of hepatitis C than from HIVAIDS l 2 What causes it a Virus How is it spread a Contact With contaminated blood bloodtoblood contact b Drug users share needles What are the symptoms in early stages a Most people have no symptoms b Poor appetite diarrhea fever vomiting pain fatigue dark urine yellowtinged eyes and skin What are the complications if don t treat early a Liver damage liver failure liver cancer How is it diagnosed a Blood test How is it treated a NO vaccine b Antiviral drugs Chapter 5 Sexually Transmitted Infections and Sexually Related Diseases Genital Human ngillomgvirus HPV most common sexually transmitted infection in the US cause abnormal growths in epithelial cells over 100 types 1 2 What causes it a Virus How is it spread a Contact with infected genital skin mucous membranes or bodily uids What are the symptoms in early stages a Clinical infections visible symptoms i 3 weeks8 months Warts pinkish cauli owerlook cause itching irritation or bleeding b Subclinical infections no visible symptoms What are the complications if don t treat early a Women increased risk of developing cervical andor vulvar cancer What are the complications of a woman having childbirth a Virus can be transmitted to a baby during vaginal delivery if woman has genital warts How is it diagnosed a HPV DNA test vinegar solution How is it treated a Vaccine Gardasil Cervarix b Anogenital warts ointment c Liquid nitrogen or minor surgery d Internal warts last surgery Molluscum Contagiosum l 2 What causes it a Fox virus How is it spread a Direct skintoskin contact What are the symptoms in early stages a Wartlike growths that look like small pimples filled with kernels of corn How is it diagnosed a By the appearance of the growths How is it treated a By removing the growths Chapter 5 Sexually Transmitted Infections and Sexually Related Diseases HIV human immunodeficiency virus amp AIDS gacguired immunodeficiency syndrome originated in Africa largest proportion of HIV infections is acquired by heterosexual sex 1 What causes it a Virus b HIV attacks immune system cells called CD4 2 How is it spread Contagious in the first 60 days after exposure a Intimate sexual contact with an infected person b Exposure to infected blood needle sharing among drug users 0 Mothertoinfant transmission 3 What are the symptoms in early stages a Primary stage 1315 days after infection i Flulike symptoms fever headache diarrhea tiredness skin rash ii Replicate by the billions b Latent stage asymptomatic i Immune systems knocks in no symptoms 0 Symptomatic stage 2 years i Fatigue persistent headaches loss of appetite recurrent diarrhea loss of body weight lowgrade fever night sweats swollen lymph nodes colds us yeast infections ii HIV infection is not called AIDS until it has become lifethreatening below 200 cells dementia 5 first 3 years after injection 20 within 5 years 50 within 11 years 4 Who tends to show symptoms a Homosexuals anal intercourse b Males lots of partners 0 Drug users urban areas d African Americans lowincome areas 5 What are the complications if don t treat early a Without medication the survival time is only about 1 year 6 What are the complications of a woman having childbirth a Mother with HIV can transfer it to their baby in during late pregnancy delivery or by breastfeeding 7 How is it diagnosed a Tests that detect white blood cell countantibodies through saliva urine or finger stick b Blood check with the EIA test test often result in false positives 8 How is it treated a Zidovudine AZT pregnant women b Antiviral drugs expense 0 Highly active antiretroviral therapy HAART Parasitic Infestations Chapter 5 Sexually Transmitted Infections and Sexually Related Diseases Pubic Lice 1 What causes it a Parasitic 2 How is it spread a Skintoskin contact b 95 chance of getting them during sex with an infested partner 0 Sheets towels or clothing of an infested person 3 What are the symptoms in early stages a crabs 12 mm long grayish 6legged parasites that attach themselves to pubic hair and feed on human blood b Intense itching 4 How is it treated a Apply permethrin cream rinse to the infested area and all other hairy body areas b Medication Scabies 1 What causes it a Parasitic b A mite that burrows under the skin to lay its eggs 2 How is it spread a Close contact with infested person b Most common in people liVing and sleeping in crowded conditions 3 What are the symptoms in early stages a 0304 mm long pearly white parasitic itch mites 8legged mites burrow under the skin to lay their eggs resulting in itchy red pimplelike bumps with the eggs hatch 4 How is it treated a Permethrin cream b Single oral dose of medication Pinworms 1 How is it spread a Nonsexual contact with eggs b Transmitted sexually by manual or oral contact with the anus of an infected person 2 What are the symptoms in early stages a Intense itching 3 Who tends to show symptoms a Homosexual men anus intercourse 4 How is it treated a Medication Vaginal Infections most women experience a vaginal infection at least once in her lifetime Chapter 5 Sexually Transmitted Infections and Sexually Related Diseases Trichomoniasis gTrichomonas vaginalis infection only one classified as a STI l 2 8 What causes it a Onecell protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis that lives in the vagina and urethra How is it spread a Sexual contact What are the symptoms in early stages a 4 daysl month whitishgreen discharge with a foul odor accompanied by severe vaginal itching b Many show no symptoms Who tends to show symptoms a Most common in women especially black women What are the complications if don t treat early a Infertility What are the complications of a woman having childbirth a Premature labor How is it diagnosed a Examine any discharge and growing the parasite in culture How is it treated a Medication Moniliasis yeast infection 1 2 3 What causes it a Overgrowth of a microorganism normally found in the vagina What are the symptoms in early stages a Thick white curdy vaginal discharge accompanied by intense itching How is it treated a Antifungal creams b Vaginal drugs c Drugs take my mouth Chapter 5 Sexually Transmitted Infections and Sexually Related Diseases Bacterial Vaginosis 1 What causes it a Vaginal bacteria replacing other normal hydrogen peroxideproducing vaginal bacteria What are the symptoms in early stages a Vaginal odor b Abnormal discharge grayish and nonclumpy Who tends to show symptoms a Most common among African American women b Women who have sex with women What are the complications if don t treat early a Severe upper reproductive tract infection How is it treated a Antibiotics Cystitis urinary tract infection in ammation of the bladder l 2 What causes it a Bacterial infection of the bladder How is it spread a Wiping forward from the anus after a bowel movement What are the symptoms in early stages a Frequent urge to urinate painful urination blood in the urine lower abdominal pains Who tends to show symptoms a More common in women than men b Sexually active young women How is it treated a Antibiotics Chapter 6 Birth Control 0 About half of pregnancies to teenagers in the US are unintended 0 Contraception the prevention of conception 0 Perfectuse pregnancy rate the percentage of pregnancies during the first year of use by couples who use the technique properly and consistently 0 Typicaluse pregnancy the percentage of pregnancies during the first year of use y all couples who use the technique regardless of whether or not they use it properly or consistently CONTRACETPIVE MYTHS 0 If a man drinks Mountain Dew before sex it reduces his sperm count 0 If a woman douches with Coke or ice water afterwards she cannot get pregnant 0 Woman cannot get pregnant if she is on top or if she has sex standing up RELATIVELY INEFFECTIVE METHODS 0 Withdrawal coitus interruptus man withdraws his penis just before reaching organism and ejaculates outside his partner s vagina 0 Douching feminine hygiene practice of rinsing out the vagina ASTAINING FROM SEX 0 The most effective way to avoid an unwanted pregnancy is to abstain from sexual intercourse LACTATIONAL AMENORRHEA METHOD 0 Lactational amenorrhea method breastfeeding works by breastfeeding inhibiting FSH and LH 0 Fully breastfeeding during the first 6 months FERTILITY AWARENESS AB STAINING FROM SEX DURING OVULATION 0 Fertility awareness method rhythm methodnatural family planning 0 Religious beliefs Catholic 0 Fertility awareness is based on predicting when ovulation occurs 0 A woman can only get pregnant when sperm are present during the first 24 hours or so after ovulation 0 Sperm can live in a Fallopian tube for several days most do not live for more than 3 days 0 In a woman with perfect 28day cycle ovulation would be at midcycle 0 Calendar Method and Standard Days Methods calculates the unsafe period 0 A woman has to keep track of the length of her menstrual cycles for a minimum of six cycles 0 Subtract 18 from the length of the shortest cycle and 11 from the length of the longest cycle unsafe period would be inbetween those days 0 Standard Days Method avoid unprotect sex during days 819 0 Billings Method most widely used attempts to pinpoint the time of ovulation by noting changes in the consistency of a woman s cervical mucus 0 Woman notes changes with a finger test 0 Symptothermal Method combines the Billings method with measurements of basal resting body temperature BBT O A woman s BBT rises by at least 04 degrees about the time of ovulation and stays there for at least 10 days 0 Take temperature at same time everyday 0 The average period of abstinence for all of the fertility awareness methods is 12 to 17 days per cycle SPERMICIDES SUBSTANCES THAT KIM SPERM 0 Kills sperm used in combination with a barrier method of contraception 0 Foams jellies creams film tablets 0 Placed in the back of the vagina shortly before sex BARRIER METHODS PREVENTING SPERM FROM METTING EGG 0 Block sperm from getting into the uterus or vagina 0 Male Condoms rubbers 0 Made of latex rubber lamb intestine polyurethane or synthetic elastomers Rubber condoms prevent the spread of STIs Unroll it on the penis Hold on to the base of the condom when you are finished and withdraw Use only once Check the expiration date Do not use with oil lotion vaseline or other petroleum jellies 0 Many men don t use them because they are too embarrassed to buy them 0 Female Condom an intravaginal pouch 7inlong bad that is help in place in the vagina 000000 by two exible rings 0 Causes noise during intercourse 0 Diaphragm large domeshaped rubber cup with a exible rim that fits over the cervix 000 0 Woman has to be fitted by a doctor distance between cervix and pubic bone Used with jelly on the inside part of the diaphragm and rim Insert 3 hours in before sex Leave in for 68 hours after sex I Cervical Cap and FemCap 0 00000 O Cervical cap made of latex rubber smaller than diaphragm Used with small about of spermicide Fits over the cervix by suction Fitted by a doctor Left in for 24 hours FemCap made of silicone 48 hours 68 hours before sex I Contraceptive Sponge O O 0 Blocks the cervical opening and kills sperm One size sold without prescription Effective for 24 hours THE PILL PATCH RING AND SHOT I Oral Contraception birth control pill O O O O 0 Take pill every day at the same time Combination pills contain estrogen and progesterone Taken for 21 days and discontinued for 7 days to permit menstrual bleeding Seasonale taken for 84 days 4 periods a year Negative side effects and health risks I Symptoms same as early pregnancy when first take the pill I Older than 35 and smoke have high risk for blood clot stroke heart attack Health benefits I Decreased risk of cancer of the endometrium and cancer of the ovaries I Decrease in the number of breast tumors ovarian cysts pelvic in ammatory disease I Reduce menstrual related problems I Women who have taken the birth control pill have a lower rate of death from any cause I The Patch and the Ring 0 O OrthoEvra 20 squarecm patch that you apply to the skin Lasts for 1 week 3 patches are followed by a patchfree week during period 0 More women remember to change patch than take the pill O NuvaRing clear exible ring that is inserted into the vagina and worn for 3 weeks then week free for period 0 Injectable Contraception The Shot 0 DepoProvera an injectable drug containing a progestin 0 Shot every 3 months 0 Safe alternative for a women who should not take estrogen 0 Side effects I Irregularities in menstrual bleeding and weight gain EMERGENCY CONTRACEPTION 0 Plan B OneStep Next Choice progestinonly emergency contraception product 0 50 effective if taken within 3 days 0 Ella 65 effective for up to 5 days after unprotected sex 0 Nonserious side effects 0 Nausea headache breast tenderness 0 The most effective method of emergency contraception is implantation of a copper IUD 0 Emergency contraception is not an abortion not the same as the abortion pill LONGACTING REVERSIBLE CONTRACEPTION 0 IUD small device of various shapes that is placed into the uterus by a doctor 0 Copper effective for 10 to 12 years increases vaginal bleeding 0 Mirena effective for 5 to 7 years decreases vaginal bleeding 0 String attached that protrudes from the cervix into the vagina so that women can check to see if their IUD is still in place 0 Hormone Implants Nexplanon single rod that contains progestin and remains active for 3 years 0 Inserted under the skin usually on the inside of a woman s upper arm 0 Side effect irregular vaginal bleeding VOLUNTARY STERILIZATION 0 The most commonly used method of contraception worldwide 0 Men 0 Vasectomoy Vas deferens is tied off and cut O Vasclip Plastic clamp that snaps on the vas deferens to black sperm ow 0 Other means of contraception should be used for 3 months and until the man has had 20 ejaculations 0 Women tubal sterilization O Transabdominal Fallopian tubes are cut tied or blocked With clips 0 TranscerVical no incisions deVice placed into the Fallopian tubes 0 A woman may engage in sexual intercourse as soon as she feels the desire to do so 0 Reversal O No guarantee of success 0 Success depends on the length of time since the surgery Chapter 7 Pregnancy and Childbirth CONCEPTION AND IMPLANTATION Capacitation a process that sperm undergo while traveling through the woman s reproductive tract in which their membranes become thin enough so that an enzyme can be released to soften the egg s outer layers The egg sends out tiny projections and pulls one sperm to its surface the zona pellucida That sperm secretes the enzyme and penetrates the egg s surface and conception takes place Conception the union of an egg and a sperm Zygote the onecelled organism created from the fusion of a sperm and egg The zygote splits into two separate cells then four then eight and so on Morula the collection of cells formed when the zygote begins rapid cell division Blastocyst when the conceptus has about 100 cells it has developed a uidfilled center Implantation the process by which the blastocyst attaches itself to the wall of the uterus by this time the endometrium has a large supply of blood that can serve as a source of nutrients and oxygen The blastocyst is now called an embryo it is called a fetus at about 8 weeks PREGNANCY First sign of pregnancy missed period To determine if a woman is actually pregnant they take a pregnancy test The test works by determining if a hormone secreted by the placenta HCG is presented in a woman s urine HCG hormone released after implantation Tests that measure HCG in blood can detect if a woman is pregnant SEXUAL INTERCOURSE DURING PREGNANCY General reasons for a declining interest in sex during pregnancy 0 Physical discomfort man on top 0 Women feel that they no longer appear attractive 0 Fear about the pregnancy or harming the fetus EFFECTS DURING PREGNANCY 0 Smoking 0 Associated with an increase in the risk of having a lowbirth weight baby and increases the risk of miscarriages preterm births infant mortality death 0 At least double the risk that their baby will die of sudden infant death syndrome 0 Alcohol 0 Causes physical deformities andor mental retardations fetal alcohol syndrome 0 Facial deformities spaced eyes small heads 0 Maximum effect on the developing fetus in the 3rd week of pregnancy 0 NarcoticsDrugs O The addicted infants must go through withdrawal after being born showing symptoms such as fever tremors convulsions and difficulty breathing O Cocaine slow growth preterm birth small head 0 Other Drugs 0 Prescription drugs antibiotics O Aspirin O Caffeine reduce birth weight 0 Vitamin A SEXUAL INTERCOUSE AFTER CHILDBIRTH 0 Most physicians advice sex not be resumed until 46 weeks after the birth 0 Postpartum depression often results in reduced sexual relations after childbirth 0 Women worry about their sexuality because of decreased satisfaction with their bodies 0 The stress of being a new parent negatively affects a couple s sexual relations 0 For women relationship satisfaction and fatigue are good predictors of a woman s sexual desire after childbirth 0 Despite these concerns couples do resume sex an average of 7 weeks after childbirth INFERTILITY 0 Infertility the inability of a couple to conceive Within a certain time period 0 Men 0 Low sperm count I Arti cial insemination method of treating infertility caused by a low sperm count in men Sperm are collected during several ejaculations and then inserted into the partner s vagina at the time of ovulation I Sperm stored by freezing I Intracytoplasmic sperm injection ICSI injection of a single sperm directly into an egg 0 Blockage of a man s duct system I Surgery to unblock duct system 0 Women 0 Failure to release eggs ovulate I Fertility drugs I Good diet I A woman s egg and a man s sperm put together in the same dish and then but back into the woman 0 Blockage of the Fallopian tubes
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