Greek test 2 study pack 1
Greek test 2 study pack 1
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Haley Heil on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 54 views.
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Date Created: 10/13/15
Overview of Archaic Period All based on the growth in wealth and population after the Dark Ages 0 Colonization Change in political structure From wanax to basileus to polls structures tyranny Change in warfare hoplites Development of writing allows new literary production lyric poetry 0 Art especially pottery enters new phase Tyranny 0 Common from 670500 BC 0 Tyranny one man seizes complete control of a polis without holding any of ce 0 Tyrant Greek tyrannos unconstitutional ruler of a polis Almost all come from aristocracy Relied on population and charisma to gain power Relied on middle and lower classes for support Patterns of behavior in Tyrannos o Often exiled wealthy rivals and redistributed their land 0 Revised laws in favor of middle and low classes 0 Sponsored festivals and building projects in the polls 0 Created more colonies The fate of every tyrannos o Eventually lost support 0 Power passed down to sonsgrandsons depended on those descendants own popularity and personality 0 Rarely lasted longer than 2 or 3 generations 0 Changes that helped the middle and lower classes paved the way for newer forms of government in the polis Visual art new styles of pottery 0 Black gure peak 6th century BC 0 Red gure peak 530 BC Archaic sculpture 0 Male Kouros 0 Female Kore Poetry 0 Lyric poetry dominant in Archaic period 0 Unlike heroic narrative of Homer or wisdom literature of Hesiod 0 Personal responses to private and public life 0 Lots of different poets 0 Work survives largely in fragments Archilochus 0 mid 7th century from Paros 0 makes fun of heroic ideals OOOO 0 quotsome Thracian sports my splendid shields I had to leave it in the wood but saved my skin Well I don t care I ll get another just as goodquot 0 Sappho 0 Late 7th century from Lesbos 0 Leader of closeknit circle of young women 0 quotSome say it s a force of cavalry others of foot soldiers still others of black ships but I say that the most beautiful thing upon the black earth is whatever it is you desire a Presocratic philosophers O 0000 Interest in the physical natural world An attempt to explain it in human terms Astronomy predicting eclipse of 585 BC Origins of the world all from water Something else Mathematics Application of human reasoning 0 Panhellenic institutions 0 O 0 Sparta All across Greek lands Oracle of Apollo at Delphi All about your interpretation of their answer Visitors from Greece and beyond consult Apollo here Olympic games at Olympia Founded in 776 BC 0 ln Olympia a sanctuary for Zeus In honor of Zeus Athletic competitions Held every 4 years 0 Poncration ght to the death but not hurting the eyes or biting 0 Individual poleis 0 000 0 Sparta not spectacular wouldn t think they were a super power Also called Lacedaemon and people are Lacedaemonians Like other poleis in some ways But different in its Spartan ways Focus on military training 0 Sparta places 0 Eurotus river 0 Sparta early history 0 O O Prominent Bronze Age settlement Sharp drop in population at the end of the Mycenaen civilization Arrival of the Dorians in early Dark Age United by language just different dialects like there are different dialects across the US 0 End of Dark Age Population and prosperity rise in Laconia o Synoecism villages unite to form polls of Sparta Spartan disadvantages 0 Location far inland distant port 0 Sparta has only one colony Taras 0 Solution Conquer all territory around Sparta Conquests 0 End of 8th century BC Sparta controls Laconia 0 Also 8th century lnvade Messenia 1st Messenian war ends 720 BC Classes in Sparta o Spartan citizens minority o Perioeci neighbors not citizens but free 0 Spartans Perioeci Lacedaemonians o Helots vast majority practically slaves Messenia amp Laconia 0 Gave portion of produce to Sparta o Spartan stability exploitations of Helots o Constant source of anxiety for Spartans Second Messenian war 0 669 BC Sparta loses battle against Argos o Helots of Messenia revolt 0 Sparta eventually victorious Poem by Tyrtaeus 7th century BC Spartan poet Serious problem How to keep Helots in their place The Spartan system 0 Attributed to Lycurgus a legendary law giver o The key constant preparation for war 0 Spartan men devote their lives to military training Lycurgus of Sparta o Legendary law giver o 7005 o credited as founder of Spartan constitutions and social military order Eunomia good order The Spartan Mirage 0 Very few written sources from the Spartans themselves 0 Virtually all from other poleis 0 Many written after the decline of Sparta ReHathy Male upbringing Selection at birth Educann Overseen by euphors Prepared for hardship hunger brutal treatment Served as esphebes from 1420 years old 0 O O O 0 Stage where they have to perform military service Each of them belongs to a sussytion 0 Up to them to bring in the food if they want to eat 0 Eating together as a group Lives with his group until age 30 o Hoplite until age 60 o No unit other than the state Spartan women 0 Also part of the system 0 Prepared for child bearing Exercise Nutrition Nud y 0 Women owned land From dowry or inheritance Sex and marriage 0 Secret marriages as men still lived in sussition o Eugenics 0 Same sex unions Older man with a younger man Part of the upbringing Helped the younger men get better status in community amp was pleasure for the older man Culturally expected Norms of behavior 0 One result population decline Not helped by infanticide constant warfare Spartan Economy 0 Goal military readiness 0 Economic equality for Spartans homoioi Division of land into equal portions Used only iron money Perioeci take care of trade 0 All based on the labor of Helots Stateowned slaves 0 Mixed Spartan constitution 0 Elements of monarchy aristocracy and democracy stability 0 Duel hereditary kingship monarchic aspect One in charge of army The other takes care of domestic matters 0 Gerousia council of old men aristocratic aspect 28 council men 2 kings discuss bills to be sent to assembly 0 Spartan government 0 Euphors overseers 5 elected for 1 year term uphold the law with the ability even to depose kings preside at Gerousia amp Assembly oversee the education of boys in charge of secret police krypteia 0 Assembly ekklesia of Spartan citizens Most democratic element All adult male citizens Accept or reject proposals from Gerousia Early Athens 0 Overview 0 Athens and Attica 0 Bronze Age and Dark Age 0 Archaic Period Politics People Cylon o Draco Solon o The tyranny of Pisistratus The tyranny of Cleisthenes 0 Athens acropolis in Mycenaean period 0 Late Bronze Age 0 Not a catastrophic end as at most Mycenaean palacesfortresses 0 Reduced standard of living in the Dark Age Basileus at Athens 0 Recovery in 8th century BC with opening of trade routes 0 Synoecism nished around 675 BC with addition of Eleusis o All native free born males in Attica Athenian citizens 0 Early Archaic period 0 Eupatrids people with good fathers aristocracy o 3 archons archon eponymous or chief archon wide executive and judicial powers Polemarch war leader Archon basileus religious matters 0 late 7th century BC add 6 thesmothetai those who lay down the law 0 total 9 archons o advised by council of nobles on Areopagus the hill of Ares 632 BC Cylon attempts a tyranny o Cylon with support from another polis Megara seizes Acropolis amp declares himself tyrant 0 He fails but escapes Story of the thread tied to statue of Athena 0 Death of Cylon s followers results in curse on those who killed them the Alcmaeonid family Alcmaeonids source of important Athenian leaders in future generations 620 BC Draco sets up law code 0 to reduce blood fueds among the Eupatrid familiesthe state takes responsibility for punishments o homicide law is best known 0 Draconian laws the reforms of Solon problems in Athens inequality of wealth and land call on Solon poet merchant soldier wiseman 594 BC elected chief archon given sweeping powers of reform practical fair compromise between rich and poor no one entirely happy Solon39s economic reforms o Seisachtheia shaking off burdens debt relief for the poor outlawed debt slavery Standardized coinage Gave citizenship to foreign craftsmen Grain exports outlawed Laws posted in agora market place Solon39s political reforms o Divided citizens into 4 classes by wealth not birth 0 Assigned political priviledgesduties to each 0 How to get rid of inequality Athenian government after Solon o Archons from wealthiest class Join areopagus after service 0 Coucil of 400 boule Selected from top 3 classes of citizens Deliberative body 0 O O O 0000 0 Assembly ekklesia Any citizen who can get there 0 Judicial courts Open to all classes 0 The tyranny of Pisistratus O O O O 0000 Even with Solon s reforms still turmoil among Eupatrids in Athens lnto turmoil steps Pisistratus 561 BC gets body guard 1st tyranny Exiled quickly 558 BC 2nOI tyranny allied with Megacles the Alcmaeonid Alcmaeonids important but cursed 555 BC marriage runs into problem Exiled again seals the allies her family broke the alliance because he had another wife amp family 555546 BC amasses wealth in the north raises mercenary army 546 BC defeats Athenians in battle becomes tyrant a 3rd time rules as tyrant 546527 BC dies Patron of Athenian arts and culture New festivals to Dionysus Enlarges Panathenaea festival to Athena 0 The tyranny of Hippais 527510 BC 0 O O O O 0 Son Pisistratus ruled with brother 514 BC Hipparchus assassinated in lover s quarrel the tyranicides Harmodius amp Aristogiton Hippias becomes paranoid amp repressive Alcmaeonids exiled again turn to Delphic pro ts Rebuild temple to Apollo destroyed in re in 548 BC Oracle at Delphi repeatedly encourages Spartans to remove Hippias from power quot1st free Athensquot Spartans invade Attica remove Hippias from power 0 The democratic reforms of Cleisthenes O 0000 O Cleisthenes the Alcmaeonid radically reorganizes Athenian political structure An attempt to break up old family ties 1st divides Attica into 3 parts city hill coast Divides theses into 10 trittyes He created 10 tribes each with one trittyes from each third Became source for boule 50 from each tribe The boule council of 500 prepared policy and legislation for consideration by Assembly 50 people prytanny come from each tribe chosen by lot Each prytanny ruled for a 10th of the year Chief of each prytanny chosen by lot everyday Assembly ekklesia all Athenian citizens men over 18 yrs old Debated and approved policy and legislation 0 Board of 10 strutegoi generals 1 from each tribe to handle military matters 0 Practice of otracism from ostraka pottery shards Any can be thrown out for 10 yrs They didn t lose anything just couldn t come to Athens The Persian Wars 490 BC 6x 480479 BC 0 Herodotus the historian 0 Father of history 0 5th century BC 0 Persian empire 0 By 546 BC Persian King Cyrus the Great controls Greek cities along the coast of Asia Minor 0 499 BC Greek revolt against Persian rule 0 Persian King is Darius l ruled 521486 BC 0 Coastal citystates of Asia Minor led by polls of Miletus revolt 0 Appeal to mainland Greeks for help 0 Only Athens 20 ships send help 0 498494 BC Ionian revolt o 498 combined Greek forces attack amp burn Persian city of Sardis o Athenians amp Eretrians leave shortly o 494 Persians victorious crush Miletus o Darius prepares invasion for to punish the mainland Greeks o 492 BC Persians in the north 0 Thrace and Macedonia submit o In Athens Themistocles archon and Mitiades strategos 491 BC Persian emissaries arrive 0 Ask for Earth and water 0 Many polis submitted Example of Miletus 0 Athens Sparta Eretria de ant o Persians arrive 490 BC 0 Destruction of Eretria o Persian force lands in Attica at Marathon 0 Battle of Marathon 0 Spartans unable to help Advantage of being uphill and they are hopelites 0 Debate at Athens Mitiades wins out o Athenians joined by plataea They run at the Persians because of archers They drive them back into the sea and capture some ships 0 Marathonomachoi quotFighters of the Battle of Marathonquot Heros of Athenian buried here Darius dies in 486 BC o Xerxes son of Darius becomes king of Persian Empire 0 Prepares massive invasion force Aftermath in Athens 0 Political shifts Archons now elected by lot in uence wanes Real power in hands of elected strategoi generals o 483 BC Athenians strike silver load in Laurium Aristidies the Just give it to the people Thenistocles take it and build a navy o 482 BC Aristidies ostracized driven out of town 481 BC 0 Boat bridge across the Hellespot Xelxes39 army arrives in Greece Grgek forces at Thermopylae according to Herodotus Baftle of Artemissium Atlfenians abandon Attica Theomistocles decision Greoek victory at Salamis 480 BC Xeries eaves Greece 47BC battle of Pataea o Herodotus the historian father of history 5th century BC Greek historian writes long history centered around the Persian Wars Herodotus Book 1 o Croesus amp Solon o Herodotus on Thermopylae o Herodotus on Salamis
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