Social Psych Exam 2
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Date Created: 10/13/15
Exam 2 End of Chapter 3 availability heuristic how easily an instance of something comes to mind to judge how likely it is to occur seen or heard of shark attacks but not of vending machine crushing people Rosenthal effect teachers or experimenters beliefs effecting the outcome of the study self presumed expectations regarding gender race etc can produce anxiety that suppresses test scores gt erase this stereotype threat and performance may increase behavioral con rmation a type of selfful lling prophecy whereby people s social expectations lead them to behave in ways that cause others to con rm their expectations told people like you will behave friendlier and warmer Chapter 4 120126131148 attitude a favorable or unfavorable evaluative reaction toward something or someone often rooted in one s beliefs and exhibited in one s feelings and intended behavior moral hypocrisy appearing moral while avoiding the costs of being so implicit association test IAT assessment of implicit attitudes The test uses reaction times to measure people s automatic associations between attitude objects and evaluative words Easier pairing and faster responses indicate stronger unconscious associations attitudes predict behavior when we 1 minimize other in uences upon our attitude statements and behavior and 2 when the attitude is speci cally relevant to the observed behavior an attitude predicts behavior better when attitudes are potent both moral and hateful actions can further in uence attitudes doing favors for people engenders liking the attitude action relation works in reverse direction foot in the door phenomenon reveals that committing a small act makes people more willing to do a larger one self presentation theory we express our attitudes that make us appear consistent for strategic reasons cognitive dissonance theory to reduce discomfort we justify our actions to ourselves self perception theoryassumes that our actions are selfrevealing when uncertain about our behavior we look to ourselves selective exposure the tendency to seek information and media that agree with ones views and to avoid dissonant information insuf cient justi cationreduction of dissonance by internally justifying one s behavior when external justi cation is insuf cient Self perception theory when we are unsure of our attitudes we infer them much as would someone observing us by looking at our behavior and circumstances by which it occurs facial feedback the tendency of facial expressions to trigger corresponding feelings such as fear anger or happiness overjusti cation effect the result of bribing people to do what they already like doing they may then see their actions as externally controlled rather than intrinsically appealing rewards can boost intrinsic motivation if leads subject to believe i39m good at this and decrease motivation if it leads them to believe i did it for the money self af rmation theory a theory that a people often experience a selfimage threat after engaging in an undesirable behavior b they can compensate by af rming another aspect of the self threaten people39s self concept in one domain and they will compensate either by refocusing or by doing good deeds in some other domain Class 924 skipped class before slide starts with what shapes our attitudes Social learning observing behavior of models observing members of reference group groups of people that we use as a reference group nation religion or family etc reference group if there is an emotional attachment use groups standards to judge ourselves and if we refer to that group for guidance classical conditioning emotional conditioning something that is neutral to us is presented before something natural that triggers a strong reaction in use gt neutral stimulus now triggers reaction can be positive and negative can happen when we are not conscious to it most powerful when people have limited knowledge about object of the attitude operant conditioning if a behavior is reinforced rewarded it will increase in frequency if not or it is punished similar future actions are less likely reinforcement results in positive attitude towards whatever has been reinforced unexpected effects of rewards edward deci 1971 2 groups of college students play soma puzzle in 3 research sessions group 1 no reward group 2 1 for each puzzle completed correctly no rewards in session 3 8 minutes free time between puzzle solving do they continue to play w puzzles all subjects enjoy the puzzle but group 2 spent more time doing puzzles but less time in session 3 than in session one no longer being rewarded they had less enthusiasm towards the puzzle subj ect in group 2 become more negative towards the puzzle because intrinsic motivation motive to do something for its own sake meet challenges extend one s capacities learn for its own sake play extrinsic motivation doing something because we expect and external reward for doing it unexpected effects of rewards leppergreene nesbitt preschool children enjoy drawing group 1 reward certi cate group 2 asked to draw pictures and then given the same rewards group 3 asked to draw and no reward those reinforced should spend more time drawing BUT what happened is group 1 significantly lower than the other two groups richard de Charms locus of causality internal freely choosing my behavior external being forced or in some way controlled edward deci self determination theory intrinsic motivation is associated with greater interest enthusiasm con dence creativity etc external rewards undermine intrinsic motivation and change attitudes by promoting external locus of causality rewards can reduce frequency and positivity of behavior when motivation is intrinsic 3 psychological needs competence master things relatedness connected to others etc autonomy feel in control of ours own actions autonomous action authenitc more invested freely chosen controlled action coerced pressured made to do it overjustification effect anything that brings behavior under external control decreases intrinsic motivation behavior shape our attitudes smokers study gallup 2012 smoking shaping attitude toward smoking festinger cognitive dissonance motive to maintain cognitive consistency to not contradict ourselves when we have two thoughtsbeliefs that are inconsistent we experience what is called dissonance when we act in a way that is different that our attitudes wrong to cheat and cheat when we make a decision in favor of one option when the other has good options too clark hull drive reduction theory in general low tension feels pleasurable to us high levels of tension create discomfort psychological needs create aversive state of tension when not satis ed when need is satis ed the drive is reduced any behavior followed by drive reduction is reinforced negative reinforcement because you are taking away something unpleasant aka eat and reduce the tension desire for cog consistency is also a drive when we contradict ourselves we experience drive like tension can do this through changing attitudes beliefs behaviors justi cations etc effective motivation wrzenski and schwartz internal instrumental or mixed motives for attending west point 5 years later cadets with internal motives were more likely to graduate west point get promoted etc than with external motives cadets with internal and external motivation were less likely to graduate mixed festinger amp carlsmith theory of cognitive dissonance subjects dull task for 1 hour success of study needs next subject to believe that the task is fun gt will you who has just participated be the one to convince them ask them to lie to the next subject everyone agrees after lying asked to rate they themselves felt the experiment was group one given 135 for convincing next group high dissonance because less justi cation to tell lie not enough money without much justi cation they changed their attitude more to bring their attitude into line group two given 20 for convincing less cognitive dissonance because more money and justi cation to tell lie counterattitudinal behavior small reward is insuf cient justi cation for counterattitudinal behavior aronson amp carlsmith 4 year olds prohibited from playing with toys those who received mild threat devalued the toys they change thier attitude oh i didn t like them because the minor punishment wasn39t enough to make them not want to play with the toys severe threat did not devalue the toys insuf cient justi cation for not engaging in desired action insuf cient justi cation if reasons for engaging in counterattitudinal behavior are strong little or no dissonance will be generated weaker the reasons for acting inconsistently with one39s attitude the greater the internal pressure to change the attitude question dissonance occurs when we experience ourselves as having made a free choice changing attitude getting drunk is bad my drinking does not cause neg consequences adding cognitions drinking helps me relax change importance not that important because i will stop after i get out of college reducing perceived choice everyone else does so i have to self af rmation in a different domain im a good person and i do really well in school dont feel bad about my drinking changing behavior stop getting drunk regularly cognitive dissonance revised arises when behavior poses a threat to my own self concept or self esteem we see ourselves as reasonable moral and smart discrepancy between who we think we are and how er have behaved not i did not like the taski said i liked the task rather i lied i am an honest person self af rmation reduces dissonance restores self concept without changing behavior or attitude facing a decision we hold con icting cognitions pros and cons type deal ambivalence once we commit to one direction anything attractive about the unchosen alternative will create dissonance dissonance increases with importance of decision irrevocability of the decision to reduce dissonance we are likely to alter our perception of the decision focus now on good things of the choice we made and bad things of the other option dissonance and values moral dilemmas and how people may change values that they claim to hold justi cation effort harder we work to get something the more we tend to like it if we get it aronson and mills the harder the screening the more the students reported enjoying discussion group Conformity and Obedience 186219 conformity a change in behavior or belief as the result of real or imagined group pressure compliance conformity that involves publicly acting in accord with an implied or explicit request while privately disagreeing obedience acting in accord with a direct order or command acceptance conformity that involves both acting and believing in accord with social pressure autokinetic phenomenon the apparent movement of a stationary point of light in the dark the werther phenomenon highly publicized suicide leads to increase in later fatalities shos idea of suggestibility line experiment with asch to display conformity stanley milgram39s shock experiment displays the crazy conformity within society four factors that determine obedience l victims emotional distance 2 the authorities closeness and legitimacy 3 whether or not the authority was part of a respected institution 4 the liberating effects of a disobedient fellow participant acted with great obedience when the learners could not be seen and could not see them when milgrams experimenter gave commands by telephone obedience dropped compared to when the experimenter was in the room used yale university so was perceived as very legit 90 percent liberate themselves and refuse to continue after fake guys do the same thing bigger groupsmore conformity easier to stand up for something if you can nd someone to stand up with you unanimity cohesion the more cohesive a group is the more power it gains over the people cohesiveness a we feeling the extent to which members of a group are bound together such as by attraction to one and other status higher status people tend to have more impact public response people conform more when they are in front of others rather than when giving answers privately prior commitments people seldom change their opinion when faced with pressure normative in uence conformity based on a person s desire to ful ll other expectations often to gain acceptance want to be liked informational in uence conformity occurring when people accept evidence about reality from other people want to be right personality personality scores are poor predictors of speci c acts but better predictors of average conformity social roles involve a certain degree of conformity conforming to expectations is important when stepping into a new role Class 929 daryl bem self perception theory behavior causes us to form attitude and can lead us to change them gt we learn about our attitudes by observing ourselves facial feedback effect rearrange our facial features we can in uence our mood pencil example idea is that the behavior smiling causes the mood happiness no need to have a drive to account for how behavior shapes attitude Bem we make inferences from our behavior make a sandwhich say hm i guess i like sandwiches closely observe past actions and attribute them to internal sources if we attribute actions to outside in uences eat a sandwich or starve insuf cient justi cation we observe our behavior we recognize insuf cient justi cation for acting this way if our attitude is different we then conclude that our behavior must re ect our actual attitudes hey i must have actually liked that study comparing theories dissonance as arousal dissonance situations do create measurable tension supports cog dissonance theory if there is no arousal then supports self perception theory not seen as a drive revised dissonance theory and self af rmation when we af rm ourselves will take away from counterattitudinal tension not all attitude changes occur following the behavior involve dissonance may actually change our attitude after counseling or in a convo context operates mainly when we have little prior experience with the object attitude sare vaguely de nes we are ambivalent have competing attitudes social in uence the exercise of social power by a person or group to change the attitudes or behaviors of others social power access to or control over resources rewards punishments those who are liked admired and respected have more social power obedience the performance of an action in response to a direct order usually in response to someone with status or authority also implies a loss of personal freedom compliance publicly going along with a direct request to avoid punishment or gain reward dont feel compelled do it as a choice for some sort or reward conformity giving in to perceived group pressure by copying the behavior or beliefs of others not usually a matter of choice not experienced at a deprivation of freedom though it can be felt as a constraint when a person considers acting nonconformingly would you behave differently apart from the group why do we conform informational social in uence gain accurate information look to the group for guidance normative social in uence refers to the experience that if i act the way i want to there may be consequences so conform to what is normal in order not to appear abnormal fear of negative evaluation humiliation conformity forms the foundation of the socialization process conformity is necessary to be a part of a society unwilling to conformanarchy our social environment communicated and enforces beliefs about which norms should be used we then develop scripts to help us Muzafer Sherif development of social norms asked participants to judge how much the light was moving light was not moving autokinetic effect eyes in constant motion no cues to distance etc we will see the light as moving even though its staying still no right answer alone little consistency in answers when questioned as a group answers began to converge group norm j acobs and campbell exposed single person to autokinetic effect w three confederates confederates make extreme judgements participants strongly conformed to the more extreme judgement would swap out confederates for real subjects all four real subjects even when confederates gone the extreme group norm continued interesting perpetuation ambiguous reality no right answer in situation emerged people formed group norms quickly when we are uncertain about what the correct judgment is we look to each other especially when conf is con dent solomon asch study of perceptual judgments 7 people line guy l7 was a participant last one to give judgment then confederates all choose wrong answer conformed 37 of the time individuals can be induced to forgo what their own eyes tell them and conform to the incorrect judgement of others important factors group size 56 is maX group conformity campbel and fairey group size is most important when judgments easy to make size of group unimportant when judgment are dif cult make of info in uence and not normative in uence unanimity almost any dissent can reduce conformity social support reduces conformity by diminishing the group s normative in uence early support for dissent is more potent than support after the normative pressures have built want guy in the beginning to give right answer if support is resigned normative in uence is restored group cohesiveness cohesive groups create higher conformity they have more power over us also the more important the topic to the group the higher pressure to conform status of group junior members more likely to conform public response people conform when others know have to announce answer out loud prior commitment decreases conformity already announced a certain view self awareness privately self aware less likely to conform more likely to conform when we are publicly self aware collectivist cultures more likely to conform v less likely when individualistic Textb00k 220223 reactance a motive to protect or restore one s sense of freedom Reactance arises when someone threatens our freedom of action asserting our uniqueness though not wishing to be greatly deviant most of us express our distinctiveness through our personal style Class 930 obedience performance of an action in response to a direct order usually from a person of high status and implies loss of personal freedom taught from childhood on obedience to higher status individuals is seen as a sign of maturity obedience may bring us into con ict with our own values etc the holocaust many obey to do severe harm to those of whom they did not have this aggression towards just following orders not to blame for crimes committed My lai Massacre lt calley and company murder hundreds of civilians in vietnam frustrated at loss of fellow soldiers Lt calley also claims that he too was following orders Stanley Milgram39s Electric Shock Study effects of punishment on learning good slides on the speci cs of the eXperiment prediction 11000 go to 450 volts in reality 97 all administer shocks and 65 go all the way to 450 volts non of personality characteristics really apply to the study displays situational factors determining behavior blass review of obedience 6166 went to lethal levels Textbook 225251 257263 behavior in uence attitude ZIMBARDO role a set of norms that de nes how people in a given social position ought to behave persuasion the process by which a message induces change in beliefs attitudes or behaviors central route to persuasion occurs when interested people focus on arguments and respond with favorable thoughts more durable peripheral route to persuasion occurs when people are in uenced by incidental cues such as speakers attractiveness ingredients to social persuasion l the communicator 2 the message 3 how the message is communicated 4 the audience credibility believability a credible communicator is perceived as both expert and trustworthy sleeper effect a delayed impact of a message that occurs when an intially discounted message becomes effective such as we remember the message but forget the reason for discounting it expertise if people agree with them they speak con dently and seem to be knowledgeable trustworthy if looked straight in the eye not trying to persuade them argue against their own self interest attractiveness having qualities that appeal to the audience often someone who is similar to the audience will be more persuasive on matters of subjective preference messages become more persuading through association with good feelings messages can also be effective by evoking negative emotions fear stop smoking two sided presentation of an argument more persuasive than a one sided presentation of an argument primacy effect other things being equal information presented first usually has the most in uence recency effect information presented last sometimes has the most in uence recency effects are less common than primacy effects channel of communication the way the message is delivered whether face to face in writing on lm etc persuasion decreases as familiarity and signi cance of the issue increases the two step ow of communication the process by which media in uences often occur through opinion leaders who in turn in uence others age care enough to counter argue distractions dissarm counterarguing uninvolved audiences use peripheral cues need for cognition the motivation to think and analyze assessed by agreement with items such as the notion of thinking abstractly appeals to me and disagreement with i only think as hard as i have to attitude inoculation exposing people to weak attacks so that when stronger attacks come they will have refutations available one way to strengthen existing attitudes is through a mild challenge Class 103 victim s emotional distance greatest obedience when learner can t be seen or heard reduced obedience to 40 when could see victim and 30 obey when having to hold hand on the shock plate closeness and legitimacy to the authority experimenter present by telephone 21 lie when a clerk substituted for experimenter only 20 obedience institutional authority rented building near yale 48 group in uence when confederates de ed the experimenter pair of confederates and one de es the other obey 10 perceived responsibility when subject performed an ancillary support task rather than directly administering the shock 93 not really them giving the shock Milgrams paradigm lacked ecological validity didn39t actually think that they were really shocking someone rational for shocking not convincing yale wouldn39t allow individuals to be harmed responded to demand characteristics of situation by playing role sheridan and king puppy replication shock generator was giving real shocks foot eXion running and vocalizing continuous barking and howling now must believe really shocking subj ects could see the puppy getting the shocks equal numbers of males and females and young people 77 percent of subjects fully obeyed women 100 vs men 54 burger would people still obey today maXimum voltage is 150 if subject delivered 150 volt shock and if subject goes on the study is stopped due to milgram Vs go to 450 if they get to 150 two conditions base as in lm model refusal other confederate will disobey so will subject must be same gender after delivering 90 volt shock gender 2 personality variables empathic concern and desire for control 70 of subjects go past 150 in milgram one contrary to hypothesis in burgers replication having another teacher refuse did not have a very substantial effect 63 continue gender men and women not statistically signi cant personality empathic concern had no effect desire for control reduced obedience in base condition but had not impact in the model refusal condition milgram power of the situation and the fundamental attribution error is an error everyone acted the same personality is a good predictor of behavior in weak situations when social in uences are weak not in strong situations incrementalism people are more like to go along and do things when asked to do them in small increases then all at once informational social in uence novel situation i don t know anything about electricity look to experimenter for this info even in strong situations some do refuse the cost of challenging authority can be very high three subjects who didn t go along w lit calley public turns against them Class 106 resistance to social pressure reactance theory brehm threat to loss of freedom triggers reaction motivation is the drive to restore that pressure freedom defined as a concrete behavioral reality for a given individual person possesses a freedom of particular kind when believe they have ability to engage in behavior and when eXperience tells them he she is permitted to engage in the behavior freedom varies in terms of strength how certain i am that i posses the freedom scope in which situations i posses the freedom absolute vs conditional importance how much i value it believe we have freedom of thought strong scope viewed as absolute freedom to drive car strength high be have license could be conditional may not believe have right to drive if you re drunk in uences on reactance reactance is greater when freedom is strong than when its weak reactance is greater in situations when freedom was believed to be available reactance is greater when freedom is of high importance type of threat being experience impersonal less reactance when not directed specifically at me personal more reactance when directed at individual internal threats to freedoms an individual s own choice of one alternative over another can trigger a reactance another explanation for postdecisional regret putting pressure on oneself to act one way or another explanation for persistent ambivalence or inaction the more you pressure yourself more likely to eXperience reactance against pressure effects of reactance makes the threatened freedom more attractive to us energies the person to regain lost freedoms engenders the hostility toward the agent of threat or deprivation redoubles efforts to preserve other freedoms and avoid potential threats to those freedoms heightened sensitivity to pressure or coercion brehm original reactance is a state that can only be inferred but not measured since it is a motivational state it is internal to the person dillard and shen reactance can be measured if recognized that it is made up of cognitive component counter arguments against source etc and anger affective emotional component reactance cannot be measured so individual differences cannot be assessed dowd and wallbrown reactance is measurable and can distinguish between their psychotherapy clients those high in reactance potential can be characterized as defensive aggressive dominant and non nonaffiliated require less directive therapy approaches high respond poorly to these therapies getting people to do what we want obedience social power conformity compliance in uencing a person to go along with a request do not feel pressured but choose even though maybe don t want to do on own persuasion changing beliefs attitudes and behavior through transmission of a message compliance more likely under positive mood true for pro social requests more active and thus more likely to grant requests also they are less likely to critically analyze events good moods activate pleasant thought and memories makes them feel more favorable toward people in general when reciprocity is activated reciprocity norm eXpectation that if someone does something nice for you you ought to do something nice in return power of indebtedness feel obligated to repay debt commonly used in making sale free sample and in those making donation requests giving people free gifts giving reasons allows us to decide if request is reasonable but people tend to comply regardless of the reason given satisfies our desire to eXplain actions especially important when request runs counter to norms someone cuts ahead in line can i step ahead of you in line no but give reason emergency yes of course Foot in the door obtain compliance with a small request then follow it up with larger less desirable request fairly reliable in securing compliance mall keosk ppl can i ask you a question self perception theory granting or rejecting a request changes attitude accepting initial request leads us to see ourselves as cooperative grant larger request rej ecting initial request leads to formation of negative attitude toward granting type of request door in the face make a very large request which they know will be rejected then make small request which will them be accepted securing second request was initial objective phone solicitors from charities negotiating contract give 100 no willing to give 533 works only when time between two request is brief and being made by same requester so that there are no negative self inferences person may feel indebted to go along with the small request thats not all make large request then offering discount or bonus which makes it seem smaller must not give opportunity to reject prior to additional offer lowered price tags on store merchandise buy one get one free may be perceived as concession that initial request was unreasonable and activate the reciprocity norm but requires the initial request not to be too large low balling understate true cost then once compliance is retained reveal the true cost once people make decision they then to justify it by thinking of pos aspects become increasingly committed and more resistant to changing mind car salesman disclosing hidden costs at last minute requires time to develop commitment and increase perceived cost of refusal persuasion intentionally attempting to lastingly change attitude and beliefs and thus behavior through transmission of a message Class 108 Persuasion pett and ciappo elaboration likelihood model can go two routes central route to persuasion in uenced by the strength and quality of the message itself in order for persuasion to take place argument must be a good one and target must be motivated and able to process and consider argument both willingness and ability peripheral route persuasion by cues that are irrelevant to the argument itself persuasion through implicit processing may not be aware of the messages being sent perihperal route is used when subject is both unmotivated and unable to consider argument attitude change happens quickly and without much thought qualities of the communicator attractiveness and likeability physical similarity credibility credibility eXpertise says things that the audience agrees with introduced as knowledgeable speak confidently perceived trustworthiness credibility speakers look you in the eye communicate message that they aren t trying to persuade you argue against your own self interest talk fast sleeper effect when we view someone as credible much more likely to be persuaded by the credible viewing person overtime this gap weakens if the low credibility of the source of the other argument is forgotten and then persuaded by simply the content of the argument conditions for the sleeper effect speaker is very credible and has much eXpertise and as a result he is potentially a highly persuasive speaker commercial about retirement message must be convincing central route people are given information discounting credibility following the message not before magnitude of the effect depends on how strong the cue to discount the message was cue was strong then forgetting it results in a large increase in credibility strength of the message might nd myself forgetting who the messenger was and only remembering the message key is to remember message and forget the messenger characteristics of the message persuading through reason or through emotion attitude is stronger when the attitude originally formed based on reason if initial attitude based on emotional response using emotion is more in uential than reason people in a positive mood are more likely to be persuaded we treat our feelings as information people more susceptible to persuasion when they are afraid less likely to critically analyze anything fear appeals work best when fear is strong when trying to prevent a bad outcome people must believe that they can avoid the bad outcome use of humor increase persuasion making people more likely to pay attention to the message at the same time if the humor distracts the humor from the content of the message then the target will not process or be able to process message to be persuaded humor is effective is the humor is directly linked to the actual message helps people manage fear inducing messages as well class 1010 characteristics of the message one sided vs two sided two sided political messages my opponent say we should do this my opponent is wrong be this instead we should do this two sided knocks down other side and support one sided ignores the opposing message and just supports its own two sided more effective when people already hold the opposing view or are aware of the opposing view two sided arguments more popular with pessimistic people suggests that the communicator is trustworthy and fair also inoculate people against opposing views one sided messages are more effective when person has no previous opinion also those that are less motivated to engage with the argument how different is the message your conveying from the belief of the person you39re already talking to discrepancy strong view already the ability to persuade rests on credibility of the speaker argument is less discrepant more likely to persuade even if not completely credible order of processing serial position effects ease of remembering is determined by positions primacy effect remember rst more powerful when time passing between learning of list and later remembering recency effect remember last more powerful when person is being asked to remember directly after tend to be more persuaded by the first words we hear primacy first message and then directly after second message more likely to be more persuaded by the most recent message once time passes and rst message may be forgotten communication channel active eXperience of the message or passive eXperience passive watch tv and have commercials come on as watching tv show good at increasing persons familiarity of the message and increase uency active more potent when the topic is signi cant and familiar also more stable and enduring motivated and able video more persuasion for easy messages writing comprehension and recall for dif cult messages media in uence greater when info is also accompanied by personal communication by opinion leaders twostep ow characteristics of the audience age older individuals hard attitudes to change etc what audience is thinking eXpecting persuasion leads to counterargument distraction inhibits counterargument can also inhibit meaningful process the uninvolved uses peripheral cues stimulating thinking makes strong messages more persuasive and weak messages less so reason vs emotion reason is more powerful when the person is well educated and analytic emotion appeals more powerful with less educated or analytic william mcguire intelligence and self esteem affect the route which they ppl may be persuaded by neither alone can help predict this people highly intelligent receptive to central route persuasion better able to process and understand but still less likely to be persuaded because very con dent in own veiws those in high self esteem con dent and open but less likely to be persuaded but because they were satis ed with their own opinion low intelligence unable to comprehend or process message those with low self esteem distracted by their own concerns those in the middle more likely to be persuaded open to new ideas and willing to change but still capable personal relevance of the message has important impact petty ciappo and goldman students in the high personal relevance condition were strongly by the quality of the argument but the low personal relevance students were minimally in uenced interacts with strength of the argument interacts with credibility of the source students in the high personal relevance condition were not in uenced by the credibility of the source while students in the low personal relevance condition were strongly in uenced by it resisting persuasion making public personal commitments strengthens current attitudes challenging beliefs triggers defense of those beliefs developing counterarguments increases commitment to current beliefs attitude inoculation inoculating children against peer pressure inoculating children against advertising
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