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Social psych Exam 3

by: Julia Gagosian

Social psych Exam 3 PSY0105

Marketplace > Psychlogy > PSY0105 > Social psych Exam 3
Julia Gagosian
GPA 3.5
Social Psychology
Professor Zuckoff

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Exam 3-professor Zuckoff
Social Psychology
Professor Zuckoff
Study Guide
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Julia Gagosian on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY0105 at a university taught by Professor Zuckoff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 176 views.


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Date Created: 10/13/15
Exam 3 Print slides from 1014 Chapter 8 group two or more people who for longer than a few moments interact and in uence one another and perceive one another as us co actors coparticipants working individually on a noncompetitive activity social facilitation 1 original meaning the tendency of people to perform simple or welllearned tasks better when others are present 2 current meaning the strengthening of dominant responses in the presence of others evaluation apprehension concern for how others are evaluating us social loa ng the tendency for people to exert less effort when they pool their efforts toward a common goal than when they are individually accountable free riders people who bene t from the group but give little in return deindividuation loss of selfawareness and evaluation apprehension occur in group situations that foster responsiveness to group norms good or bad selfawareness a self conscious state in which attention focuses on oneself it makes people more sensitive to their own attitudes and dispositions group polarization group produced enhancement of members preexisting tendencies strengthening of the members average tendency not a split within the group social comparison evaluating one s opinions and abilities by comparing oneself with others pluralistic ignorance a false impression of what most other people are thinking or feeling or how they are responding groupthink the mode of thinking that persons engage in when concurrenceseeking becomes so dominant in a cohesive ingroup that it tends to override realistic appraisal of the alternative courses of action janis leadership the process by which certain group members motivate and guide the group task leadership leadership that organizes work sets standards and focuses on goals social leadership leadership that builds teamwork mediates con ict and offers support transformational leadership leadership that enabled by a leader39s vision and inspiration exerts signi cant in uence 25 1 1 5 7 cult a group typically characterized by 1 distinctive rituals and beliefs related to its devotion to a god or a person 2 isolation from the surrounding evil culture 3 a charismatic leader a sect by contrast is a spinoff of a major religion Class 1017 dissent unwillingness to go along with normsexpectations groups are least likely dissent when dissent involves an important group value is expressed in an intergroup context outside the group airing dirty laundry seen as an ultimate sign of disloyalty non conformists are the focus of social pressure to conform when the others are convinced pressure is fruitless nonconformists are ostracized most likely when only one or small number of dissenters minority in uence process by which dissenters produce change within a group those members of the group who dissent from majority may be disliked or nd themselves being pushed to the margins threat of social isolation results in hesitation to express dissenting views minority slowness effect tendency of those who hold minority opinion to express that opinion less quickly than people who hold the majority opinion single minorities are more in uential than double minorities double both disagrees with majority or is already not really part of the group women arguing for womens rights vs man arguing for womens rights single differ from majority beliefs but part of the group those arguing in direction of evolving norms are more in uential than those against gay rights movement about the time period found style of behavior in presenting nonconforming views in uences effectiveness opinions stated repeatedly consistently and con dently not dogmatic or rigid a consistent minority can affect the behavior of the majority uni ed minority can affect the attitudes and beliefs of majority members group in uence on individuals social facilitation the presence of others enhances the speed with which people perform relatively simple tasks but inhibits task ef ciency in more complex activities bicycle riders robert zajonc mere presence explanation arousal in the presence of others our speci c causes the facilitation effect autonomic nervous system sympathetic responsible for bodily arousal state of alertness readiness purpose is to respond to threats ght or ight parasympathetic nervous system relaxation and for digestion digestion uses energy to make energy work in opposition to each other yerkesdodson law moderate arousal is optimal level for performing any given task too low not enough energy too high can t focus and bad mem moderate varies with the dif culty of the task Zanjoc humans are programmed to become aroused in the presence of our species other people are our primary sources of rewards and punishments goes on without conscious awareness or judgment arousal strengthens dominant responses enhances performance of welllearned simple behaviors arousal interferes with performance of complex tasks simple task arousal is too high for this evaluationapprehension explanation arousal in the presence of others is the result of concern over being negatively judged by others rather than mere presence if people are present but think people aren t paying attention won t create social facilitation effect people with low self esteem are more vulnerable to neg effects of SF distraction con ict explanation con ict between attending to our companions or the task at hand this con ict causes increased arousal can induce con ict and degrade performance on complex tasks non social objects ash lights loud noises is an arousal effect but cause of this arousal has yet to be agreed upon social loa ng reduction in individual output on additive tasks occurs when performer s efforts re pooled and cannot be individually judged decreased evaluation apprehension arousal is lower so poorer performance also diffusion of responsibility belief that the presence of other people in situation makes on less personally responsible for the events that occur in that situation individuals may not be aware of their own reduced effort less social loa ng evaluation of individual effort collectivist less social loa ng vs individualistic high and low competence high c increases performance to compensate for low c members when success is highly valued low c exert greater effort to match others performance skills regardless of task value challenging appealing involving tasks motivation can overcome the social loa ng effect high cohesion groups Class 1020 group in uences on individuals group polarization the tendency of discussion in homogenous groups to result in members taking more extreme positions members of the group hold view more strongly with less openness to alternative views with homogeneity risky shift hypothesis people may move in direction of greater risk taking when in a group with others sharing their views if you are in a group that is already prone to take risks other will do that but if you are in a group that is already cautious not a matter of risk automatically increasing when in H groups rather groupsintensify members initial inclinations and shared attitudes where segregated groups become more extreme communities real and virtual become more homogenous gangs become more dangerous than their members political groups become radicalized why informational in uence pooling of ideasarguments mutual persuasion normative in uence social comparisons with others positions misestimation of others views due to group norm group discussion reveals true norm more extreme group problem solving can be effective if conditions met group size is small prevents social loa ng communication in writing not just speaking avoids blocking ideas of others while speaking brainstorming is followed by work in isolation ideas are better developed individuals debate and critical analysis is encouraged irving Janis Group think emphasis on group unanimity at the expense of critical thinking sound decision making can lead to poor decision bay of pigs invasion challenger disaster symptoms of groupthink illusion of invulnerability can t possibly get the answer wrong stop questioning ideas that emerge moral certitude unquestioning belief of the groups righteousness rationalization justify decisions rather than question them stereotyping those outside the group opponents stupid weak unintelligent etc pressure to conform dismissal of dissenting opinions strong emphasis on group loyalty self censorship illusion of unanimity created by self censorship and pressure to conform everyone else is 100 certain so they should be too mindguards members of the group take on the role of enforcing the stance of the group keep out con icting material most likely to occur incohesive group insulated from dissenting viewpoints led by a problematic leader task leadership organizing work setting standards set goals directive focused provide feedback social leadership building teamwork mediating con icts being supportive democratic delegate authority welcomes input effective leadership needs to include BOTH consistent con dent communicative groupthink produced when the leader is is directive has preexisting view of how the problem should be solved conveys that view to the group leading to expectation that group must ratify leaders opinion groupthink is reduced when leader is impartial encourages critical analysis and dissent outside information sought encouraged self re ection recognize that solution may be premature as questioning continues Chapter 9 prejudice a preconceived negative judgement of a group and its individual members stereotype a belief about the personal attributes of a group of people stereotypes are sometimes overgeneralized inaccurate and resistant to new information and sometimes accurate discrimination unjusti ed negative behavior towards a group or its members racism 1 and individuals prejudicial attitudes and discriminatory behavior towards people of a given race or 2 institutional practices even if not motivated by prejudice that subordinate people of a given race sexism 1 an individual39s prejudicial attitudes and discriminatory behavior toward people of a given sex or 2 institutional practices even if not motivated by prejudice that subordinate people of a given sex social dominance orientation a motivation to have one s group dominate over other social groups ethnocentric believing in the superiority of one s own ethnic and cultural group and having a corresponding disdain for all other groups authoritarian personality a personality that is disposed to favor obedience to authority and intolerance of outgroups and those lower in status realistic group con ict theory the theory that prejudice arises from competition between groups for scarce resources social identity the we aspect of our selfconcept the part of our answer to who am i that comes from our group memberships ingroup us a group of people who share a sense of belonging a feeling of common identity outgroup them a group that people perceive as distinctively different from or apart from their ingroup ingroup bias the tendency to favor one s own group terror management according to terror management theory peoples selfprotective emotional and cognitive responses including adhering more strongly to their cultural world views and prejudices when confronted with reminders of their mortality outgroup homogeneity effect perception of outgroup members as more similar to one another than are ingroup members thus they are alike we are diverse ownrace bias the tendency for people to more accurately recognize faces of their own race also called the crossrace effect or other race effect stigma consciousness a person s expectation of being victimized by prejudice or discrimination groupserving bias explaining away outgroup members positive behaviors also attributing negative behaviors to their dispositions while excusing such behavior by one s own group j ustworld phenomenon the tendency of people to believe that the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get subtyping accommodating individuals who deviate from one39s stereotype by thinking of them as exceptions to the rule subgrouping accommodating individuals who deviate from one s stereotype by forming a new stereotype about this subset of the group stereotype threat disruptive concern when facing a negative stereotype that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype unlike selfful lling prophecies that hammer one s self reputation into one s self concept stereotype threat situations have immediate effects Class 1022 stanford prison experiment 1971 ZIMBARDO randomly assigned guard or prisoner guards keep order in the prison not aloud to physically strike prisoners rebellion broke out the second day guards stripped the prisoners naked removed beds and made privilege cell increased control and degradation none of the personality tests were able to predict behavior of the type of guard that the guard will become nature of interaction tended to be negative affronted dehumanizing it is the situation not the people that led to this prisoners expressed 3x a much negative affect both groups expressed more negative selfevaluations over time deindividuation losing individuality and becoming disconnected from normal attitudes lost in the crowd can provide ecstatic experiences can lead people to behave helpfully when others are doing so can result in harmful behavior abu ghraid torture sexual abuse and humiliation group size larger groups increase likelihood anonymity people in closed cars honk more children in groups take more candy masked warriors more brutal than unmasked arousing and distracting activities impulsive actions diminished selfawareness disconnection from values more situation responsive Class 1024 cults intense and unquestioning group devotion to a cause leader who is charismatic persuasive creates loyalty to group communicator is trustworthy attractive etc message is emotional highly discrepant two sided and provided through multiple channels audience is young open to new ideas and answers questioning of leadership is suppressed dissent groupthink no counter arguments process of recruiting new members almost always gradual foot in the door or incremental initially low demand strong positive reinforcement disconnection of group members from the outside world support others high group cohesion reinforcement of group norms deindividuation public behavioral and verbal commitments self perception cognitive dissonance effects prejudice preconceived negative judgment or evaluation of a group and its individual members implies directly or indirectly that the group and members deserve inferior social status attitude affect neg feelings behavior hostile action tendency cognition negative beliefs contemptuous exclusively negative attitude targets low status groups african americans the poor perceived as competing for resources with mainstream society ambivalent mixture of positive and negative high status group competing for resources as well more threatening mixture of hostility and forms of envy admiration jewish americans asian americans paternalistic condescension and affection for one that is lower than themselves lowers status not competing for resources women elderly people disabled discrimination hostile and patronizing behavior toward member of a speci c group based on prejudice denial of opportunity violence disliking etc actual interaction overt racial prejudice negative characterizations based on beliefs of ones own racial superiority involves contemptuous prejudice and leads to discrimination has declined sharply towards african americans pasek krosnic tompson explicit antiblack attitudes became more common from 20082012 impact increased the likelihood of voting for romney and not voting at all neutralizing anti black attitudes led to a projected increase in obamas 2012 vote share affect misattribution procedure respondents assign chinese ideographs to one of the two categories more pleasant or less pleasant expectation is that half assigned to each group respondents shown more ideographs primed by photos of either a black male or a white male face proportion of americans manifesting implicit antiblack prejudice 493gt 557 implicit racial predjucie unconscious activation of racial stereotypes by skin color and facial characteristics do affect behavior RACIAL SLIDES dual attitudes explicit prejudice shown held prejudicial attitudes implicit prejudice automatic unconscious prejudicial attitudes aversive racial prejudice explicitly egalitarian attitude implicitly prejudiced attitudes Chapter 5 150162 natural selection the evolutionary process by which heritable traits that best enable organisms to survive and reproduce in particular environments are passed to ensuing generations evolutionary psychology the study of the evolution and cognition and behavior using principles of natural selection culture the enduring behaviors ideas attitudes and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next norms standards for accepted and expected behavior norms prescribe proper behavior personal space the buffer zone we like to maintain around our bodies Its size depends on our familiarity with whoever is near us gender in psychology the characteristics whether biological or socially in uenced by which people define male and female aggression physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt someone in laboratory experiments this might mean delivering electric shocks or saying something likely to hurt someones feelings androgynous from androman and gym woman thus mixing both masculine and feminine characteristics gender role a set of behavior expectations norms for males and females Class 1027 anonymity implicithidden attitude reveals itself whites are less helpful to blacks than others over the phone but not in person resumes with black names receive fewer interview offers than the same resumes with white names nonverbal behavior white college students self report opinions of white and black interviewers were predicted by their conscious selfevaluation prejudice eye blinks predicted by measured implicit prejudice effects of aversive racial prejudice con ict between explicit egalitarianism and implicit prejudice in whites leads to avoidance of interactions with blacks to avoid awareness of prejudice response ampli cation tendency for responses to become more extreme when one holds ambivalent attitudes whites over friendly with lacks perceived as competent and hardworking whites annoyed with blacks perceived as incompetent and lazy response ampli cation results in con icting perceptions of interactions whites work to convey egalitarian attitudes belief they have done so but convey implicit prejudice non verbally blacks detect nonverbals and perceive prejudice minority prejudice members of minorities can hold prejudicial attitudes toward members of other groups towards other minorities homophobia towards majority white envious prejudice resentment of social power of dominant group for maj fueled by being dependence on dominant group to gain social rewards and includes respect for positive traits associated with their own group overcompensation worsens the problem ingroups and outgroups ingroup group to which we belong forms our social identity outgroup group with which we do not share membership outgroup homogeneity effect tendency to see members within a given outgroup as being more alike than member of one s ingroup asians stereotypes generalization about the personalities abilities or motives of outgroup members identical characteristics assigned to all members of a group schemas mental shortcuts provide us with distinctive information about individuals we do not know efficient allow us to free up cognition for other tasks permit us to make judgments quickly give us bias for immediate action in uncertain circumstances schemas focus our attention on what is relevant and irrelevant in any given situation filteins social perceptions we see people of that group through the certain lense we have for that group those actions that do not t our stereotypes we focus less on evidence that challenges the stereotype automatic processing schemas can unconsciously in uence thoughts and actions can be activated and made accessible primed once activated we see through the stereotype stereotypes once established they resist change subtyping seeing people who deviate from a stereotype as isolated exceptions you re not like most subgrouping forming a new stereotype you39re one of the exceptional ones shaped by faulty heuristics representativeness bias assumption that any member of a category has all the characteristics of the category availability bias selective recall of past experiences that match the stereotype confirmation bias forgetting and explaining away evidence that does not fit our stereotypes illusory correlation two variables are judged to be associated with each other although there is no real association baseball players with rituals before hitting being a member of a specific minority group possessing a specific characteristic shared distinctiveness two variable are associated with each other because they are unusual and thus stand out members of minority groups stand out to nonmembers unfavorable traits stand out because they occur infrequently correlate the outgroup person with the unfavorable trait associative meaning two variable are associated with each other because of the perceivers preexisting beliefs noticing instances of behavior that match existing beliefs interpreting ambiguous actions in accord with existing beliefs teenagers loud on the bus Socialization institutions and other agents of socialization can support persistence of prejudices conformity can support prejudice the social cost resisting conformity can be high when prejudice is the social norm those high in conformity will express more prejudice when social norms change prejudice can fade relisitc group con ict theory groups become prejudiced toward one another because they are in con ict over competition for scarce resources contemptuous prejudice and envious prejudice are fed by intergroup competition M Sherif RObbers Cave Experiment unfamiliar boys divide into two groups in a campground initially unaware of other group phase 1 creating ingroups cooperative activities with each group phase 2 instilling intergroup competition athletic tournament generate prejudice phase 3 encouraging intergroup cooperation superordinate goals when groups are competing leads to ethnocentrism increased hostility towards outgroup intensi ed cohesion to ingroup ingroup bias selective information processing causing an overestimation of ingroup performance relative to outgroup performance results in ingroup members being rewarded more than outgroup members automatically activated often subtle not recognized as unfair happens even in minimal groups social identity theory we are motivated to achieve or maintain high levels of selfesteem maintaining a positive social identity supports selfesteem engaging in ingroup bias helps to maintain positive social identity positive bias toward ingroup ingroup biasing is engaged in most frequently by those who are membres of small threatened groups also believe the group is central to their own selfconcept and exhibit great pride in their group have low self esteem more likely to show ingroup bias self esteem enhanced by looking down on outgroup members scapegoat theory displacement of frustration and aggression onto vulnerable targets lower status groups can be targeted with less fear of reprisal individual differences in prejudice adorno authoritarian personality characteristics power strength likely to enforce power over others submissiveness to authority more likely to act on hostility than average person prejudice motivated by strong desire to identify with and conform to the existing social order hold prejudices against groups that are viewed as inferior within the socially disfavore groups why causal mechanisms displacement of repressed hostility towards the rents fearfulness and insecurity about the social world learned from authoritarian parents and peers other groups therefore viewed as a threat to one s ingroup social dominance orientation preference for hierarchy antiegalitarianism within any social system want to increase social distinction both between groups as well as within groups attitudesbehaviors high dominant driven tough poweroriented low empathy altruism tolerance high social dominance orientation unequal status between social groups breeds prejudice in general people tend to develop less egalitarian beliefs towards outgroups as the social status of their ingroup creases those who seek and value high status are more likely to justify status hierarchies through prejudice justworld belief belief that the world universe is fair to maintain belief must also believe if a group is disadvantaged there must be a good reason for it Skipped Class on 1031 print slides Class 113 norms in uence all aspects of social behavior foodeating eXpressiveness punctuality personal space dominanceaggression affiliationmating helping all cultures have norms many norms appear almost universal friendship norms respect privacy keep confidences status norms high status addressed in respected way while low status peoples addressed familiary form of address changes when initiated by the higher status person human as the cultural animal culture provinces accumulation of progress and provides guidance for behavior shared biology enables cultural diversity biologically programmed to develop cognitive exibility allows this genes unit of hereditary transmission genotype the set of genes we inherit 20500 half from each parent gt one copy of each gene from each parent mutations and recombinations phenotype observable traits how traits are eXpressed genetic eXpression dominance and recessiveness alleles different patterns of DNA that occur at a particular location different forms of a gene epigenetic 80 DNA thought of as junk DNA actually comprised of epigenetic switches and caused things to be eXpressed or not eXpressed in our phenotype gene can go from being eXpressed to not being eXpressed smell and offspring of smell in mice effects on gene eXpressions can be inherited struggle for survival organism produce more offspring than can survive offspring show individual differences all dependent upon the ENVIRONMENT natural selection individual best adapted reproduce individuals reproduce ps on their adaptations evolution is a process competition for resources leads to the selection for the fittest phenotype which allowed for reproductive success frequency of genotype remains rapid increase in brain size shaped by natural selection the human brain was changing but typical behaviors were also changing evolutionary adaptations also means behavioral adaptations contemporary evolutionary theory fitness is a quality of genes not individuals inclusive tness and kin selection reproductive success includes in uence on reproductive success of related individuals we eXhibit preferences for helping blood relatives increases the odds your genes will be transmitted to subsequent generations aggression any form of behavior that is intended to harm another person oneself or an object instrumental aggression aggression used to accomplish goal war football hostile aggression eXpresses hostility and anger assault frustrationaggression theory anything that blocks our attainment of a goal generates frustration and may be responded with aggression direct or displacement frustrationaggression theory revised frustrations produces anger and aggressive responses when blocking of goal is seen as intentional relative deprivation theory of frustrationaggression frustration from the gap between eXpectations and attainments social comparison can raise eXpectations fight or ight frustration and anger can be responded to with either ght or ight not accurate to say that aggression is distinctive because of alternative in uenced by situational and dispositional factors personality and bio prior conditioning and learning aspects of the situation Class 115 Personality and Aggression three personality traits consistently related to aggression irritability tendency to explode at slight of provocation rumination tendency to retain feelings of anger following provocation emotional susceptibility tendency to eXperience feelings of inadequacy and discomfort unstable high self esteem propensity to eXperience shortterm uctuations reactivity to daily hassles tense and pressured when pursuing goals lower sense of well being uncontrolled anger when selfworth is challenged parenting style parents harsh punishment of aggressive behavior increases later aggression opposite effect baumrind authoritarian parenting cold and distant impose arbitrary rules demand obedience use punishment or threats to enforce discipledesired behavior physically aggressive children have usually had physically punitive parents they probably had parents that parented the same way negative parenting eXpression of negative and round handling of infants first 6 monthsthose infants have higher levels of anger as toddlers and patterns of increasing con ict between mothers and toddlers conduct problems in kindergarten aggressioneXplosiveness de ance direct reinforcement intimidation works to increase status power athletic success is rewarded observational learning learning through observation models family and aggressive models in community associated with increased aggression bandura Bobo doll studies children were frustrated children observed adult interacting with toys variations in adult behavior children then allowed to play W toys group 1 act aggressive W bobo group2 non aggressive playing group 3 child sat in empty room children who observe aggressive behavior are more aggressive boys are more physically behavior equal verbal aggression model the most effective after same gender eXposure to media violence in children act more aggressively in their play behavior choose more aggressive solutions to socil problems behavior more aggressive towards strangers friends early eXposure to TV violence is correlated with later aggression among males correlated with serious crime by age 30 violent song lyrics increase aggression related thoughts and feelings watching or listening to violent music causes people to be more accepting of antisocial behavior eXposure to gameviolence associated with aggressions no gender differences thoughts emotions psychological arousal aggressive behavior decreases in prosocial behaviors but evidence for realworld effects is equivocal mechanisms modeling desensitization habituation to violence disinhibition reduced inclination to regulate aggressive urges when angry increased inclination to use aggressive scripts that have been learned to solve social confrontations excitation transfer and arousal arousal heightens emotions anti stimuli that produce heightened excitation can enervie whatever urges we may be having Class 117 alcohol weakens restraints against aggression adversely affects more controlled effortful thinking disinhibiting also leaves more automatic impulsive responses relatively unaffected interferes ability to interpret ambiguous stimuli leading to higher potential or aggression heats hot temperatures increase hostile thought and feelings discomfort caused by high temperatures correlation with higher raters of behaviors such as murder rape and assault but extremely high temperatures lower aggression related crimes people being less socially active aggressive cues triggers of aggression weapons guns knives and clubs gt prime hostile thoughts negative attitude and unpleasant physical characteristics gt increases likelihood of aggression gender characteristics associated with being and being recognized as male or female within a culture 4546 chromosomes are identical in men and women on most character tics similarity of behavior and cognition is the rule but in several ares we fins group differences biological or are they cultural overlapping distribution some women more aggressive then men in general we are talking about GROUP not iNDIVIDUAL differences gender and social dominance men are more focused on social dominance men more than women rate achievement more important men pick up tabs drive more initiate more rst dates communicates autocratically task assertively and loudly stare more and smile less males are more likely to engage in aggression causing physical pain or injury more pronounced among chidden than adults more pronounced for unprovoked aggression than provoked aggression most pronounced among young males highest rates of violent crime evolutionary psychology gender differences are a product of our evolutionary history primary motive is reproduction gt men and women must make different kinds of investments to make reproduction happen investment of fertilization vs carrying child males will do what is most advantageous and try to spread seed as widely as possible women must be selective dominance advantageous because more access to women aggressive males were better able to provide resources women needed to raise children so men evolved higher levels of aggression nurturant and emotionally intelligent females gt evolved higher levels of empathy and relational orientation intrasexual competition for mates men are more physically aggressive most of the targets of male violence are also men risk taking in service of access to mates pays off women less pshycally aggressive because risk taking is counter aggression dominant men preferred as mates higher status more likely to be able to provide can take the mates of subordinate men men and women different in men egotistic dominant acts more desirable women prosocial dominant acts more desirable testosterone type of androgen hormones that stimulate or control development and maintenance of male characteristics higher levels of testosterone are found in normal males during critical periods prenatela weeks 826 motnes 15 after birth and after puberty testosterone eXposure may be responsible fore neurological differences females show greater connections between cortical hemispheres communication nd emotion males have greater vision cycles of testosterone and adult behavior testosterone rises after success in competitive event team wins sexual intercourse testosterone falls after loss feeling humiliates changes in testosterone levels creates changes in behavior high prenatal testosterone eXposure and child behavior higher selfreported physical aggression scores in response to hypothetical situation in both genders cross gender toy selection among girls lower levels of empathy in preschool girls


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