Study Guide for Exam 1: Egypt
Study Guide for Exam 1: Egypt ARS 101
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Izzy Melo on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ARS 101 at Arizona State University taught by Lewis in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 235 views. For similar materials see Art-Prehistory thru Middle Age in Art History at Arizona State University.
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Date Created: 10/13/15
UNIT 1 STUDY GUIDE WORKS OF ART TO KNOW PREDYNASTIC Palette of Narmer PAGE 8 c 2950 BC found in temple of Horus in Hierakonpolis Represented the unification of Egypt and the beginning of the country39s growth as powerful nationstate This established some important conventions of Egyptian art A Hierarchical size ie the king is the most important and largest Elements of regalia which include crowns of upper and Lower Egypt the short tight kilt w a bull39s tail and false beard EARLY DYNASTIC Step Pyramid of Djoser PAGE 911 Third dynasty king Djoser 2650 2631 BC commissioned tomb complex at Saqqara FIRST MONUMENTAL ARCHETECTURE IN EGYPT His prime minister IMHOTEP designed complex first architect in history to be identified Final structure is a step pyramid formed by 6 mastabalike slabs of decreasing size stacked on top of each other Signifies stairway to sun god Ra and protects the tomb Adjacent funerary temple in temple complex is for rituals amp continued worship King must continue to observe sed rituals after death Many elements of this structure are not completely understood for example there is only one real entrance to the enclosure the rest are all dummy doors and there are other structures inside which appear to have only a symbolic function Some scholars have theorized that this structure was based on an actual palace structure that Djoser ruled from during his life and would then have functioned the same way in his afterlife Your text mentions the royal jubilee often called the sedfestival by Egyptologists This was an important festival that was usually held after a king ruled for 30 years and involved the king s enactment of various rituals that would serve to rejuvenate and renew his kingship There are structures within the complex which symbolically represent the North and South as well as images of King Djoser participating in the sedfestival rituals and some of which have a reference to the two lands ie the symbolic North and South which I discussed in the Background reading for this unit 0 Portrait Panel of Hesire Looking at this wooden relief panel which was found in his tomb chapel we can see that the Egyptians apparently wanted to portray the human form as a composite of the best and most representative parts The face is profile but the eye is frontal The legs and feet are profile but the shoulders and chest are frontal They very carefully developed this method of representation and it remained constant through their 3000 years of existence The Egyptians also employed an 18 space grid system which they used in the production of all of their imagery The human form seated or standing comprised 18 spaces from the bottom of their feet to their hairline They could then render any figure any size by painting the grid on the surface of a wall or block of stone and draw in the parts taking up as many spaces as was needed OLD KINGDOM 2575 2150 Great Pyramids of Giza PAGE 12 Not the first pyramids but the most famous built by 3 successive Fourth Dynasty Kings Khufu 2551 2528 Khafre 25202494 and Menkaure 24902472 Khufu39s is oldest and largest base covers 13 acres Originally finished with veneer of polished limestone that had apex at 481 ft 30 more than presently Site planned to follow east west path of sun A point to remember about these pyramid complexes is that in addition to the pyramids themselves being oriented to the four cardinal points of the compass they had important EastWest axial alignments which was a change from the complex of Djoser which was NorthSouth From the Nile Fliver on the east the deceased king would be taken by boat to his Valley Temple after rituals and perhaps the mummification were performed there he would then continue west along the covered causeway to his Funerary Temple where further rituals were performed and then he would be interred within the burial chamber of the pyramid This eastwest direction was an important symbolic element of pyramid complexes Whether this east to west funerary procession was actually enacted at the time of his burial is not certain as some archaeologists believe that the doors and causeway were too narrow for the sarcophagus The important point was the symbolic alignment and the placement of the various components of the funerary complex The whole complex was in use after the death of the king in performance of the offerings and rituals associated with his cult Khafre Old kingdom ruler owner of pyramid at Giza 2520 2494 His is best preserved with some veneer still at the top The GREAT SPHINX is behind the temple a lion with the king39s head Statue made of gneiss sits in his temple special stone that glows blue the color of Horus when illuminated by the sun This statue of the king was one of many which were used in the Valley Temple of the deceased king Many of these functioned within the cult of the dead king which would continue long after his death There were hundreds of these statues throughout the funerary compeX Only a very small portion of them have been found It would have been the responsibility of the new king to make sure that these important rituals continued among which the most important being offerings made to the king Look at the image in your text The side of the throne has some carving in relief This is what is known as the sematawy and represented the uni ed country of Egypt The intertwined plants were a papyrus and a lotus The papyrus represented Lower Egypt and the lotus was symbolic of Upper Egypt They became the heraldic plants of the two lands Thus Khafre is literally and symbolically sitting on the throne of Upper and Lower Egypt Menkaure and a Queen Khamerernebty PAGE 15 Double portrait of the Pharaoh and a queen 2490 2472 BCE The king is depicted wholly in the classical style Young strong stiff in the elements of royal regalia Traces of red paint remain on the king Males were painted red Figures joined by the stone from which they emerge Stiff strong royal Ti Watching the Hippopotamus Hunt PAGE 17 Pained on the walls of the mastaba of a wealthy fifth dynasty government official He is watching a hippopotamus hunt official duty of royal couriers Set disguised self as hippo hippos are dangerous and destructive hunts were important Artist used a number of Egyptian art conventions The river is rendered as if seen from above a bunch of paralell vertical wavy lines under boat Creatures in river are in profile for easy identification The figure of Ti is stylized and larger than everyone else due to his status Hunters are lower class in a different boat Upper class figures are detached and stylized the lower class is portrayed more lifelike MIDDLE KINGDOM 1975 1640 BC Mentuhotep II This statue comes from a small undecorated tomb under the mortuary temple that the king built in a place on the west bank of the river called Deir el Bahri If you look at the illustration of Hatshepsut39s Funerary Temple in your text you will see the temple on the far left side Not much of the structure remains today but the other temple to the right of it Hatshepsut s was built after the same pattern so it likely looked very similar The tomb was down a deep shaft under the first courtyard When the statue was found it was wrapped in linen and had apparently been hastily finished as the paint had been wet when the linen was placed on it You will notice that the statue has some peculiar characteristics when compared with that of Khafre The proportion is very different and it appears as if the sculptor was much less skilled The body is executed in a summary fashion leaving the feet and legs enormous You will also see the curved beard which is a style that we see in the Middle Kingdom Women during this time are shown with heavy wigs which curl at the ends One of the most interesting aspects is the black skin of the king Think of the possibilities to account for this Is this an indication of a different race Is this something symbolic Without attendant inscriptions or further information we really do not know What we do know however is that the god Osiris was often depicted with black green or blue skin There are a couple of important reasons why Osiris is shown like this One is his association with vegetation and the Nile river Another aspect is his link with mummification The deceased were often shown with black skin which represented death The skin color then was one way of indicating the attributes of Osiris as the god of the underworld This statue of Montuhotep is likely associated with Osiris and so has his skin painted black You will also notice that the king is wearing the Red Crown of Lower Egypt and a short robe which covers his shoulders This is the jubilee or sedfestival robe see above discussion under Djoser for sedfestival and page 51 in your text Pectoral of Senusret Our piece here is a pectoral a large broad necklace worn on the chest which was found in the tomb of SitHathor Yunet the daughter of King Senwosret II from the 12th dynasty in a place in Lower Egypt today called elLahun We see the cartouche of the king the oval shape in which king s names were written in the center being supported by two falcons whose head is surmounted with the solar disc which is encircled with the upraised cobra uraeus In the loops of the cobra hangs the ankh sign of life Below the cartouche containing the king s name is a seated gure who holds notched palm branches in each hand This is Heh and he and the palm branches represents millions of yearsquot This idea is further emphasized by the little tadpole below the left elbow of Heh The falcons hold the circular shen sign in their talons which indicated the idea of eternity The zigzag design on the bottom represents the waters of chaos from which creation emerged This is representative of the Egyptian propensity for incorporating hieroglyphs into pictorial designs The piece can almost be read quotmillions of years of eternal life for Senwosret IIquot There is great skill in the design of the pectoral Each part has been skillfully linked to the next Notice how the one upraised foot of each bird rests against the palm branch and the arms of the ankh t exactly between the cartouche and the chest of the falcon Symmetrical balance is one of the most important elements in the design of this work Though this contains the king s name it would have been tting for inclusion in the grave of his daughter where it would have offered her powerful protection for her afterlife Head of Senusret III PAGE 18 King of 12th dynasty ruled from 1836 to 1818 He is not idealized but instead appears preoccupied and emotionally drained Instead of gazing into eternity he seems troubled by present problems What we are seeing here with this fragment of a statue of the king is the depiction of age ie lines around the mouth heavy lids on the eyes bags of skin under the eyes and wrinkles in the middle of the forehead A number of other statues have been found of this king as well as other kings of the Middle Kingdom which indicates a change from the Old Kingdom tradition of representing the pharaoh in an idealized form This apparently did not extend to the rest of the body but only the face We also see that these statues were more individualized than before Whether this is true portraiture or not is difficult to say NEW KINGDOM Funerary Temple of Hatshepsut Constructed on an axial plan Located near Thebes and Deir eIBahri Three levels MUCH larger than her actual tomb designed for funeral rites and commemorative ceremonies An important point about Hatshepsut and her images is that she does not create new pharaonic portrait types but seeks to legitimize her reign by having herself depicted in the standard representation which we have seen since Khafre The seated king on a throne with the nemes headdress the kneeling king offering the king as a sphinx the crowns the false beard the short kilt all of the typical royal iconography was used in the creation of her images In this particular image she is shown kneeling and holding two nu jars which would have been filled with wine or milk and were a special offering given to the gods only by the king Hatshepsut Kneeling PAGE 24 Hatshepsut was always represented in the same manner as a male king with beard and kilt Temple of Amun Karnak reconstruction drawing the complex is symmetrical and axial Karnak is a long standing sacred site and new kings of the new Kingdom renovated and expanded the complex until it was 60 acres Access to heart of temple was from the west Inner sanctuary housed the statue of the god One of the important aspects of this temple complex is the axial alignments The original structure had an eastwest alignment moving from the Nile to the inner sanctuary Eventually with each successive king adding to the structure a new section was built with a northsouth alignment that was connected to the southern temple of AmunRe at Luxor Hypostyle Hall columns with papyriform and bud capitals in temple of Amun at Karnak Vast hall filled with columns spaced very close together Columns covered with pictorial reliefs and inscriptions Ramose s brother May and his wife Werener also known as Mai and Urel Traditiona Egyptian marital embrace Relief carving on the wall of a tomb Sitting stiffly and straight showing love A poem is on the wall Akhenaten colossal figure Inherited a wealthy kingdom Amenhotep IV aka Akhenaten changed his name abandoned Thebes for a capital further north to Tell alAmarna This statue shows the new art style of the Amarna period The statue is 16 ft tall oriented to movements of the Sun NEW ART spindly arms huge thighs potbelly long neck and stylized head Lack of convention of thousands of years human form is altered Akhenaten and His Family Example of sunken relief where images are chiseled deeply into the stone Family seated receiving the blessings of the Aten Shows something never before seen in Egyptian art a tender family moment Shows Netfertiti same size as king Evokes weight on cushions Breeze rustles ribbons Rather than composed serenity fidgety children Gold Coffin of Tutankhamun lnnermost coffin 240 pounds of gold inlaid with gemstones King holds crook and flail wears nemes headdress Return to classical Egyptian ideals with a few small Amarna period twists pierced earlobes full lips Pectoral of Tutankhamun This pectoral was found in the room of the tomb called the treasury It is an elaborate necklace which incorporates inlaid semiprecious stones as we saw in the earlier pectoral of Senusret There were a great many pieces of jewelry both within the tomb and on the mummy of Tutankhamun This is another good example of the incorporation of hieroglyphs within the design The piece spells out one of the king s names each king had five names his prenomen which is Neb the basket shape on the bottem Khepure which is the scarab beetle one of the images of the sun god and Re which is the solar disc on the top Nebkhepurere It may seem strange that a bug was the symbol of the sun god but the Egyptians looked at the world around them and in the very early prehistorical period they formulated their symbolism The scarab or dung beetle lays its eggs in a ball of dung which it pushed in front of it along the ground The Egyptians must have seen tiny new beetles emerging from this ball and linked it with the course of the sun as it traversed across the heavens and brought life Thus the beetle was associated with the sun god in his aspect of becoming or the morning manifestation of the sun god 0 Temple of Ramses II at Abu Simbel PAGE 2930 Nineteenth Dynasty 1279 1213 BC Master of royal propaganda diplomat His temple entrance is decorated by 4 colossal seated statues of himself 65 feet tall Two temples oriented so that their axes cross the Nile The temple complex is huge and dedicated to Ramses and the gods Amun Ra and Ptah Was moved to higher ground in 1962 due to flooding This temple is not a funerary monument Ramses and netfertari were buried in the Valleys of the Kings and Queens This was a sacred and religious temple complex 0 Judgement of Hunefer Before Osiris PAGE 33 Illustration from a book of the Dead Nineteenth Dynasty c 1285 BC Painted papyrus 3 stages in induction into the afterlife First Anubis weighs his heart against the feather of truth He passes and is presented to Osiris After being accepted into the afterlife kneels before the 14 gods of the underworld 0 Queen Nefertari Making an Offering to Isis This wall painting is in the tomb of Netfertari in the valley of the queens The queen offers jars of perfumed ointment to the goddess While the outline drawing and use of pure colors within the lines are traditional art practices there is a NEW slight modeling of the body forms by small changes in hue to enhance the appearance of three dimensionality The women39s skin color is darker than conventionally and shading emphasizes eyes and lips TERMS TO KNOW Kemet quotblack landquot fertile black soil along the Nile delta Rosetta Stone Finally was the missing keystone in deciphering the hieroglyphics of ancient Egypt Discovered in 1798 by Napoleon39s troops later seized by the British A French scholar JeanFrancois Champollion was able to finally translate the Egyptian hieroglyphics and a new door was opened into understanding Egypt Originally made in 196 to honor Ptolemy V hieroglyphic formal writing system quotwords of the godsquot from Egypt Mostly used for ceremonial purposes adorning the walls of temples and tombs hieratic Form of cursive hieroglyphs Used for legal documents letters texts Came before Demotic demotic simplified cursive form of hieroglyphics One of the three languages on the Rosetta Stone Derived from northern forms of Hieratic Document or letter writing Champollion French prodigy and linguist in 1822 finally deciphered the Rosetta Stone Learned Coptic language of Christian Egypt Petrie b 1850s Learned surveying methods from father Taught self hieroglyphics Did survey of Great Pyramid at Giza Egypt Exploration Fund Methodology and goals not just bring back artefacts but learn more about ancient Egyptians Helped establish discipline of Archaeology Belzoni Giovanni Battista Belzoni quotThe Great Belzoniquot had a strongman act in London Learned of attempts to modernize Egypt and tried to sell hydraulic system It didn39t work out 1814 went to egypt came to know British consul Henry Salt Began career as quotAntiquarian and Explorerquot aka looter Brought back collossal torso of Ramses ll Moved a number of large statues found interior chambers of Pyramid of Khafre found tomb of King Seti l and first modern man to uncover Temple of Ramses ll ka life force or soul lives on after the death of the body Needs a body to live in either a mummified body or statue mastaba tomb most common tomb structure in Early Dynastic Egypt Flat topped one story building with slanted walls erected avobve an underground burial chamber First made of mud brick but toward end of 3rd dynasty many incorporated cut stone at least as an exterior facing Cannon of Proportions and Old Kingdom Standard Grid Squared grid to guide designers of pictoral relief and paintings in proportioning human figures Every body part has a place on the grid Figures are supposed to be 18 squares from soles of feet to hairline and shoulders six squares wide ldeal and standardized system Pyramid Texts collection of anceint Egyptian religious texts from the Old Kingdom Possibly oldest known religious texts in the world Written in old Egyptian Carved on walls and sarcophagi of the pyramids at Saqqara during the 5th and 6th dynasties ca 24002300 BC Reserved only for Pharaoh and not illustrated Spells of texts concerned with protecting the pharaoh39s remains and helping him ascend to the heavens Delineate all of the ways pharaoh could travel and call the gods for help Coffin Texts collection of funerary spells written on coffins beginning during the First Intermediate Period Derived in part from Pyramid Texts but with new material indicating they can now be used by the common PONT people Ordinary Egyptians who could afford a coffin could use them The afterlife was no longer only for Pharaoh Mostly in Middle Kingdom coffins Concern the underground elements of the Afterlife as run by Osiris Allow deceased to protect against dangers of the Afterlife Book of the Dead By the New Kingdom common belief was that only a person free from wrongdoing could enjoy an afterlife The dead underwent a last judgment consisting of two tests presided over by Osiris and supervised by Anubis god of embalming and cemeteries After the dead were questioned their hears seat of the soul in Egyptian belief were wieghed on a scale against an ostrich feather symbol of Ma39at goddess of truth order and justice If the dead fails the test Ammit the quotEater of the Deadquot lion croc hippo devours their heart Family members comissioned papyrus scrolls containing magical texts or spells which enbalmers placed among wrappings of mummified bodies Early collectors called these scrolls quotBooks of the Deadquot Amarna Site of Akhetaten where Akhenaten moved his new capital During 18th Dynasty moved court and built a new city Disbanded priesthood of RaAmun and closed temples established new worship of the Aten Drastic departure from conventional styles MISC four aspects of Civilization Monumental architecturesculpture Central governmental authority Division of population into socialeconomic classes stratified society Writing Gift of the Nile The river flooded it39s banks twice a year leaving rich black soil serdab necropolis thereomorphic Animal headed gods HERODOTUS Ancient Greek scholar and historian Wrote first Egyptian travel log Lived in 5th century BC Left account of Egyptian culture in 2nd book of histories Gives accurate account of mummification Many innacuracies Greeks and romans continued in his style
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