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Age Of Globalization Study Guide 3

by: Gwendolyn Cochran

Age Of Globalization Study Guide 3 Badm 1004

Marketplace > George Washington University > Business Administration > Badm 1004 > Age Of Globalization Study Guide 3
Gwendolyn Cochran

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This is a detailed study guide for the third quiz in age of globalization. I go over all the questions given by the professor, the readings assigned for the class, and vocabulary! I hope this helps.
Age of Globlization
Liesl Riddle
Study Guide
International Business
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Gwendolyn Cochran on Tuesday March 22, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Badm 1004 at George Washington University taught by Liesl Riddle in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 294 views. For similar materials see Age of Globlization in Business Administration at George Washington University.

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Date Created: 03/22/16
Globalization Study Guide for Quiz 3 Class: Feb 29 Lecture:   How do developed and developing countries tend to differ in terms of birth rates,  death rates, and fertility rates?  Why? o  Know how to read and interpret changes in a population pyramid (e.g., changes in birth rates, mortality rates, or immigration). o Declining fertility, increased longevity & mortality rate decline supersedes decrease in fertility o  What is the demographic transition?  Know how to correctly label and explain  what’s changing on population pyramids representing the four phases of the  demographic transition. o Demographic transition refers to the transition from high birth and death  rates to low birth and death rates as a country develops from a pre­ industrial to an industrialized economic system. This is typically  demonstrated through a demographic transition model o  For most of human history, the percentage of people age 65+ has been around 3­ 4% of the total population.  How much is it predicted to be in 2050?  Why? o Most of human history, 65+ ~ 3­4% of population o Today = 15%; 2050 = 25% (estimate) o By 2030, working­age population expected to contract in nearly all  developed countries (US=exception thanks to expected in­migration) o By 2050, 60+ = 2 billion globally – ¾ from developing countries o This is because of the shift in the demographic transition model in which  as populations grow older people are having less and less children and the  old are living longer; thus the percentage of elderly in the population  changes  What is Berelson and Samuel’s theory of fertility decline thresholds?  What  criteria do they specify that are correlated with fertility decline? o Bernard Berelson & John Samuel’s theory of fertility decline thresholds  argues that fertility will not decline significantly enough to begin the  demographic transition until… 1. <50% labor force employed in agriculture 2. 50% of age 5­19 enrolled in school 3. Life expectancy is at least 60 years 4. Infant mortality is <65 per 1,000 5. 80%+ females age 15­19 are unmarried  What is the demographic trap?  What kinds of countries tend to be caught in the  demographic trap and why? o The demographic trap is the point at which population growth exceeds  environment’s carrying capacity.  Often due to death­rate decline but no  fertility­rate change as is seen in many labor­intensive developing  economies and many emerging markets o This creates challenges & opportunities for governments, NGOs, private  sector  According to guest speaker Shaheen Siraz, Bangladesh is currently grappling with several challenges due to their large youth population.  What are these  challenges? o Many of the youth in their nation do not have access to proper education.  o A quarter (27%) of young Bangladeshis never completed primary school  and do not have the skills they need for work. That totals over 8 million  15­ to 24­year­olds in the country. o There are 250 million children of primary school age who cannot read or  count whether they are in school or not. In Bangladesh, for example, less  than 50% of teachers are trained; o There are 44 million illiterates in Bangladesh alone – the fourth highest  rate of any country in the world. Preparation Materials:  Be able to define each of the following demographic terms:  o Birth/death rate – annual # of births/deaths per 1,000 people in a  designated geographic area o Total fertility rate – average # of children women in a specific population  bear over their lifetime o Infant mortality rate – annual # of deaths of infants 1 year old or younger  for every 1,000 infants born alive o Maternal mortality rate – death of a woman while pregnant or within 42  days of the termination of a pregnancy from any cause due to or  aggravated by pregnancy or the way it is managed. Expressed as the # of  maternal deaths per 100,000 pregnancies o Sex ratio – number of men per 100 females in a designated geographic  area o In­migration/Out­migration – movement of people into or out of a  designated area o Immigration – act of entering one country after leaving another o Emigration – act of departing one country with the purpose of taking up  residence elsewhere o Net migration rate – rate based on the # of people entering and # of people leaving a designated area in a year.  We divide that number by the size of  the relevant population and then multiply the result by 1,000 o Internal migration – movement of people within the given boundaries of a  country. o Agglomerations – urban populations with 1 million or more  How and why has the world’s population pyramid changed between 1970­2015?   Why?  How and why is it predicted to change 2015­2060? o How:  o Why: As women enter the workforce in greater numbers, children live  longer into life, and baby boomers enter the elderly demographic the  number of children the average family is having is declining so the  population age differences are evening out.   How has global aging impacted auto companies, banks, assisted living facilities,  and telemedicine (give examples of new products or services created in each of  these industries)? o All of these firms are catering towards the newfound longevity of the  elderly population. As people live longer and longer into life the market  for consumers of assisted living facilities, investment firms, and  telemedicine opportunities increases. Take for instance elderly people  from abroad who wish to be buried honoring the traditions of their  heritage: there are emerging markets wherein one can hire a team of  people to throw a tradition funeral within the customs of one’s culture.  Class: March 2 Discussion:  How had India’s population pyramid changed between the year that Shoppers  Stop opened for business and the year of the case?  Why did it change?   o There is a large amount of loyal older customers, but the store wants to  bring in younger consumers to widen their market.    What were the four factors driving the Indian retail revolution mentioned in the  Shoppers Stop case? o Changing demographics, upward migration of income, easy credit,  government impetus.   What was India’s “demographic dividend” mentioned in the Shoppers Stop case? o The population of India was forecasted to stay young for the next two  decades, therefore to have a successful market Shopper’s Stop must  rebrand to younger customers  How did the case describe Shoppers Stop customers? o Shoppers Stop customers are older, extremely loyal, and looking for  unique clothing that will make them stand apart.   Did Shoppers Stop make changes to its business to take advantage of India’s  “demographic dividend?” If so, how?  If not, why not? o Absolutely! They ran an ad campaign for younger people, targeting the  collage and teenage spectrum bringing in this larger demographic.  Class: March 7 Lecture:  Know the following facts about migration:  o the number of international migrants more than doubled 1975­2000,  o today’s total stock of international migrants is 244 million,  o 48% of today’s international migrants in the world are women,  o 2/3 of international migrants live in Europe and Asia, o Europe has just slightly more in­migrants than out­migrants, o Africa has just slightly more out­migrants than in­migrants, o Asia has just slightly more out­migrants than in­migrants, and o North America has many more in­migrants than out­migrants.  What is the IOM and what does it do? o The International Organization for Migration is the leading  intergovernmental organization specializing in the field of migration. o It specializes in labour migration, Human development, Immigration and  border management, Migration assistance, Migrant health, Refugee  resettlement, Emergency, post­crisis and disaster risk reduction, Migration policy and migration law research   According to guest speaker Lara White, what are the benefits of labor migration  for households, nations, and regions/the globe? o Households  Increases incomes  Boosts health & well­being  Promotes school enrolment  Generates jobs in host countries   o National  Stimulates innovation  Increases labour market efficiency   Changes age pyramid and dependency ratios   Facilitates trade and investment o Regional/global  Addresses global talent & labour shortages   Reduces “brain­drain” through skill circulation  Highlights need for increased international collaboration   According to guest speaker Lara White, what are the 5 challenges of migrant  integration into their new countries of residence? o Xenophobia o Access to the labor market o Psychosocial well being o Skill and qualifications recognition o Language and cultural barriers Preparation Materials:  In the summer of 2014, what kind of immigrants was Germany looking for?  Why? o German is in dire need of educated workers and is readily searching for  experienced immigrants to work in their engineering fields   What are the 3 ways globalization makes the global migrant crisis more unstable? o There is a large amount of uncertainty of how the process works and how  long someone might stay in a nation, the factors that challenge  immigration increase as the volume increases, there are many displaced  refugees as well adding to the volume of immigrants  Know the fact that immigrants in America are more than twice as likely to start a  business as someone born in America.  Know the country of origin for the founders of each of these US immigrant­ founded companies: Google, AT&T, Goldman Sachs, and eBay. (Note – you do  not need to know the founders’ names just the countries from which they  originated.) o Google­ Russia o AT&T­ Scotland  o Goldman Sachs­ Germany o EBay­ France Class: March 9 Discussion:  What are the internal and external benefits of migration for business? o  According to The Hague Process study, what are the top 3 (most commonly  mentioned) benefits of migration that business leaders mention first in the study? o  According to The Hague Process study, how do business leaders’ general  perceptions of migration differ from their general perceptions of migrant  labor/employees? o Managers and leaders often times see the potential to utilize the global  perspective and skillset international employees provide  Why did Jane Lew, “UpGlo” founder, reach the conclusion that both government­ funded resettlement programs and private­sector job placement firms were failing  educated and professional immigrants?  How were their incentive systems set up  to fail them and why? o The government­funded resettlement programs and private­sector job  placement firms all focused on getting people JOBS immediately, when in reality people need to work towards CARRERS. UpGlo focuses on  preparing people to inter the workforce looking for a career and secure  them a job in their specialized field.   At the close of the case, what were the key elements of UpGlo’s business model?  (who are their markets, what services do they offer these markets, what are all  their sources of revenue, what are their major costs). o UpGlo focuses on matching businesses with employees perfectly fitting  for the career path they are entering. This is a symbiotic relationship as the businesses gain educated and hardworking employees and the immigrants  get a career they have worked for.  Class: March 21 Lecture:  According to guest lecturer, Dr. Noel Maurer, what are the main sources of  pressure on global resources in the world today? o His main themes were that:  Natural resources aren’t natural  Global warming is the worst possible challenge  Policies and alternatives o And therefore there is an immense struggle to make change in the spectrum of resource conservation.  Preparation Materials:  Prior to 2011, food prices spikes were usually attributable to weather (e.g.,  unusually hot, dry, cold, or wet seasons).  But in 2011, trends in both sides of the  food supply/demand equation were driving up prices.  Be able to list each of the  demand­ and supply­side effects on food prices – and explain how changes in  these issues affect the price of food. o On the demand side, the culprits are population growth, rising  affluence, and the use of grain to fuel cars. On the supply side: soil  erosion, aquifer depletion, the loss of cropland to nonfarm uses, the  diversion of irrigation water to cities, the plateauing of crop yields in agriculturally advanced countries, and — due to climate change —  crop­withering heat waves and melting mountain glaciers and ice  sheets. These climate­related trends seem destined to take a far  greater toll in the future.  Why do scientists consider 2 degrees Celsius (3.6 degrees Fahrenheit) a critical  value for global warming?  According to the article, “Hot and Bothered,” does the global community have political commitments and technologies in place to keep  global temperatures below 2 degrees Celsius? o Crop ecologists have their own rule of thumb: For each 1 degree  Celsius rise in temperature above the optimum during the growing  season, we can expect a 10 percent decline in grain yields. This  temperature effect on yields was all too visible in western Russia  during the summer of 2010 as the harvest was decimated when  temperatures soared far above the norm.  What is the relationship between developing­country economic development and  rising global temperature? o The people who are being harmed most by global warming are the people  who do not benefit from the cause of it. The oil and tech that is causing  global warming is only used by first world countries, but those in third  world countries are the first to starve because of it.   The article, “Hot and Bothered,” suggests a couple of ways that mankind will  have to adapt to living under skies containing high concentrations of greenhouse  gases.  What are they? o This can be helped by growing crops that can tolerate heat and extreme  weather, in part by abandoning the worst­affected places. Animals and plants  will need help, including transporting them across national and even  continental boundaries. More research is required on deliberately engineering  the Earth’s atmosphere in order to cool the planet.


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