Age Of Globalization Study Guide 3
Age Of Globalization Study Guide 3 Badm 1004
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Gwendolyn Cochran on Tuesday March 22, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Badm 1004 at George Washington University taught by Liesl Riddle in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 294 views. For similar materials see Age of Globlization in Business Administration at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 03/22/16
Globalization Study Guide for Quiz 3 Class: Feb 29 Lecture: How do developed and developing countries tend to differ in terms of birth rates, death rates, and fertility rates? Why? o Know how to read and interpret changes in a population pyramid (e.g., changes in birth rates, mortality rates, or immigration). o Declining fertility, increased longevity & mortality rate decline supersedes decrease in fertility o What is the demographic transition? Know how to correctly label and explain what’s changing on population pyramids representing the four phases of the demographic transition. o Demographic transition refers to the transition from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates as a country develops from a pre industrial to an industrialized economic system. This is typically demonstrated through a demographic transition model o For most of human history, the percentage of people age 65+ has been around 3 4% of the total population. How much is it predicted to be in 2050? Why? o Most of human history, 65+ ~ 34% of population o Today = 15%; 2050 = 25% (estimate) o By 2030, workingage population expected to contract in nearly all developed countries (US=exception thanks to expected inmigration) o By 2050, 60+ = 2 billion globally – ¾ from developing countries o This is because of the shift in the demographic transition model in which as populations grow older people are having less and less children and the old are living longer; thus the percentage of elderly in the population changes What is Berelson and Samuel’s theory of fertility decline thresholds? What criteria do they specify that are correlated with fertility decline? o Bernard Berelson & John Samuel’s theory of fertility decline thresholds argues that fertility will not decline significantly enough to begin the demographic transition until… 1. <50% labor force employed in agriculture 2. 50% of age 519 enrolled in school 3. Life expectancy is at least 60 years 4. Infant mortality is <65 per 1,000 5. 80%+ females age 1519 are unmarried What is the demographic trap? What kinds of countries tend to be caught in the demographic trap and why? o The demographic trap is the point at which population growth exceeds environment’s carrying capacity. Often due to deathrate decline but no fertilityrate change as is seen in many laborintensive developing economies and many emerging markets o This creates challenges & opportunities for governments, NGOs, private sector According to guest speaker Shaheen Siraz, Bangladesh is currently grappling with several challenges due to their large youth population. What are these challenges? o Many of the youth in their nation do not have access to proper education. o A quarter (27%) of young Bangladeshis never completed primary school and do not have the skills they need for work. That totals over 8 million 15 to 24yearolds in the country. o There are 250 million children of primary school age who cannot read or count whether they are in school or not. In Bangladesh, for example, less than 50% of teachers are trained; o There are 44 million illiterates in Bangladesh alone – the fourth highest rate of any country in the world. Preparation Materials: Be able to define each of the following demographic terms: o Birth/death rate – annual # of births/deaths per 1,000 people in a designated geographic area o Total fertility rate – average # of children women in a specific population bear over their lifetime o Infant mortality rate – annual # of deaths of infants 1 year old or younger for every 1,000 infants born alive o Maternal mortality rate – death of a woman while pregnant or within 42 days of the termination of a pregnancy from any cause due to or aggravated by pregnancy or the way it is managed. Expressed as the # of maternal deaths per 100,000 pregnancies o Sex ratio – number of men per 100 females in a designated geographic area o Inmigration/Outmigration – movement of people into or out of a designated area o Immigration – act of entering one country after leaving another o Emigration – act of departing one country with the purpose of taking up residence elsewhere o Net migration rate – rate based on the # of people entering and # of people leaving a designated area in a year. We divide that number by the size of the relevant population and then multiply the result by 1,000 o Internal migration – movement of people within the given boundaries of a country. o Agglomerations – urban populations with 1 million or more How and why has the world’s population pyramid changed between 19702015? Why? How and why is it predicted to change 20152060? o How: o Why: As women enter the workforce in greater numbers, children live longer into life, and baby boomers enter the elderly demographic the number of children the average family is having is declining so the population age differences are evening out. How has global aging impacted auto companies, banks, assisted living facilities, and telemedicine (give examples of new products or services created in each of these industries)? o All of these firms are catering towards the newfound longevity of the elderly population. As people live longer and longer into life the market for consumers of assisted living facilities, investment firms, and telemedicine opportunities increases. Take for instance elderly people from abroad who wish to be buried honoring the traditions of their heritage: there are emerging markets wherein one can hire a team of people to throw a tradition funeral within the customs of one’s culture. Class: March 2 Discussion: How had India’s population pyramid changed between the year that Shoppers Stop opened for business and the year of the case? Why did it change? o There is a large amount of loyal older customers, but the store wants to bring in younger consumers to widen their market. What were the four factors driving the Indian retail revolution mentioned in the Shoppers Stop case? o Changing demographics, upward migration of income, easy credit, government impetus. What was India’s “demographic dividend” mentioned in the Shoppers Stop case? o The population of India was forecasted to stay young for the next two decades, therefore to have a successful market Shopper’s Stop must rebrand to younger customers How did the case describe Shoppers Stop customers? o Shoppers Stop customers are older, extremely loyal, and looking for unique clothing that will make them stand apart. Did Shoppers Stop make changes to its business to take advantage of India’s “demographic dividend?” If so, how? If not, why not? o Absolutely! They ran an ad campaign for younger people, targeting the collage and teenage spectrum bringing in this larger demographic. Class: March 7 Lecture: Know the following facts about migration: o the number of international migrants more than doubled 19752000, o today’s total stock of international migrants is 244 million, o 48% of today’s international migrants in the world are women, o 2/3 of international migrants live in Europe and Asia, o Europe has just slightly more inmigrants than outmigrants, o Africa has just slightly more outmigrants than inmigrants, o Asia has just slightly more outmigrants than inmigrants, and o North America has many more inmigrants than outmigrants. What is the IOM and what does it do? o The International Organization for Migration is the leading intergovernmental organization specializing in the field of migration. o It specializes in labour migration, Human development, Immigration and border management, Migration assistance, Migrant health, Refugee resettlement, Emergency, postcrisis and disaster risk reduction, Migration policy and migration law research According to guest speaker Lara White, what are the benefits of labor migration for households, nations, and regions/the globe? o Households Increases incomes Boosts health & wellbeing Promotes school enrolment Generates jobs in host countries o National Stimulates innovation Increases labour market efficiency Changes age pyramid and dependency ratios Facilitates trade and investment o Regional/global Addresses global talent & labour shortages Reduces “braindrain” through skill circulation Highlights need for increased international collaboration According to guest speaker Lara White, what are the 5 challenges of migrant integration into their new countries of residence? o Xenophobia o Access to the labor market o Psychosocial well being o Skill and qualifications recognition o Language and cultural barriers Preparation Materials: In the summer of 2014, what kind of immigrants was Germany looking for? Why? o German is in dire need of educated workers and is readily searching for experienced immigrants to work in their engineering fields What are the 3 ways globalization makes the global migrant crisis more unstable? o There is a large amount of uncertainty of how the process works and how long someone might stay in a nation, the factors that challenge immigration increase as the volume increases, there are many displaced refugees as well adding to the volume of immigrants Know the fact that immigrants in America are more than twice as likely to start a business as someone born in America. Know the country of origin for the founders of each of these US immigrant founded companies: Google, AT&T, Goldman Sachs, and eBay. (Note – you do not need to know the founders’ names just the countries from which they originated.) o Google Russia o AT&T Scotland o Goldman Sachs Germany o EBay France Class: March 9 Discussion: What are the internal and external benefits of migration for business? o According to The Hague Process study, what are the top 3 (most commonly mentioned) benefits of migration that business leaders mention first in the study? o According to The Hague Process study, how do business leaders’ general perceptions of migration differ from their general perceptions of migrant labor/employees? o Managers and leaders often times see the potential to utilize the global perspective and skillset international employees provide Why did Jane Lew, “UpGlo” founder, reach the conclusion that both government funded resettlement programs and privatesector job placement firms were failing educated and professional immigrants? How were their incentive systems set up to fail them and why? o The governmentfunded resettlement programs and privatesector job placement firms all focused on getting people JOBS immediately, when in reality people need to work towards CARRERS. UpGlo focuses on preparing people to inter the workforce looking for a career and secure them a job in their specialized field. At the close of the case, what were the key elements of UpGlo’s business model? (who are their markets, what services do they offer these markets, what are all their sources of revenue, what are their major costs). o UpGlo focuses on matching businesses with employees perfectly fitting for the career path they are entering. This is a symbiotic relationship as the businesses gain educated and hardworking employees and the immigrants get a career they have worked for. Class: March 21 Lecture: According to guest lecturer, Dr. Noel Maurer, what are the main sources of pressure on global resources in the world today? o His main themes were that: Natural resources aren’t natural Global warming is the worst possible challenge Policies and alternatives o And therefore there is an immense struggle to make change in the spectrum of resource conservation. Preparation Materials: Prior to 2011, food prices spikes were usually attributable to weather (e.g., unusually hot, dry, cold, or wet seasons). But in 2011, trends in both sides of the food supply/demand equation were driving up prices. Be able to list each of the demand and supplyside effects on food prices – and explain how changes in these issues affect the price of food. o On the demand side, the culprits are population growth, rising affluence, and the use of grain to fuel cars. On the supply side: soil erosion, aquifer depletion, the loss of cropland to nonfarm uses, the diversion of irrigation water to cities, the plateauing of crop yields in agriculturally advanced countries, and — due to climate change — cropwithering heat waves and melting mountain glaciers and ice sheets. These climaterelated trends seem destined to take a far greater toll in the future. Why do scientists consider 2 degrees Celsius (3.6 degrees Fahrenheit) a critical value for global warming? According to the article, “Hot and Bothered,” does the global community have political commitments and technologies in place to keep global temperatures below 2 degrees Celsius? o Crop ecologists have their own rule of thumb: For each 1 degree Celsius rise in temperature above the optimum during the growing season, we can expect a 10 percent decline in grain yields. This temperature effect on yields was all too visible in western Russia during the summer of 2010 as the harvest was decimated when temperatures soared far above the norm. What is the relationship between developingcountry economic development and rising global temperature? o The people who are being harmed most by global warming are the people who do not benefit from the cause of it. The oil and tech that is causing global warming is only used by first world countries, but those in third world countries are the first to starve because of it. The article, “Hot and Bothered,” suggests a couple of ways that mankind will have to adapt to living under skies containing high concentrations of greenhouse gases. What are they? o This can be helped by growing crops that can tolerate heat and extreme weather, in part by abandoning the worstaffected places. Animals and plants will need help, including transporting them across national and even continental boundaries. More research is required on deliberately engineering the Earth’s atmosphere in order to cool the planet.
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