EXSC 1110: Applied Anatomy & Physiology I - Study Guide
EXSC 1110: Applied Anatomy & Physiology I - Study Guide EXSC 1110
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Aisha Notetaker on Saturday December 6, 2014. The Study Guide belongs to EXSC 1110 at George Washington University taught by Jerome Danoff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 1015 views. For similar materials see Applied Anatomy & Physiology I in Physical Education at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 12/06/14
Final Exam Study Guide ANSWERS Ch 1 Human Body Levels of Structural Organization Chemical Level atomic and molecular level Cellular level smallest living unit of the body Tissue level group of cells and the materials surrounding them that work together on one task 4 basic tissue types epithelium muscle connective tissue and nerve Organ level Grouping of 2 or more tissue types into a recognizable structure with a specific function Organ system collection of related organs with a common function sometimes an organ is part of more than one system Organismic level one living individual Anatomical orientation or 39 39I39 3L39quot 395 or 39s 395iew orFt 9c an39Ii i sew o Anatomical position gt standing 39 I I erect facing observer upper quot quot 39 39quot39 quot quot 39 39 squotquot quot 39 limbs at side palms turned b forward um 4 1 Lateral Prone position lying face down Supine position lying face up Superior towards the head i f Inferior away from the head A 39 Dorsal or Posterior at the back of the body Ventral or Anterior at the up I front of the body A A Medial nearer to the midline of the body Lateral farther from the midline of the body Proximal nearer to the attachment of the limb to the trunk Distal farther from the attachment of the limb to the trunk Intermediate between two structures Ipsilateral on same side of body as another structure Contralateral on opposite side of bod as another structure Anteriot oc Ventrai Posterior or Dorsal Inferior Azimi for studysoupcom pg 1 F Hydrogen bonds Forms when a hydrogen atom with a partial 4 charge attracts the partial charge of neighboring L J j electronegative atoms A T 5 if F Link neighboring Water molecules give rise to A H H t pn high cohesion gt surface tension 5 H 0 S F Single hydrogen bonds are Weak but large p 0 molecules thousands of bonds are very Hybdgggen P strong and extremely stable if C P Unique properties of water Inorganic compound with polar bonds Very effective solvent Involved in chemical reactions hydrolysis and dehydration High heat capacity High surface tension Lubricant Organic compounds contain carbon amp usually hydrogen always have covalent bonds 3 Carbohydrates Simple sugars monosaccharides Complex polysaccharides 9 E Formed from C H and O Triglycerides Phospholipids Steroids Eicosanoids fatty acids vitamins D E K Hydrophobic insoluble in Water Lipoproteins Combines with proteins for transport in blood 3 Proteins Contain carbon hydrogen oxygen and nitrogen Made from combinations of 20 amino acids Polypeptides chains formed from 10 to 2000 amino acids Enzymes protein molecules that act as catalysts end in ase Nucleic acids chain of nucleotides linked in a long chain DNARNA Levels of structural organization 0 primary secondary and tertiary o shape of the protein in uences its ability to form bonds Azimi for studysoupcom pg 3 What is pH Measure of the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution pH less than 7 acidic pH greater than 7 basic or alkaline Ch 3 Cells Cell membrane features forms the cell s outer boundary separates the cell s internal environment from the outside environment is a selective barrier plays a role in cellular communication F Passive transport substances move across cell membranes Without the input of any energy use the kinetic energy of individual molecules or ions gt Active processes a cell uses energy primarily from the breakdown of ATP to move a substance across the membrane ie against a concentration gradient D Endocytosis Bringing something into cell D Exocytosis Release something from cell Functions of cell organelles Ribosomes Synthesizes proteins Metabolizes aminofatty acids Peroxisomes I Oxidizes toxic substances I Contains catalase which decomposes H202 Mitochondria Makes ATP powerhouse of cell Rough ER I synthesizes processes amp packages proteins for Endoplasmic Reticulum export Smooth ER no attached ribosomes I synthesizes phospholipids steroids and fats I detoxifies harmful substances alcohol Golgi Apparatus Processes amp packages proteins produced by rough ER Lysosomes I Digests foreign substances I Autophagy recycles own organelles I Autolysis lysosomal damage after death Centrioles Separate chromosome pairs during mitosis Azimi for studysoupcom pg 4 Blood I Connective tissue with a liquid matrix the plasma I Provide clotting immune functions carry 02 and C02 0 Red blood cells erythrocytes 0 White blood cells leukocytes o Platelets Plasma White blood cell leukocyte Red blood cell i erythrocyte Platelet Lymph I Move cells and substances lipids from one part of the body to another I Interstitial uid being transported in lymphatic vessels Types of membranes 1 Mucous membrane Lines a body cavity that opens to the outside Mouth vagina anus etc Epithelial cells form a barrier to microbes 2 Serous membrane Simple squamous cells overlying loose CT layer Secrete slippery uid Lines a body cavity that doesn t open to the outside like chest or abdominal cavity 0 Pleura peritoneum and pericardium 3 Synovial membrane Line joint cavities of all freely movable joints No epithelial cells just special cells that secrete slippery uid H 4 Cutaneous membrane skin I holds skin together Basics of skeletal tissue more in Ch 10 Attaches to bone skin or fascia Striated with light amp dark bands visible with scope Voluntary control of contraction amp relaxation Tissue repair When tissue damage is extensive both stroma parenchyrnal cells help repair 0 Fibroblasts divide rapidly 0 New collagen fibers are made 0 New blood capillaries help heal All of the above creates granulation tissue Azimi for studysoupcom pg 6 F Epiphysis one end of a long bone F Metaphysis growth plate region acts as friction amp shock absorber F Medullary cavity marrow cavity F Endosteum lining of marrow cavity F Periosteum tough membrane covering bone but not the cartilage Exercise and bone F Lack of mechanical stress results in bone loss F Weight bearing exercises build bone mass walking or weight lifting Tissue repair F Formation of fracture hematoma F Formation of fibrocartilagenous callus formation F Formation of bony callus F Bone remodeling Ch 7 Axial Skeleton Skull Hyoid Vertebrae Ribs Stemum Sacrum Coccyx Ch 9 Joints Types of joints by structure 1 Fibrous Joints Sutures syndesmoses gomphoses Azimi for studysoupcom pg 9 Socket of alveolar process Root of tooth Periodontal ligament membrane c Gomphosis between tooth and socket of alveolar process Proximal epiphysis Metaphysis Diaphysis Metaphysis Distal epiphysis Clavicles Scapulae Humeri Radii Ulnae Carpals Metacarpals Phalanges hand Coxal bones Femora Tibiae Fibulae Tarsals Metatarsals Phalanges foot quot I Endosteum MN Compact bone M Periosteum Medullary cavity Nutrient artery in nutrient foramen Ch 8 Appendicular Skeleton Ch 10 Muscle Tissue Three types of muscle tissue 1 Skeletal muscle 2 Cardiac muscle 3 Smooth muscle Thick filament Structure of muscle 0 Sliding lament model K o Myosin heads attach to Myosin tail Myosin heads and walk along the thin filaments at both ends of a sarcomere o Progressively pulling the thin laments toward the center of the sarcomere o Z discs come closer together and the sarcomere shortens 0 Leading to shortening of the entire muscle a One thick filament and a myosin molecule Actin Troponin Tropomyosin Myosinbinding site covered by tropomyosin Steps in muscle contraction F p bl P Of 3 mi mament p l fJ3932 li p Q Ca2 become reoriented l P A a 0 Myosin heads bind to actin fonning 9 crossbridges Contraction cycle continues if ATP is available and Ca level in the sarcoplasm is high 0 As myosin heads bind ATP the crossbridges detach from actin 9 Myosin crossbridges rotate toward center of the sarcomere power stroke Ch 11 Muscles Axial only Types of fascicle arrangements CI Parallel CI Fusiform CI Circular CI Triangular CI Pennate Agonists responsible for the action Synergists contract and stabilize the intermediate joints Azimi for studysoupcom pg 11 Ch 15 Nervous Tissue Organization of system 0 irA3l39l5 lt39ih39 39ilUi n391us39l if ANS 3 3tT i quot 3ons1rgt zo Sensory receptors and 1 3m th mU3 399 ENS neurons in GI tract and I glands and 9quotd 39m enteric plexuses I Cells 0f G quot801 Sensory part of PNS Motor part of PNS Effectors Membrane potentials Excitatory closer to threshold Inhibitory away from threshold Action potential I Na ion channels open Na rushes in depolarization I K ion channels open K rushes out repolarization I All or none principal Ch 13 Spinal Cord and Nerves Organization of spinal cord Spinal cord Spinal nerve 7 SPINAL MENINGESZ Pia mater Unnen Arachnoid Denticulate middle ligament Dura mater outer Subarachnoid 39 I space L Subdural space Azimi for studysoupcom pg 13 1202 Structure of nerve cell gt Location of aiferent and efferent cell bodies and pathways I Roots distinguish types of neurons I Rami distinguish where those neurons go I Posterior dorsal ramus innervate deep back musclesposterior skin of thorax I Anterior ventral ramus innervate neurons to limbsanterior portion of skin in trunk I Posterior dorsal root only incoming sensory neurons I Anteriorventral root outgoing motor neurons Cranial Nerves Name Type Function 1 ofactOfy Sensory Sense of Smell 2 Qptic Sensory Vision Raise eyelids Motor Moves eyes Regulates the size of pupils Focuses lenses 4 39roc ear Motor Eye movements Propriooeption Sensations of the head Both and face chewing movements and muscle sense 6 Abducens Motor Produce movements of the eyes 7 acia Both Facial expressions secretion of saliva taste 3 Vestibu0c0c ear Sensory Balance or equilibrium sense Hea ng 9 Gossophafyngea Both Taste and other sensations of tongue swallowing secretion of saliva aid in reflex control of blood pressure and respiration 1 0 Vagus Both Sends speech info to muscles 1 1 Accessory Motor Turning movements of the head shoulder and viscera voice production 1 2 ypOgossa Motor Tongue movements 3 Oculomotor 5Trigemina Azimi for studysoupcom pg 15
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