Exam 2 Study Guide Pienaar
Exam 2 Study Guide Pienaar BSC 215
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This 17 page Study Guide was uploaded by Paige Carson on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BSC 215 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Jason Pienaar in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 109 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology in Biological Sciences at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 10/13/15
Exam 2 Human Anatomy and Physiology Dr Pienaar TranslationGreat Detail Initiation mRNAl amino acids 1 Associates with small ribosomal subunit 2 tRNA met associates with AUG codon always 3 Large ribosomal subunit completes translation initiation Psite polypeptide site Asite amino acid site Elongation 5 3 E P A Asite where tRNA and amino acid pair enters Psite where the amino acids will attach the the tRNA making a long chain Esite where the tRNA exits but the amino acid that was previously attached to it is not connected to the tRNA molecule in the Psite Polyribosomes one mRNA being translated by multiple ribosomes to produce protein copies Gene Regulation temporary or not Example Breast feeding Casein gene activation 1 Prolactin binds to a receptor 2 Activation of an internal regulatory protein 3 Activated regulatory protein enters nucleus binds to DNA by Casein gene 4 Enables transcription of Casein gene 5 mRNA translated by ribosomes on ER 6 Golgi complex packages Casein into secretory vesicles exocytosis 7 Casein released by exocytosis Ce Cylce and Mitosis G1 growth phase Protein synthesis and metabolic capabilities minutes to years S synthesis phase DNA and histones G2 growth 2 phase Final preparations for cell division Miotic phase Cell division and organelle dividing DNA Replication Enzyme DNA polymerase DNA Pel ymeraee Parent DNA DNA Helieaee DNA Pelymeraee UNA Li g e Leg 55 153 El Ph 05 phedieste r bunde between ekizaki fragments Semiconservative Replication Mitosis lnterphase DNA already replicated DIPLOID Prophase microtubules condensed chromatin kinetochore aligning chromatin Metaphase lined in the middle separate chromatids Anaphase microtubules pull them apart by their kinetochores Telophase and Cytokinesis Division 2 daughter cells Histology Terms to know PPOFP P 39gtP Nl EptheHa Extracellular Matrix Glycosaminoglycans Keratinized Pseudostrati ed Ciliated Columnar Merocrine Parenchyma Trabeculae Squamous Epithelia Properties of Tissues Groups of cells similar in structure that cooperate for perform a function 4 Primary Tissue Classes 1 Epithelial epidermis 2 Connective cartilage 3 Nervous Neuron 4 Muscular skeletal muscle Tissue 1 Cells a Over 200 types b 9 broad morphological types c Cells secrete and maintain ECM 2 Extracellular Matrix a Ground Substance i Extracellular uid gel or solid ii H20 ions nutrients and 3 major macromolecules glycosaminoglycans proteoglycans and glycoproteins b Fibrous Proteins i Collagen bers 20 types 1 Resist tension ii Elastic Fibers 1 Exhibit elasticity iii Reticular 1 Smaller collagen like bers provide support Human Cell Morphology Squamous Cuboidal Columnar Polygonal top view of columnar Stellate star likequot Spheroidal sphere purple Discoid disc lost nucleus Fusiform smooth musce longer and skinnier than squamous Fibrous skeletal muscle Ground Substance Gelatinous to rubbery substance due to charged GAGs attract water Structure of proteoglycans bottle brushquot Protein Fibers Collagenous Fiber 25 of bodies protein tough resist stretching Reticular thin collagen bers with glycoprotein coat form spongelike framework for spleen and lymph nodes Elastic made of elastin coiled protein with ability to recoil no ATP Cell junctions Physical connection between cell tissue All cells except blood are anchored to each other or their matrix by intracellularjunctions 1 Tight junctions proteins linked by hooks imbedded in outer membrane 2 Desmosomes extension of cytoskeleton connect cytoskeleton 3 Gap Junctions looks like organs 6 transmembrane proteins a Proteins allow water glucose amino acids and other solutes to pass between cells Epithelia Tissue Proper 2 broad tyes covering and lining skin boundaries between different environments 0 Body hollow tube 0 Gut external Glands can be tissues as well 0 Secretes mucous sweat enzymes hormones etc Functions of Epithelial Tissue Protection skin stomach lining immune function Secretion enzymes hormones Excretion C02 in lungs Absorption small intestine Filtration kidneys and blood nitrogenous wasteurine Sensation nerve endings General Characteristics of Epithelial Tissue 1 Polarity a Apical away from body microvilli i External environment association b Basal basal lamina noncellular lter between tissue type i Made of 2 extracellular matrix 1 Epithelial Tissue 2 Connective Tissue 2 Specialized Contacts a Tight junctions seal off b Desmosomes make stronger c Gap junctions semipermeable 3 Avascular a No capillaries no blood 4 Supported by connective tissue a Reticular lamina basal lamina basal membrane strength blood vessels nutrition gas exchange and waste removal 5 lnnervated a Nerve endings Regenerative a Can undergo mitosis CD Classi cation 1 Simple Squamous Apical surface Cell nuclei Basal lamina Underlying tissue CO2 out 02 in Example lungs Flat scaly Bound by tight junctions 2 Simp e Cuboidal a Secrete or excrete b Example kidney mammary liver c Square round 3 Simple Columnar a Longer bc you need a longer evaluation time b Food is harder molecules than gas 3e arm 90 c Example intestine uterus kidneys uterine tubes d Tall narrow e Contain goblet cells 4 Pseudostrati ed Ciliated Columnar a Example respiratory tract trachea male urethra All cells tough the basement membrane Single layer with unequal heights Goblet cells e Secretes and propels mucous 5 Strati ed Squamous a Protects against abrasion b Examples esophagus vagina heels c Keratinized or non keratinized 6 Goblet cells a Associated with simple epithelia b Wineglass shaped amongst columnar secrete mucous Transport Across Epithelia 1 Transcellular Osmosis simple diffusion facilitated diffusion active transport and vesicular transport 2 Paracellular less common due to tight junctions between cells rare process 906 Strati ed Epithelial Tissue 220 layers only deepest membrane contacts basal membrane 4 kinds strati ed squamous strati ed cuboidal strati ed columnar rare transitiona epithelia Strati ed Squamous Most abundant epithelia in the body Daughter cells push towards the surface atten during migration obtain squamous shape Die and ake off too far away from basal membrane Strati ed Squamous Keratinized 0 Multiple layers at and scaly towards surface 0 Resists abrasion retards water loss 0 Epidermis palms and soles heavily keratinized Nonkeratinized o No dead cell layers Tongue oral mucosa esophagus vagina IO o Resists abrasion Strati ed Cuboidal 2 or more cell layers Secretes sweat sperm and ovarian hormone production Sweat glands ducts ovarian follicles Transitional Multilayered epithelial change shape from round to attened when stretched Apical surface exible lipid layer provides protection Glands Cell or organ that secretes or excretes substances cell example goblet cells epitheia tissue encapsulated by connective tissue framework Exocrine secretes to external surface have a duct exampe sweat glands mammary salivary Endocrine secretes into blood stream no duct hormones pineal gland Goblet Cells GI and repiratory tract Duodenum small intestine Secrete mucous Mucin protein Multicellular Exocrine Glands Capsule of CT tissue covering inside capsule septa or trabeculae Stroma capsule and septa framework Parenchyma epithelial tissue usually cuboidal synthesize and secrete Types of Exocrine Glands Simple Large Intestine Compound Kidneys testes Simple Acinar berry like urethra Compound Acinar exocrine pancreas portion Compound Tubuloacinar mammary glands Secretion Modes Merocrine products released as vesicles during exocytosis tear glands pancreas gastric glands sweat reusable Apocrine Similar to merocrine but part of the cytoplasm broken off along with vesicles from apical portion mammary Holocrine Accumulate product rupture to release it Example sebaceous glands on scalp Terms to know Adipose Areolar Vascularity Perichondrium Periosteum Lamellae Osteoclasts Serous Ectoderm nervous tissue and epithelium come from this Mesoderm muscle connective tissue and epithelium come form this Endoderm Epithelium Connective Tissue Functions 1 Bind Organs Together a Tendons muscle to bone b Ligaments bone to bone c Adipose holds eyes and kidneys in place 2Suppo a Bones support body cartilage support nose ears larynx b Fibrous tissue from cardiac skeleton c Example spleen 3 Physical Protection a Example cranium rib cage adipose tissue 4 lmmune Protection a Leukocytes are immune cells b Loose connective tissue forms a battleground of matrix under the skin and mucous membranes for leukocytes to do their job In 5 Movement a Bones provide lever cartilage move vocal cords 6 Adipose a Major energy reserve bones are major Calcium and Phosphorus reserve 7 Heat Production a Brown fat catabolism generates heat in infants and children Hibernating animals 8 Transport a Blood transport nutrients gases hormones and wastes Connective Tissue Usually cells occupy less space than matrix Cells often not in direct contact with each other Matrix plays extensive role in function connecting cells Vary greatly in vascularity Example highly vascularized loose connective tissue vs tendons and ligaments Connective Tissue Proper Loose connective tissue Areolar Adipose Reticular Dense connective tissue Regular Irregular Elastic Specialized Connective Tissue Cartilage Bone Blood Connective Tissue Development Starting Mesenchyme Connective Tissue Proper 1 Mesenchyme 2 Fibroblast 3 Fibrocyte Matrix gellike ground substance all 3 ber types Cartilage hyaline brocartilage elastic 1 Mesenchyme 2 Chondroblast 3 Chondrocyte Matrix gellike ground substance collagen bers elastin bers in some Osseous Bone Compact or Spongy bone 1 Mesenchyme 2 Osteoblast 3 Osteocyte Matrix gellike ground substance hardened with calcium salts collagen bers Blood 1 Mesenchyme 2 Hematopoetic stem cell 3 Blood cells and macrophages Matrix Liquid plasma no bers Connective Tissue Proper Widely distributed Connects tissues and organs Forms framework for some ECM usually has conspicuous protein bers Cells Fibroblasts maintain Adipocytes store triglycerides Mast cells immune cells in ammatory response Phagocytes immune cells ingest and destroy foreign cells damaged host cells Loose Connective More ground substance than ber Dense Connective More ber than ground substance Areolar Loose Connective All 5 types cells broblasts adipocytes mast cells phagocytes other All 3 bers types mostly collagencolagen eastin reticular Abundant vascularized and provides for immune cells to quotpatrolquot Reticular Mostly broblasts Reticular bers Blood soaked sponge Basement membrane Adipose Adipocytes Single large central globule of stored triglycerides Up to 5x larger globules in obesity Highly vascularized Held in network of collagen bers White fat adults Accumulates subcutaneously triglycerides are constantly hydrolyzed and synthesized Brown fat infants between shoulder blades Numerous mitochondria no ATP synthesis heat only Dense Connective Tissue Closely packed parallel collagen bers resist predictable tension Tendons ligaments Few blood vessels Dense Irregular Random direction not parallel Dermis tough protective capsules around organs nerves and cartilages sheath around Dense Elastic Closely packed parallel elastic bers randomly orientated collagen bers Allows tissues and organs to stretch Linings of large blood vessels certain ligaments heart stomach Cartilage has a lot of collagen giving it thickness Hyaline Elastic Fibrocartilage knee invertebral discs and pubic symphysis Resists tension and compression Tough but exible Contains a lot of uid 80 of H20 Many GAGs and collagenous bers Fluid nature allows quick recovery after compression chondro cartilage Produced by chondroblasts secrete matrix GAGs collagen and elastic bers Become trapped in lacunae Become chondrocytes Little vascularization and innervation takes a long time to heal but won t feel the pain because no nerves relies on perichondrium for nourishment and further growth chondroblasts 3 Major Types 1 Hyaline a Looks glassy smooth most abundant most thin collagen bers few chondrocytes major component of epiphyseal plate growth plate 2 Elastic a Rich in elastin bers mostly in ear pinnae 3 Fibrocartilage a Mostly course bundles of collagen b Resist compression c Knee vertebrae pubic bone Bone ECM similar to cartilage more collagen 13 dry weight Infused with minerals Calcium phosphate 23 dry weight Osteoblasts secrete matrix some become trapped in lacunae as osteocytes others remain associated with the periosteum Matrix deposited in layers Iamellae Canaliculi delicate channel that connect lucanae Osteoclasts dissolve bone tissue in remodeling Osteoclasts dissolve bones Osetoblasts build bone Blood Only liquid connective tissue Ground substance plasma Cells erythrocytes red and Leukocytes white Fibers Only form during clotting When someone has a heart attack there is an issue with bers Muscle Fibers Fiber same as cell Myocytes ber cell ECM endomysium surrounds muscle ber Excitable respond to electrical or chemical stimulus Cytoplasm lled with myo lament myo bril proteins Endomysium similar to basal lamina of epithelial tissue 3 types 1 Skeletal a Multinucleated b Striations c 1 long ber d Voluntary 2 Cardiac a Multinucleated b Striations c Branch off d Some control 3 Smooth a Uninucleated b No striations c Involuntary d Examples stomach intestines artery walls Nervous Tissue Supporting cells lmportant 2 types Neurons electrical impulse Cell body contains nucleolus and organelles Dendrites many receive impulses branched Axons one transmit impulses ECM mostly ground substance Neuroglial Support neurons Maintain growth electrical insulation immune function etc Organs Two or more tissues that combine to form a common structure and function Example skeletal muscles are organs muscle tissue myocytes and endomysium Connective tissue dense irregular dense regular blood Endomysium muscle fiber muscle tissue Perimysium connective tissue Epimysium connective tissue Membranes Thin sheet of one or more tissues lining body surface or cavity Most epithelial tissue resting on a layer of connective tissue True membrane serous and synovial Anchor organs in place Serve as barriers Function in immunity Secrete various substances Membrane like Mucous and cutaneous Perform some of the previous functions True Membranes Serous Membranes Line pleural pericardial and peritoneal body cavities Simple squamous layers mesothelium basement membrane loose connective tissue Parietal and visceral layer surround serous uid Synovial Membranes Line cavities surrounding freely moveable joints Hip knee shoulder elbow 2 connective tissue layers Inner synoviocytes o Secrete synovial uid Outer loose and dense connective tissue Membrane Like Mucous Line all inner body surfaces that open to the outside of the body 0 Respiratory passages Epithelial layer and goblet cells basement membrane and loose connective lamina propia Cutaneous Skin Largest Organ Epidermis keratinized strati ed squamous Dermis loose and dense irregular connective tissue Tissue Repair Wear and tear or injury requires cell to be replaced Regeneration Complete replacement of damaged cells Tissue regains full functionality Ep heHal ssues Most connective tissues takes longer because of lack of blood supply 0 Smooth muscle 0 Some PNS nerves Fibrosis o Damaged cells replaced by collagen o Fibroblast divide and produce collagen to make dense irregular scar tissue 0 Cardiac and skeletal muscle 0 All CNS nervous tissue Bone Tissue Why is bone an organ Organs collection of 2 or more tissues forming a common structure and function Bone Tissue Osseous tissue Dense reg irregular and cartilage connective tissue Bone marrow Red bone marrow where redwhite blood cells are made As you get older the red bone marrow turns yellow Bone Functions Support bears weight cradles viscera meaning all soft organs and teeth Protection skull and ribcage protect soft organs Movement levers for muscles to act on Mineral Storage homeostasis Calcium Phosphorus Magnesium metabolism AcidBase Balance Buffers blood against excessive pH changes using above mentioned minerals as weak acidbases Adipose tissue yellow bone marrow Blood cell formation Red bone marrow produces red and white blood cells OOOO Skeletal Bones 206 Flat bone fronta thin broad Example skull sternum pelvis Short bone Length Width Example carpals and tarsals Long bone Lengthgt Width Example Humerus lrregular bone does not t into the other categories Example vertebrae Sesamoid bones bones found in tendons Example Patella Wormian sutural bones found within skull structure Long Bone Anatomy 1 Periosteum outer dense irregular collagenous layer and inner osteogenic layer Collagen bers extend into bone matrix as perforating sharpeys bers osteogenic meaning can grow 2 Articular cartilage covers surfaces that form joints along with lubricating uid allow ease of movement 3 Nutrient Foramina minute holes in bone tissue that allow blood vessels to penetrate 4 Endosteum reticular connective tissue lines marrow cavities covers trabecular surfaces of spongy bone 5 Epiphyseal plateline hyaline cartilage zone of bone elongation Compact and Spongy Bone Compact bone Dense osseous tissue encloses medullary cavity Spongy bone Cancellous Within ends of long bones and inner portion of short at and irregular bones Contains bone marrow Always surrounded by compact bone Bony struts trabeculae Short Flat Irregular Sesamoid and Wormian Bone Anatomy Periosteum same as before Diploe layer of spongy bone sandwiched between 2 compact bone layers Trabeculae lined with endosteum house bone marrow Inner compact bone covered with periosteum Bone Marrow Red Bone Marrow Hematopoietic cells produce blood cells Yellow Bone Marrow Stores triglycerides in adults Somewhat reversible Osseous Tissue Cells Osteogenic cells Undifferentiated stem cells Osteoblasts build bone Osteocytes mature osteoblasts that maintain the ECM Osteoclasts dissolve bone ECM Extracellular Matrix Inorganic Matrix 0 65 of ECM o Hydroxyapatite crystals Ca and Phosphorus Bicarbonates K Mg Na Organic Matrix 0 35 of ECM osteoid o Collagen bers proteoglycans GAGs glycoproteins Bone Cells 4 Major Types of Bone Cells Embryonic Mesenchymal Cells 1 Osteogenic Cells 2 Osteoblasts 3 Osteocytes Embryonic Monocytes 4 Multi Nuclei Bone Building Cells Osteogenic Cells Highly mitotically active found in periosteum and endosteum some differentiate into osteoblasts some remain Osteoblasts Don t undergo cell division secrete collagen bers that form bone matrix Fibers become encrusted with minerals like calcium osteoblast becomes trapped in hardening matrix become osteoclasts Osteoclasts Mature bone cells trapped in ucanae Bone Dissolving Cells Osteoclasts Dissolve bone tissue when signaled Formed from blood cell lineages fusion of numerous monocytes large cells with 350 nuclei Found in resorption bays that they themselves etch into the bone surface 0 Secrete H and enzymes Side of osteoclast facing bone surface has a ruffled border increases cell surface area and ability to resorb bone tissue Compact vs Spongy Compact Bone Osteon o Elongated cylinder of concentric lamella rings 0 Collagen bers in adjacent lamella twist in opposite directions plywood o Osteoblasts secrete collagen become osteocytes trapped on borders between lamellae after mineralization Spongy Bone No osteons Blood supply obtained from compact bone vessels Compact to nutrient foramina to spongy bone Bone Development Ossi cation or Osteogenesis formation of bone Occurs in 2 ways 0 1 lntramembranous Ossi cation Flat bones of skull or clavicle Starting material membrane of embryonic connective tissue mesenchyme o 2 Endochondral Ossi cation Rest of skeleton Start hyaline cartilage model Bone Formation lntramembranous Primary woven bone Endochondral Primary woven bone Mature Secondary lamellar bone
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