Midterm Study Guide
Midterm Study Guide History 1400
Popular in Modern Western Traditions
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verified elite notetaker
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Maria Cagganello on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to History 1400 at University of Connecticut taught by Linda Meditz in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 89 views. For similar materials see Modern Western Traditions in History at University of Connecticut.
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Date Created: 10/13/15
History 1400 Midterm Study Guide Timeline Protestant Reformation 15005 gt Age of Exploration 16005 gt Scientific Revolution 17005 gt The Enlightenment 18005 Pestilential holocaust gt Age of Exploration gt Terms used by historians to describe the impact of disease on native peoples o Unleashing of disease on native people wo immunity 0 Ex 95 of Mayans deceased when European diseases were brought over by Europeans smallpox gt Pestilence punishments enacted by God gt Holocaust death by firequot Bartolome de las Casas gt Age of Exploration gt Dominican friar Catholic priest amp bishop of Chiqua gt Argued at courtImplored Spanish monarchy Queen Isabella amp King Ferdinand to treat native peoples as fully human unlike most Conquistadores 0 Used to be with Conquistadores but his interaction with the natives convinced him otherwise gt Stood against mistreatment of natives o Aztecs engage in human sacrifice because they have no instruction and lack proper educationquot Iesuit Relations gt Age of Exploration gt Reports of Jesuit missionaries to Paris about their encounters with the natives from France 0 Was a requirement to send them 1 or 2 times a year 0 Catholic priests of the Jesuit order were hoping to be accepted by the Natives willing to be tortured to find acceptance in Indian society gt An invaluable source for understanding contact between native peoples and the Europeans Extractive industry gt Age of Exploration gt France participated in extracting furs for trade gt French interested in conquering natives or building empires unlike Spaniards gt Interested in converting souls using French Catholic priests of Jesuit Order 0 Iesuit order men of lettersquot very well educated I Sought personal Christian perfection I Saw heroic self denial as mean to make contact with the divine Indulgences gt 16 century in Germany gt Letter from the pope that substituted for earthy penance o Penance repenting for sins by practice of good works gt Purpose reduce time in purgatory o Purgatory where you would go before heaven if you died without completing full repentance gt Drawn from Popes treasury of meritquot infinite supply of good works done my Virgin Mary and Saints 0 Borrow time with treasury of meritquot gt Martin Luther thought this transaction was dirty should be pure 0 Money should never be involved in attaining salvation gt Shortcut to penance gt Pay to get it pay pope Catholic Church Protestant Reformation gt 15005 in Germany gt divided the Roman Catholic Church that had existed for 1500 years gt characteristics 2 sides 0 Individual Conscience gt you alone before God no priest church etc read Bible and check I Luther had a commitment to this that catalyzed major changes which reshaped the face of Western Christianity 0 Institutional obedience gt going to church and following rules gt Foundation of Reformation Luther s beliefs on salvation 3 fold formula 0 Solafide by faith alone 0 Sola scriptura by scripture alone 0 Sola gratia by grace alone strip traditions off gt Consequences 0 German Peasant s War I 1000 peasants brutally suppressed for revolting against their rulers demands for taxes on the land they farmed and hunted on with scripture introduced by Luther 0 Peace of Augsburg I Established Lutheran Church as legitimate alternative to Catholic Church each prince could define their territory Absolutism gt 17th and 18th century Europe France 0 Age of Absolutism I National unity religious uniformity I Drawbacks Nobles still were judges and representatives so kings could not pass law without their approval Military still had a lot of power Regional differences did not help the national unity goal 0 European states had monarchs that aspired to absolute authority in their realms gt centralized state power gt Claim to absolute power not actual power held by kings o i dictatorship 0 important step in governmental development gt Essentiality to understanding absolutism o Divine right to rule 0 God governs through kings kings i dictators Kings have to answer to people nobles gt Royal absolutism 0 System of royal authority 0 Kings justified their right to rule as absolute Louis XIV gt King of France The Sun Kingquot I am the statequot 1661 1715 reign gt King Louis insignia o A sun God of Lightquot I Promotes life joy and growth universal good I Decorated much of Versailles gt Under his rule royal absolutism reached its peak 0 Palace of Versailles I Where King could get the attention he wanted from everyone I Place where he often met with his mistress Madame de la Valliere I Had spies that informed him of interactions in public places private homes and society 0 Goal make France one nation I Result stronger king gt powerful France gt unified country 0 Achieved more royal power by I Initiating trappings that endowed monarchs with divine powersquot Vassals rendered medieval kings with religious oaths of loyalty Monarchs crowned to posses mystical religious powers to heal with royal touch Catholic Church ceremony I Bringing nobility under control 0 Strengthened Frances army 0 Constructed Palace of Versailles where nobles could be monitored I Aimed to destroy traditional feudal power of nobility in name of royal authority I Eliminating the Huguenot minority o Expanded France s borders with wars 0 Revoked Edict of Nantesquot gt Came of age during The Frondequot 1681653 0 The Frondequot revolts of ambitious nobles soldiers returning from war urban artisans amp peasants fighting monarchy Civil War I determined to avoid challenges from ambitious aristocrats b c of his childhood trauma of eeing across Paris rooftops I his mother and tutors convinced him he was appointed deputy to France gt King has to answer to nobles Holy Roman Empire gt In Germany 16th century gt Era of Reformation gt Consisted of 100s of semi independent territories under leadership of an elected emperor 0 Each territory was jealous of each other and did not want to give emperor or anyone centralized authority 0 Each city had its own prince duke bishop or Imperial Knight Each city had its own rules and culture cultural differences 0 Flaws of HRE I Vulnerable to military threats Ex Ottoman Turks Islamic campaign to conquest conquered Constantinople More fragmentation of cities let Luther take advantage no political figure with centralized power could oppose Luther 0 Printing press gt Invented in 1450 by Johannes Gutenberg gt Facilitated the printing of the Gutenberg Biblequot in 1455 0 And many other sources that spread information about the Reformation such as pamphlets hymns and broadsheets gt This machine facilitated the spread of Luther s ideas and induced more literacy by printing bibles in the vernacular o Vernacular in your own language A Mighty Fortress is our God gt 16th Century Era of Reformation gt Hymn by Luther 0 Printed in book amp sung in Church 0 Act of worship 0 Martial military like I he arms himself to fightquot 0 Facilitated gatherings of people to spread ideas o Depicts Luther s image of a Christian life lateen gt 1516th century Portugal gt Triangular mobile sail at rear that allowed ship to develop more wind power 0 Astrolabe I Measured height of sun during the day of the altitude of a known star at night helped with navigation compass like gt Advantages of lateen 0 Let Portuguese sail steer more successfully into headwind and not blow off course to reach exact location I Result lt loss of resources gt effective on notion of exploration gt Used on Portugal ships to help them move with more wind control 0 Portugal ships were slave based so having this lateen that helped develop more wind power enabled the Portuguese to move these slaves more efficiently without getting lost using astrolabe also Conquistadores gt Age of Exploration gt Soldiers and explorers from Spain 0 Were interested in conquering Western Africa 0 Used brutal means to subject natives and at times enslave them 0 Called natives savages because they participated in human sacrifice gt With their contact with the Incas SWA Aztecs Mexico and Mayans European diseases their own diseases brought from Spain contributed in Europe s black death 0 European diseases smallpox in uenza measures of typhus 0 These diseases quot decimated Native populations since they were succumbed to such diseases not immune o 95 of Mayans in their areas of Mexico died African slave trade gt beginning of the 17th century gt causes 0 labor shortages for enterprises 0 ex sugar plantations I owned by Dutch British French and Spanish I designed to produce enough crop to feed satisfy a world market I used to produce molasses and distill rum 0 motivation profit gt results 1532 first slave shipments departed from Africa across Atlantic to plantation in West Indies and Brazil before 1650 about 7000 enslaved men and women crossed the Atlantic 1650 1675 the number of enslaved people sent to West Indies and Brazil doubled 14000 By 1700 traders delivered about 30000 slaves a year continuously escalating o 25 died on shipboard V VV V Body politic gt 17th century gt consisted of a hierarchy vision of hierarchy o hierarchy series of ranks amp subranks that 17th century Europe was structured around I model on how European society should be arranged I supported by the Catholic and Protestant Church I was a way of viewing society that accepts differences in rank within a society and is seen as a positive thing monarch gt noblesgt landholdersgt peasants gt serfs each rank had its own dress duty and etiquette headamparms kings and nobles handsampfeet artisans and peasants all worked together as an organic whole I each rank has role to play in health of overall organism OOOOO Divine right of kings gt 17th century gt supported by the Bible 0 made it harder to question Kings 0 The Enlightenment deconstructed this gt scripture used to promote political power gt credited to Iacques Benigne Bousset great orator who preached at court 0 quotdivine right of kingshipquot I the king is God s deputy on earth and to oppose him is to oppose divine lawquot I older style of kingship sovereignty was limited by monarchs need to consult with vassals Edict of Nantes gt 1589 Edict of Toleration France gt granted the Huguenots religious toleration and control in 200 cities 0 sanctuary cities where they had protection gt King Henry IV 4th granted this gt Appealed by King Louis XIV Huguenots gt 16th and 17th Century gt French Protestants minority gt Had military power and religious freedom through the Edict of Nantes gt Were granted the Edict of Nantesquot Versailles gt 16th century gt Site of the palace of Versailles o Europe s most splendid palace and grounds 0 King Louis XIV retreated 11 miles southwest from tumult of Paris and established new seat of government capital 0 35000 workers labored for more than 40 years 0 numerous court I a number of apartments 12 was built to lodge those who paid court to king gt royal residence 0 setting for conduct of government 0 helped King Louis get nobility under control 0 used instructional art and architecture to give off the impression of royal power and authority through the divine right I common messages abundance wealth Christianity Heliocentric universe gt 15005 16005 Scientific Revolution gt sun at center of universe gt Copernican s revolutionary viewbelief against medieval view of universe 0 Copernican revolution I Change of a geocentric earth centered view of universe to a heliocentric sun centered view of the universe Galileo 15641642 Italian astronomer physicist amp mathematician Deeply religious man but did not link theology with earth too much Formulated principle of inertia Agreed with Copernican heliocentric view Did not argue that there is no God he argued that God gave us actuarial abilities that we should use Denounced reliance on the Church s authority with his forces of observation experimentation and reason the toolbox of scientists V VVVVVV gt Argued that passages from the Bible had no authority in questions involving gt nature Separated science and faith 0 For matter of soul go to scripture teach people truths o For matter of world nature go to science reason and experience are the deciding factors gt Summoned to Roman Inquisition for a pamphlet he wrote about heliocentrism 3 people with diff views 0 Found guilty of heresy o Spent the rest of his life under house arrest gt From Galileo s death and forward Europe s intellectuals had begun to embrace the Copernican outlook Isaac Newton VVV VVV 16421677 born when Galileo died developed calculus and nature of life formulated and mathematically described 3 laws of motion 0 1 Inertia 2 Acceleration 3 Actionreaction developed theory of color by observing prism best known for discovering law of universal attraction gravity pulled all ideas of Copernicus and Galileo together 0 Newtonian Universe I The universe is held together by explainable forces and is atomic made up of atoms in nature In short the universe consists of only one thing matter in motionquot John Locke gt gt gt gt 16321704 English philosopher scientific thinking human psychology Pleaded natural rightsquot of life liberty and propertyquot 0 Jefferson used these ideas in the DOI Argued that individuals surrendered some of their sovereignty to a government to safeguard natural rights 0 Government comes to be b c we give up some rights 0 Powers of government are strictly limited and if it violates natural rights governed people should overthrow it Didn t hold human mind except from mechanical laws of universe human mind laws of universe Wrote an Essay Concerning Human Understandingquot 1690 o Tabula raza blank slate nurture gt nature 0 Human brain as blank sheet of paper at birth that will be filled with sensory perception as a person ages 0 Rejected the idea that human beings were born with innate ideas and that revelation was a reliable source of truth 0 What we become is a function of our experiences o Idea of science applied to human beings Philosophes gt French for philosopher gt 18th Century France 0 Enlightenment thinkers I Noble middle class not traditional philosophers More popular Spread ideas of others Didn t write philosophical treatises Aided in the written word by writing plays histories novels encyclopedia entries and pamphlets gt Represented by Voltaire 0 Wanted religious toleration between Protestants and Catholics gt Grappled with philosophical questions I How do we discover truthquot I How should we live our livesquot gt thought of themselves as part of a common culture 0 international Republic of Lettersquot Europe 0 held together by literature corresponding and private gatherings saw themselves as Enlightened man not common man gt knowledge and wit Philosophes wanted to reform society Embraced deism o The notion that an impersonal infinite divine being God created the universe but did not interfere with any human affairs watchmaker walks away from clock her made VVV The Enlightenment gt France was the heart of the Enlightenment 18th century 0 Key issue I God and his relationship to the world I 3 views Theologians God intervened with earth tremors Deistsphilosophes God is real but no intervention because no divine disasters and no miracles o No miracles because they violated natural laws of cause and effect Atheists no God b c no miracles without evidence gt More of a threat than the Scientific Revolution 0 Human reason used to determine world not just science or scripture 0 Heart of this movement belief that human reason should determine our understanding of the world and rules of social life not church gt Enlightenment concept 0 Machinelike universe I Prevented made impossible any belief of divine intervention
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